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First Aid Merit Badge


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Title: First Aid Merit Badge

First Aid Merit Badge
Rank Advancement
  • Tenderfoot Rank Requirements
  • Identify local poisonous plants tell how to
    treat for exposure to them.
  • Demonstrate how to care for someone who is
  • Show first aid for the following Simple cuts and
    scrapes, blisters on the hand and foot, minor
    (thermal/heat) burns of scalds (superficial, or
    first-degree), bites or stings of insects and
    ticks, venomous snakebite, nosebleed, frostbite
    and sunburn.
  • Second Class Rank Requirements
  • Show what to do for hurry cases of stopped
    breathing, serious bleeding, and ingested
  • Prepare a personal first-aid kit to take with you
    on a hike.
  • Demonstrate first aid for the following object
    in the eye, bite of a suspected rabid animal,
    puncture wounds from a splinter, nail, and
    fishhook, serious burns (partial thickness, or
    second-degree), heat exhaustion, shock,
    heatstroke, dehydration, hypothermia, and
  • First Class Requirements
  • Demonstrate bandages for a sprained ankle and for
    injuries on the head, upper arm, and collarbone.
  • Show how to transport by yourself, and with one
    other person, a)from a smoke filled room, b)with
    a sprained ankle, for at least 25 yards.
  • Tell the five most common signals of a hear
    attack. Explain the steps in CPR.

Merit Badge Requirments
  • Satisfy your counselor that you have current
    knowledge of all first-aid requirements for
  • Tenderfoot, Second Class, and First Class Ranks.
  • Do the following
  • Explain how you would obtain emergency medical
    assistance from your home, on a wilderness
    camping trip, and during an activity on open
  • Explain the term triage.
  • Explain the standard precautions as applied to
    bloodborne pathogens.
  • Prepare a first-aid kit for your home. Display
    and discuss its contents with your counselor.
  • Do the following
  • Explain what action you should take for someone
    who shows signals of shock, for someone who shows
    signals of a heart attack, and for someone who
    shows signals of stroke.
  • Identify the conditions that must exist before
    performing CPR on a person. Then demonstrate
    proper technique in performing CPR using a
    training device approved by your counselor.
  • Explain the use of an automated external
    defibrillator (AED).
  • Show steps that need to be taken for someone
    suffering from a severe cut on the leg and on the
    wrist. Tell the dangers in the use of a
    tourniquet and the conditions under which its use
    is justified.

Merit Badge Requirments
  • Explain when a bee sting could be life
    threatening and what action should be taken for
    prevention and for first aid.
  • Explain symptoms of heatstroke and what action
    should be taken for first aid for prevention.
  • 4. Do the following
  • Describe the signals of a broken bone. Show
    first-aid procedures for handling fractures
    (broken bones), including open (compound)
    fractures of the forearm, wrist, upper leg, and
    lower leg using improvised materials.
  • Describe the symptoms and possible complications
    and demonstrate proper procedures for treating
    suspected injuries to the head, neck, and back.
    Explain what measures should be taken to reduce
    the possibility of further complicating these
  • 5. Describe the symptoms, proper first-aid
    procedures, and possible prevention measures for
    the following conditions hypothermia,
    convulsions/seizures, frostbite, dehydration,
    bruises, strains, sprains, burns, abdominal pain,
    broken, chipped, or loosened tooth, knocked out
    tooth, muscle cramps.
  • 6. Do TWO of the following a) If a sick or an
    injured person must be moved, tell how you would
    determine the best method. Demonstrate the
    method. b) With helpers under your supervision,
    improvise a stretcher and move a presumably
    unconscious person. c) With your counselors
    approval, arrange a visit with your patrol or
    troop to an emergency medical facility or through
    an American Red Cross chapter for a demonstration
    of how an AED is used.
  • 7. Teach another Scout a first-aid skill selected
    by your counselor.

Lesson One
Lesson One Objectives Fundamentals of First Aid
  1. Define the meaning of First Aid.
  2. Explain how to use the 911 system.
  3. Explain the first concern when giving first aid.
  4. Explain when to move and when not to move an
    injured person.
  5. List the four steps of victim assessment.
  6. What is Triage?

Fundamentals of First Aid
1. What is the purpose of first aid
  • First Aid is care given to an injured person to
    stabilize and keep him / her safe until he / she
    can receive professional medical attention.

