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IENG 471 Facilities Planning Dr. Frank Joseph Matejcik

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Title: IENG 471 Facilities Planning Dr. Frank Joseph Matejcik


1
IENG 471 Facilities Planning Dr. Frank Joseph
Matejcik
10/3 Chapter Six LAYOUT PLANNING MODELS AND
DESIGN ALGORITHMS
  • South Dakota School of Mines and Technology,
    Rapid City

2
6.1 Introduction
  • Block layout as opposed to detailed layout
  • Handling best is less
  • Material handling or layout first? Both

3
6.1 Introduction
  • following affect layout
  • 1. Centralized versus decentralized storage of
    work-in-process (WIP), tooling, and supplies
  • 2. Fixed-path versus variable-path handling
  • 3. The handling unit planned for the systems
  • 4. The degree of automation used in handling
  • 5. The type of level of inventory control,
    physical control, and computer control of
    materials

4
6.2 Basic Layout Types (4 types)
  • Product large, stable demand for a standardized
    product like an engine block, often a production
    line
  • Fixed materials location low sporadic demand
    awkward to move, aircraft fuselage
  • Product family (group technology) medium demand
    for a medium number of similar components.
    Similar components form groups.

5
6.2 Basic Layout Types (4 types)
  • Process planning combination of workstations
    containing similar processes are metal cutting
    departments, gear cutting departments, and
    hobbing departments
  • The difficulty in defining process departments is
    in the interpretation of the word similar.

6
6.2 Basic Layout Types
7
6.2 Basic Layout Types
8
6.2 Basic Layout Types
9
6.2 Basic Layout Types
10
6.3 Layout Procedures
  • Apple's Plant Layout Procedure
  • 1. Procure the basic data.
  • 2. Analyze the basic data.
  • 3. Design the productive process.
  • 4. Plan the material flow pattern.
  • 5. Consider the general material handling plan.
  • 6. Calculate equipment requirements.
  • 7. Plan individual workstations.
  • 8. Select specific material handling equipment

11
6.3 Layout Procedures
  • Apple's Plant Layout Procedure
  • 9. Coordinate groups of related operations.
  • 10. Design activity interrelationships.
  • 11. Determine storage requirements.
  • 12. Plan service and auxiliary activities.
  • 13. Determine space requirements.
  • 14. Allocate activities to total space.
  • 15. Consider building types.
  • 16. Construct master layout.

12
6.3 Layout Procedures
  • Apple's Plant Layout Procedure
  • 17. Evaluate, adjust, and check the layout with
    the appropriate persons.
  • 18. Obtain approvals.
  • 19. Install the layout.
  • 20. Follow up on implementation of the layout.

13
6.3 Layout Procedures
  • Reed's Plant Layout Procedure
  • 1. Analyze the product or products to be
    produced.
  • 2. Determine the process required to manufacture
    the product.
  • 3. Prepare layout planning charts.
  • 4. Determine workstations.
  • 5. Analyze storage area requirements.

14
6.3 Layout Procedures
  • Reed's Plant Layout Procedure
  • 6. Establish minimum aisle widths.
  • 7. Establish office requirements.
  • 8. Consider personnel facilities and services.
  • 9. Survey plant services.
  • 10.Provide for future expansion.
  • Most important part is the Layout planning chart
    (Figure 6.2)

15
6.3 Layout Procedures Muther
16
6.3 Layout Procedures Muther
17
6.3 Layout Procedures Muther
18
6.3 Layout Procedures Muther
19
6.3 Layout Procedures Muther
20
Layout Planning Chart
  • Most important phase (Reed)
  • Incorporates
  • Flow process
  • Standard times for each operation
  • Machine selection and balance
  • Manpower selection and balance
  • Material handling requirements

21
Layout Procedures
  • Construction Type
  • Improvement Types
  • Algorithms
  • Relationship diagramming
  • Pairwise exchange method
  • Graph-based construction method

22
Facility Layout
  • Once we have determined a new location for
    our facility, we wish to design an optimal
    configuration for the layout of departments.
    Suppose we have the following

23
Relationship Chart
  • 4 Very Important 2 Useful
  • 3 Important 1 Not very useful

24
Nodal Representation
  • Idea Start with most valuable department first
    and begin building other departments around it.
    Departments in order
  • 1 - 2 - 6 - 7 - 3 -4 - 5
  • Ties are broken arbitrarily. Add Production

25
Nodal Rep. (cont)
  • Department 2, Warehouse, is next most important
    so we add it next. It has a relationship value
    of 4 with production.
  • Continue adding Departments in order of
    importance.

