Fundamental Nursing Skills and Concepts - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Fundamental Nursing Skills and Concepts PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: c62c8-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Fundamental Nursing Skills and Concepts

Description:

OSHA approved particulate air filter respirator if TB. Door closed. ... LAB SPECIMENS ARE TAKEN TO THE LAB IN SEALED CONTAINERS IN PLASTIC BIOHAZARD BAGS. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:98
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 24
Provided by: jim9157
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Fundamental Nursing Skills and Concepts


1
Fundamental Nursing Skills and Concepts
  • Chapter 22
  • Page 464

2
Infection Control
  • Interferes with the infectious process cycle to
    gain control over the spread of infectious or
    contagious disease.

3
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES are diseases spread from one
    person to another. They are also known as
    contagious or communicable diseases, and
    community acquired infections.
  • Infectious diseases were once the leading cause
    of death.
  • The threat of infectious diseases decreased
    because of vaccines, public health measures, and
    drug therapy.
  • But, infectious diseases have not been
    eliminated. There are new, drug-resistant
    strains of TB, gonorrhea, and organisms which
    cause wound and respiratory infections.

4
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
  • AIDS and SARS present grave threats to public
    health.
  • Box 22-1. page 465 Facts and myths about the
    transmission of HIV

5
COLONIZATION DIFFERS FROM INFECTION
  • COLONIZATION A CONDITION IN WHICH
    MICROORGANISMS ARE PRESENT, BUT THE HOST DOES NOT
    MANIFEST ANY SIGNS OR SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION.
  • INFECTION A CONDITION THAT RESULTS WHEN
    MICROORGANISMS CAUSE INJURY TO A HOST.
  • Whether infected or colonized, the host can
    transmit infectious diseases to others.

6
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
  • Table 22.1 The course of infectious disease
    through distinct stages. Page 465
  • Incubation for a cold maybe 2-4 days, for HIV
    maybe months to years, before symptoms of AIDS
    appears.

7
INFECTION CONTROL PRECAUTIONS
  • INFECTION CONTROL PRECAUTIONS are physical
    measures designed to curtail the spread of
    infectious diseases.
  • INFECTION CONTROL PRECAUTIONS interfere with the
    chain of infection and require knowledge of the
    mechanism by which an infectious disease is
    transmitted.
  • Two major categories of infection control
    precautions are standard precautions and
    transmission-based precautions.
  • Centers of Disease Control and Prevention
    established guidelines for 2 major categories of
    infection control precautions.

8
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS Box 22-2 pg466
  • MEASURES FOR REDUCING THE RISK OF MICROORGANISM
    TRANSMISSION FROM BOTH RECOGNIZED AND
    UNRECOGNIZED SOURCES OF INFECTION.
  • FOLLOW WHEN CARING FOR ALL CLIENTS, REGARDLESS OF
    DIAGNOSIS OR INFECTION STATUS.
  • REDUCES THE POTENTIAL FOR TRANSMITTING BLOODBORNE
    PATHOGENS AND PATHOGENS FROM BODY FLUIDS.
  • Follow whenever there is potential for contact
    with blood, body fluids, nonintact skin, or
    mucous membranes.

9
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
  • Examples of moist body substances feces, urine,
    sputum, saliva, wound drainage, and other body
    fluids.
  • Remember if it is wet it has the ability to
    transmit microorganisms.

10
TRANSMISSION-BASED PRECAUTIONS Table 22.2 page
467
  • Also called ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS.
  • Three types CONTACT PRECAUTIONS, DROPLET
    PRECAUTIONS, and AIRBORNE PRECAUTIONS.
  • Used based on the mechanism of transmission of
    the pathogen.
  • Used in combination if pathogen has multiple
    routes of transmission.
  • Standard precautions are used with every patient,
    but transmission-based precautions may be
    discontinued depending on the pathogen.

11
TRANSMISSION-BASED PRECAUTIONS
  • Depending on culture testing showing negative.
  • Drainage stops from wound or lesion.
  • Antibiotic therapy being initiated.

12
CONTACT PRECAUTIONS
  • MEASURES USED TO BLOCK THE TRANSMISSION OF
    PATHOGENS BY DIRECT OR INDIRECT CONTACT.
  • Direct contact is skin-to-skin contact with an
    infected person. Indirect contact is contact
    with a contaminated object in the clients
    environment.
  • CONTACT PRECAUTIONS Private room or room with a
    similarly infected client. Gloves. Gowns if
    drainage not contained by dressings or if
    excessive drainage like diarrhea. Equipment for
    clients exclusive use.
  • Used with drug resistant infections (whether
    skin, wound, respiratory, or GI), acute diarrhea,
    draining wounds or abscesses, and acute viral
    conjunctivitis.

13
DROPLET PRECAUTIONS
  • MEASURES THAT BLOCK PATHOGENS WITHIN MOIST
    DROPLETS LARGER THAN 5 MICRONS.
  • Pathogens carried on droplets exit the body
    during coughing, sneezing, or suctioning.
    Droplets do not remain suspended in the air and
    are encountered by close contact with the client
    (within 3 feet of the client).
  • DROPLET PRECAUTIONS Private room or room with
    similarly infected client. Standard precautions.
    Mask if within 3 feet of the client. Door may
    be open.
  • Used with influenza, rubella, streptococcal
    pneumonia, and meningococcal meningitis.