Fundamentals of First Aid
Scenario A man has been hit by a car and thrown
into the street. He is wearing shorts, and blood
is flowing, but not spurting, from his leg. What
looks like a bone is sticking out of his leg.
What are the two major concerns when giving first
aid to this victim?
Fundamentals of First Aid
First, safety of the rescuer from traffic and the
safety of the of the victim. Second, unless the
victim is in a life-threatening situation, he
should not be moved.
Fundamentals of First Aid
2. List the Two Major Concerns When Giving First
  1. The first rule of first aid and the primary
    concern is
  2. The second concern is, unless the victim is in a
    life-threatening situation, he or she should

Not Be Moved
Giving First Aid
R is for Responsiveness Is the victim
conscious? Touch their shoulder, ask if they are
alright. Ask if they need help. If they say no,
then proceed no further If yes, or no response,
then proceed to A
Giving First Aid
A is for Activate EMS or 911
How to Use the 911 System
4. What are the four things you need to remember
when making a 911 call?
  • Your name
  • The emergency
  • The location of the emergency
  • Condition of the victim

Stay on the line with the operator until help
How To Use the 911 System
When should EMS / 911 be called?
  • Check the victim for responsiveness. If they do
    not respond or if they tell you that they need
    help, then contact EMS.

When To Move An Injured Person
P is for Position
Only re-position the victim if the victim is in
further danger in their present location. And /
or there does not seem to be spinal injury and
additional care requires moving them.
Explain when an injured person should and should
not be moved?
  • If there are suspected spinal injuries, do not
    move the victim (except when the victim is in a
    life threatening situation).

Seek immediate medical attention.
Four Steps of Victim Assessment
Use the mnemonic ABCH
  • A is for airway

-check to see if the airway is blocked.
Use your finger to sweep the mouth to remove any
seen object. If this fails, then perform the
Heimlich maneuver or abdominal thrusts. We will
learn these techniques in later lessons.
Four Steps of Victim Assessment
  • B is for breathing

Look, listen and feel by watching the chest and
placing your cheek a few inches above the mouth
of the victim to sense any movement of air. If
the victim is not breathing, they may need their
head repositioned. If they are still not
breathing they need rescue breathing, do not give
unless you are trained, instead, find an adult.
Four Steps of Victim Assessment
  • C is for circulation

If there is not a pulse, then this person needs
CPR. The best place to check for a pulse is the
carotid artery along the side of the neck along
the windpipe. If you are not trained in CPR, then
find someone who is.
Four Steps of Victim Assessment
  • H is for Hemorrhaging

If the victim is bleeding, then provide the
necessary care. If not, then begin a secondary
What is Triage?
Process of prioritizing patients based on the
severity of their condition so as to treat as
many as possible when resources are insufficient
for all to be treated immediately.
Lesson One Review
First aid is a first-response activity, nothing
more. Its sole goal is to maintain the injured
person until they get professional help. First
priority Safety for all! Blood from a cut or
torn vein will flow, a cut artery will spurt.
Lesson One True-False Questions
T F 1. Checking the victim, calling for help,
and giving care are three steps in treating
someone who has been seriously hurt or ill. T F
2. It is ok to move someone who is seriously hurt
to make them feel better. T F 3. Knowing first
aid could save a life, and applying first aid
should be accompanied with prayer.
Lesson One True-False Questions
T F 4. The groove to the side of the neck
(carotid artery) is a good place to check the
pulse. T F 5. Calling for help may be the most
important thing that you do to help the victim. T
F 6. First aid is the temporary care that you
give until professional help arrives.
Lesson Two
Lesson Two Objectives Choking, AED, Shock and
Weather Related Ailments
  1. Review Victim Assessment from lesson 1.
  2. Explain and Demonstrate the Heimlich maneuver and
    abdominal thrusts.
  3. What is an AED and what is it used for?
  4. Explain the treatment for shock and hot and cold
    weather related injuries or ailments.

  1. Safety is the primary concern.
  2. R Responsiveness (Is the victim conscious?)
  3. A Activate EMS or 911
  4. P Position (no spinal injury, position
    according to injury)
  5. A Airway (is it blocked? Check head position)

  1. B Breathing (is the victim breathing? Check!)
  2. C Circulation (Is there a pulse? Check!)
  3. H Hemorrhaging (Is the victim bleeding?)
  4. Perform secondary survey. Examine the victim for
    other injuries and wait for medical attention to

Heimlich Maneuver
  • Used only when the victim is conscious and is
    unable to breath or cough.
  • Victim coughing, encourage to continue.
  • If the victim goes unconscious, use Abdominal

Heimlich Maneuver
Heimlich Maneuver
  1. Stand behind victim.
  2. Wrap arms around victims waist and not around
    the ribs.
  3. Make a fist and place the thumb side of your fist
    just slightly above the navel.
  4. Grab your fist with your other hand.