26
Nodal Rep. (cont.)
  • Add 6, support

27
Nodal Rep. (cont.)
  • Add 7, shipping

28
Nodal Rep. (cont.)
  • Add 4, toolroom

29
Nodal Rep. (cont.)
  • Add 3, office

30
Nodal Rep. (cont.)
  • Add , 5 Food Service

31
Nodal Rep. (cont.)
  • Nodal Clean-up

32
Block Calculations
Idea Add Blocks pretty much in same manner as
nodal representation
33
Nodal to Block Representation
34
Nodal to Block Representation
Initial Layout
35
Layout Evaluation
  • Idea Compute the rectilinear distance between
    departments and multiply by the relationship
  • chart e.g.

Distance 3
36
Layout Evaluation
37
Evaluation (cont.)
Total Effectiveness 108 Idea Try new layout
and search for lower effectiveness score
38
6.4 Algorithmic Approaches
  • Human judgment is still required
  • Generally need computer implementation
  • Outgrowth of university research
  • Commercial packages
  • emphasize layout evaluation or
  • presentation (CAD Tools)

39
Algorithmic Classification
  • Use from to chart and/or relationship chart
  • Problems become increasingly difficult as size
    increases. Limited approaches may be used.
  • Multiple Objective functions are used

40
Algorithmic ClassificationMultiple Objectives
  • cij cost of unit flow/unit distance
  • dij distance, fij flow, xij adjacent 1, else
    0
  • distance based objective
  • adjacency based objective
  • relatively efficiency

41
Discrete or continuous layout
42
Pairwise Exchange
43
Pairwise Exchange
44
Pairwise Exchange
45
Pairwise Exchange
46
Graph-based Method
47
Graph-based Method
48
Graph-based Method
49
Graph-based Method
50
Graph-based Method
51
Graph-based Method
52
CRAFT (1963)
  • Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities
    Technique
  • Describe a tentative layout in blocks
  • Determine centroids of each department
  • cost S from-to X distance X unit cost
  • make pair wise or three way exchanges
  • equal area only or adjacent (generally)

53
CRAFT (1963)
  • Dummy departments
  • 1. Fill building irregularities.
  • 2. Represent obstacles or unusable areas in the
    facility (such as stairways, elevators, plant
    services, and so on).
  • 3. Represent extra space in the facility.
  • 4. Aid in evaluating aisle locations in the final
    layout.

54
CRAFT
55
CRAFT
56
CRAFT
57
CRAFT
58
CRAFT
59
CRAFT
60
BLOCPLAN
  • Set up all departments in bands (2or3)
  • Continuous areas not blocks
  • Use From to or a relationship chart
  • Uses two way exchanges

61
BLOCPLAN
62
BLOCPLAN
63
BLOCPLAN
64
MIP(Mixed Integer Program)
  • Generally a construction type model
  • Requires some knowledge of linear and integer
    programming
  • Solutions to these types of problems are
    difficult
  • We will examine the general formulation

65
MIP(Mixed Integer Program)problem parameters
66
MIP(Mixed Integer Program)decision variables
67
MIP model setup
68
MIP model setup II
69
LOGIC
  • Layout Optimization with Guillotine Induced Cuts
  • Slice the area to partition the plant between
    departments
  • Supersedes BLOCPLAN, because all BLOCPLANS are
    LOGIC plans
  • Improved by pair wise exchange or simulated
    annealing

70
LOGIC
71
LOGIC
72
LOGIC
73
LOGIC
74
LOGIC
75
LOGIC
76
LOGIC
77
MULTIPLE (skip)
78
6.5 Department Shapes and Main Aisles
  • Rectangular departments makes this much easier
  • Some guidelines and measures, no specific
    algorithms

79
6.6 Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithms
  • These are alternatives to pair wise exchanges
  • This an overview, some people do better when
    first seeing a specific example.
  • Read this if you a curious

80
6.7 Multi-floor Facility Layout
  • Skip this for now.
  • Book attempts to be a reference.
  • Some topics should be skipped
  • Topic is important. And, more important outside
    of the United States.