14
AIRBORNE PRECAUTIONS
  • MEASURES THAT REDUCE THE RISK OF TRANSMITTING
    AIRBORNE INFECTIOUS AGENTS WHICH ARE SMALLER THAN
    5 MICRONS.
  • Airborne pathogens are present in the residue of
    evaporated droplets and remain suspended in the
    air and attached to dust particles.
  • AIRBORNE PRECAUTIONS Private room or room with
    a similarly infected client. Negative air
    pressure. Standard precautions. Mask. OSHA
    approved particulate air filter respirator if TB.
    Door closed.
  • Used with pulmonary tuberculosis and measles
    (rubeola).

15
INFECTION CONTROL MEASURES barriers to spread of
microorganisms
  • PRIVATE ROOM- negative pressure room is
    suggested.
  • SIGNS NOTIFYING VISITORS AND STAFF OF ISOLATION
  • DISPOSABLE EQUIPMENT
  • PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Garments that
    block the transfer of pathogens (gloves, cover
    gowns, masks, face shields, goggles).
  • HOUSEKEEPING PRACTICES and DISPOSAL OF WASTE
    which serve to prevent the spread of the pathogen.

16
INFECTION CONTROL MEASURES
  • Disposing of contaminated items properly.
  • Page 471 illustrates double bagging if one bag is
    not sturdy or a possibility of breaking or the
    outside of the first bag is contaminated.
  • Using infection control measures properly to
    prevent spread is very important.
  • A nosocomial infection is a hospital acquired
    infection.

17
INFECTION CONTROL MEASURES
  • Biodegradeable trash- flush what can be flushed.
  • Moist items like soiled dressings should be
    wrapped so transfer of pathogens do not happen.
  • If it is wet it is considered contaminated.

18
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
  • EQUIPMENT IS USED ONCE.
  • GLOVES, GOWNS, AND MASKS ARE DISPOSED OF AFTER
    USE. CLOTH GOWNS ARE PLACED WITH SOILED LINEN
    AND CLEANED.
  • THE MOST CONTAMINATED GARMENT IS REMOVED FIRST.
  • HANDS ARE THOROUGHLY WASHED AFTER REMOVING ALL
    PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND BEFORE LEAVING
    THE CLIENTS ROOM.

19
DISPOSAL OF CONTAMINATED ITEMS
  • STURDY, LINED CONTAINERS FOR SOILED LINEN AND
    TRASH IN THE ROOM.
  • EMPTIED AT THE END OF EACH SHIFT OR SOONER IF
    FULL.
  • EMPTIED USING DOUBLE-BAGGING WHERE THE BAG
    CONTAINING THE CONTAMINATED ITEMS IS PLACED
    WITHIN AN OUTER, CLEAN BAG.
  • DISPOSABLE EQUIPMENT IS PREFERRED. REUSABLE
    ITEMS MUST BE PROPERLY CLEANED BEFORE REUSE.
  • LAB SPECIMENS ARE TAKEN TO THE LAB IN SEALED
    CONTAINERS IN PLASTIC BIOHAZARD BAGS.

20
TRANSPORTING CLIENTS ON ISOLATION
  • Client remains in private room unless absolutely
    necessary.
  • Wheelchair or stretcher covered with sheet.
    Client also covered with sheet or blanket.
  • CONTACT PRECAUTIONS Client wears gown. Areas
    of drainage well-covered (for example, extra
    dressing over draining wound).
  • DROPLET OR AIRBORNE PRECAUTIONS Client wears
    mask. Nurse transporting should also wear mask
    and PPE
  • Inform receiving department of isolation. Staff
    in receiving department wear personal protective
    equipment. Limit time in receiving department,
    for minimal exposure.

21
Patients in isolation
  • Feel very isolated.
  • Encourage them to use phone, to stay in touch.
  • Please make frequent contacts with them.
  • Use the intercom to stay in touch.
  • Converse about current events.
  • Offer wide choice of foods, within their limits.
  • Use touch, (back rubs), and assist to turn and
    reposition.
  • Encourage deep breathing, spirometry.
  • Wiggle toes, isometric exercises.

22
NURSING CONSIDERATIONS
  • Teach reasons for precautions to client and
    visitors. Assist visitors to follow precautions.
  • Teach the client and significant others about the
    disease process, prevention of transmission, and
    any prescribed medications. Page 475a
  • Provide appropriate interaction with the client
    to mitigate the effects of sensory deprivation
    and decrease feelings of social isolation.

23
THE ELDERLY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES
  • Older adults have a decreased immune response.
  • Chronic diseases make it harder to resist
    infections.
  • Symptoms of infection will be more subtle.
  • A change in behavior or mental status may
    indicate an infection.
  • Older adults may have a lower baseline
    temperature. A normal temperature may actually
    indicate an infection.
  • Early detection and prompt treatment can prevent
    hospitalization.
  • Infection is major reason for transfer from
    nursing home to hospital.
About PowerShow.com