Heimlich Maneuver
  1. Press into the victims stomach with five quick
    upward thrusts. Each thrust should have a pause
    in between.
  2. After every five thrusts, recheck the victim.
    Repeat until the object has been dislodged of
    until the victim loses consciousness.

Time To Practice!
(No Transcript)
Abdominal Thrusts
  1. Place victim on his or her back.
  2. Straddle the victim by sitting on their thighs.
  3. Place the heel of one hand just slightly above
    their navel. Your fingers should be angled
    slightly upward, pointed toward the victims head.

Abdominal Thrusts
  1. Grasp your hand by placing your other hand on top
    and lacing your fingers into the first hand.
  2. Press inward and upward with five quick thrusts.
    Each thrust should have a pause in between.

Abdominal Thrusts
  1. After every five thrusts, recheck the victim.
    Repeat until the object has been dislodged or
    until you are relieved by another person or an
  2. Perform finger sweep after each set of five

Time To Practice!
What is an AED and what is it used for?
A portable electronic device that automatically
diagnoses the potentially life threatening
cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation
and ventricular tachycardia in a patient, and is
able to treat them through defibrillation, the
application of electrical therapy which stops the
arrhythmia, allowing the heart to reestablish an
effective rhythm. AEDs are designed to be simple
to use for the layman, and the use of AEDs is
taught in many first aid, first responder and
basic life support (BLS) level CPR classes.
Shock - Treatment
  • Preserve body heat by placing a blanket or cover
    over the victim. Provide insulation, or move the
    victim, if possible, to a warmer environment.

Shock - Treatment
Shock - Treatment
Allergic Reaction
First Question Is shock the result of an
allergic reaction? If the shock is the result of
an allergic reaction, then follow victim's
instructions for treating allergy and monitor the
"ABCHs" until medical attention arrives.
Shock - Treatment
  • Spinal injury do not move the victim.
  • If result of a head injury or if victim has
    difficulty breathing, elevate head and shoulders
    by placing a pillow or blanket under head.
  • If the victim is unconscious or vomiting, then
    turn the victim on their left side so the stomach
    is on the left side of the body.

Shock - Treatment
  • If no, elevate legs eight to twelve inches off
    the ground.
  • If less then two hours from medical care, then do
    not give fluids (except to those who are
    conscious and are severely burned).
  • If no, give small and periodic amounts of water
    (only if conscious).
  • Wait for medical attention to arrive.

Weather Related Emergencies
  • Weather related emergencies include
  • Hyperthermia Heat related, body unable to cool
  • Heat Exhaustion Skin cold clammy, person alert
  • Heatstroke Skin hot, altered state of awareness
  • Hypothermia Cold related, body unable to warm
  • Frostbite Freezing of the extremities (fingers
  • Frostnip First stage of freezing outer layers of

Weather Related Emergencies
Treatment for Hyperthermia
The body is unable to itself.
  • Move person into a cool place remove any excess
    clothing cool victim with either water, fanning,
    or cool packs under the armpits or groin wait
    for medical attention, in the case of heatstroke.

Weather Related Emergencies
Treatment for Hypothermia
The core body temperature drops below
Weather Related Emergencies
Treatment for Hypothermia
  • Move the victim out of the cold handle the
    victim carefully replace wet clothes with dry
  • You may need to be forceful verbally to get the
    individual to comply
  • Insulate from the cold with layered clothing
    and/or an insulated sleeping bag.