81
6.8 Commercial Facility Layout Packages
  • VisFactory (or e-Factory) big one, modules
  • FactoryCAD
  • FactoryFLOW
  • FactoryPLAN/OPT
  • FactoryVlEW.
  • Package for workplace/layout design material
    flow simulation, eM-Workplace
  • PLANOPT is a construction-type with rectangular
    department shapes

82
6.8 Commercial Facility Layout Packages
  • We encourage the reader to use the Web to keep
    abreast of new developments. Trade/professional
    publications (such as lIE Solutions,
    solutions.iienet.org) periodically publish lists
    of software packages for facilities
    planning/design, which are also an excellent
    source of information for the layout
    analyst/engineer.

83
6.9 The Impact of Change(common situations)
  • 1. Changes in the design of existing product, the
    elimination of products from the product line,
    and the introduction of new products.
  • 2. Changes in the processing sequences for
    existing products, replacements of existing
    processing equipment, changes in the use of
    general-purpose special-purpose equipment.

84
6.9 The Impact of Change
  • 3. Changes in production quantities and
    associated production schedules, resulting in the
    need for capacity changes.
  • 4. Changes in the organizational structure as
    well as changes in management philosophies
    concerning production strategies such as the
    adoption of just-in-time concepts, total quality
    management, etc.

85
6.9 The Impact of Change
  • Flexibility can be achieved by utilizing modular
    office equipment, workstations, and material
    handling equipment installing general-purpose
    production equipment utilizing a grid-based
    utilities and services system and using modular
    construction. Additionally, the design of the
    facility can have a significant impact on the
    ease and cost of expansion.

86
Adapting to Change Planning for Facility
Reorganization
  • The facility layout should also be treated as
    dynamic. In as much as businesses should have
    long-term business strategies, we must also have
    a multiyear master plan for facility layout. This
    master plan should be consistent with the
    company's business plan and it should attempt to
    anticipate future requirements and make
    provisions for adapting to changes in facility

87
Adapting to Change Planning for Facility
Reorganization How?
  • 1. Reorganize factory subplants to achieve
    superior manufacturing status.
  • 2. Provide maximum perimeter access for receiving
    and shipping materials, components, and products
    as close to each subplant as practical.

88
Adapting to Change Planning for Facility
Reorganization How?
  • 3. Cluster all subplants dedicated to a product
    or product family around the final process
    subplant to minimize inventories, shortages, and
    improve communication.
  • 4. Locate supplier subplants of common component
    subplants in a central loca-tion to minimize
    component travel distances.
  • 5. Minimize the factory size to avoid wasted time
    and motion of workers.

89
Adapting to Change Planning for Facility
Reorganization How?
  • 6. Eliminate centralized storage of purchased
    materials, components, and assemblies and move
    storage to focused subplants.
  • 7. Minimize the amount of factory reorganization
    that will be made necessary by future growth and
    change.

90
Adapting to Change Planning for Facility
Reorganization How?
  • 8. Avoid locating offices and support services on
    factory perimeters.
  • 9. Minimize the ratio of aisle space to
    production process space.

91
Volvo Example (skip)
92
6.10 Developing Layout Alternatives (suggestions)
  • 1. Exert the necessary effort.
  • 2. Set a time limit.
  • 3. Seek many alternatives.
  • 4. Establish a goal.
  • 5. Make liberal use of the questioning attitude.
  • 6. Don't get bogged down in details too soon.

93
6.10 Developing Layout Alternatives (suggestions)
  • 7. Don't "fail to see the forest for the trees."
  • 8. Think big, then think little.
  • 9. Don't be conservative.
  • 10. Avoid premature rejection.
  • 11. Avoid premature acceptance.
  • 12. Refer to analogous problems of others.
  • 13. Consult the literature.

94
6.10 Developing Layout Alternatives (suggestions)
  • 14. Consult peers in other organizations.
  • 15. Use the brainstorming technique.
  • 16. Divorce your thinking from the existing
    solution.
  • 17. Spread the effort out over time.
  • 18. Involve operating people.
  • 19. Involve management.
  • 20. Involve experienced people.

95
6.10 Developing Layout Alternatives (suggestions)
  • 21. Involve inexperienced people.
  • 22. Involve those who oppose change.
  • 23. Involve those who promote change.
  • 24. Be aware of what the competition is doing.
  • 25. Recognize your own limitations.
  • 26. Look for trends.

96
6.10 Developing Layout Alternatives (suggestions)
  • 27. Do your homework first.
  • 28. Understand the requirements.
  • 29. Don't overlook an improved present method.
  • 30. Think long range.

97
Summary Assignment
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