Lesson 2 Review Questions
True-False Questions
T F 7. Hyperthermia occurs when the body loses
the ability to cool itself and overheats. T F
8. When you have frostbite, rub the hands
together slowly to warm them up. T F 9.
Hypothermia occurs when the body loses its
ability to keep itself warm. T F 10. Shock may
occur with any injury, illness, or trauma.
Lesson 2 Review Questions
True-False Questions
T F 11. Itching eyes is a sign of
hypothermia. T F 12. Clammy skin is a sign of
heat exhaustion. 13. Describe the treatment
needed for the following scenario You have come
to an accident scene, and the victim is sitting
on the curb. He or she seems a little upset, is
shivering, and there is some discoloration of the
skin. How do you treat this person?
Check RAP ABCH. Cover with blanket. Ask if it
is an allergic reaction. Seek medical attention.
Lesson Three
Lesson Three Objectives
  1. Explain and demonstrate first aid for a cut.
  2. Explain how to treat a blister.
  3. Explain and demonstrate first aid for a puncture
  4. Explain and demonstrate first aid for arterial
    bleeding of an arm or leg.
  5. Explain and demonstrate how to stop bleeding.
  6. Dangers of a tourniquet.

Blister Treatment
  • Remove the object or clothing that is causing the
  • Wash with warm water and soap.
  • Use a sterile needle to pop the blister at its
    base and drain.
  • Place a donut-shaped piece of mole foam around it
    to keep it from further irritation.

Blister Treatment
  • Treating a Blister
  • Remove footwear then
  • The best place to pop the blister is
  • tear off the roof of the blister.
  • The best way to prevent blisters is to wear
    fitted footwear.

wash the blister with warm water and soap.
at the base.
Do not
Puncture Wound Treatment
  • Larger wounds - never remove barriers (may cause
    wound to bleed again).
  • Wash gently with outward strokes to move dirt and
    bacteria away from wound.
  • Use a stream of water to flush it out. Dry
    carefully, apply antibacterial ointment (for
    small wounds) and sterile bandage.

Puncture Wound Treatment
  • Treating punctures
  • If the object has already been removed, treat the
    wound based on the type of that
    has occurred.
  • The object acts as a and should not be
  • The most important thing is to keep the object

Minor Cut Treatment
  • Wash hands with soap and water.
  • Apply direct pressure to the cut until it stops
  • Gently wash with soap and water and rinse it for
    a few minutes.
  • Pat dry and add a bandage with small dab of
    ointment on it.

Arterial Bleeding
  • Check RAP ABCH first.
  • Try to stop the bleeding using direct pressure.
  • If the bleeding stops, treat for shock.
  • If not, then Elevate that part of the body above
    the victim's heart and continue with direct

Pressure Points for Control of Bleeding
Arterial Bleeding
  • If the bleeding stops, treat for shock. If not,
    then Locate a pressure point and continue to
    apply direct pressure.
  • The pressure points are located in the upper arm
    and where the leg joins the hip.

Arterial Bleeding
  • If the bleeding stops, treat for shock. If not,
    then Seek immediate medical assistance.
  • Use a tourniquet as last resort.

Dangers of a Tourniquet
Emergency tourniquets are used in emergency
bleeding control to prevent severe blood loss
from limb trauma. Emergency tourniquets are a
last resort, for all blood flow below the
application of an emergency tourniquet is
stopped, and can subsequently kill the tissue,
leading to eventual loss of the limb below
Preventing Infection
  • How to prevent infection.
  • The best way to prevent infection is to
    the wound.

b. Protect the wound with a clean sterile
Lesson 3 Review Questions
True or False Questions
T F 14. A foot blister occurs because of the
constant rubbing of clothing of equipment against
the skin. T F 15. Most wounds can be card for
by applying direct pressure, cleaning, applying
medicine, and applying a bandage. T F 16. A
tourniquet is a good and safe way to control
bleeding at a camp-out. T F 17. Arterial
bleeding is considered a simple wound.
Lesson 3 Review Questions
True or False Questions
T F 18. A deep puncture wound is not serious
and does not need to be treated by a doctor. T F
19. Applying ointment is not a method to
control bleeding from a large wound.
Lets Practice
Lesson Four
Lesson Four Objectives
  1. Explain and demonstrate how to respond to
  2. Explain and demonstrate first aid for insect
  3. Explain how to remove a splinter from a finger.
  4. Explain how to treat poisonings.

  • Poisons can enter the body one of four ways
  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Injection
  • Absorption

Poisoning Treatment
  • Absorbed, like Poison ivy,
  • Immediately wash the area with soap and water.
  • Then take a cool bath and apply calamine lotion.
  • If it spreads and painful, then seek medical

Poisoning Treatment
  • Poisonous injections i.e. Snakebites,
  • Identify the snake, if possible.
  • Then clean the bite with soap and water and keep
    bite below heart level.
  • Seek medical attention.

Poisoning Treatment
  • If the poison is inhaled or swallowed
  • Check "ABCH" and treat for shock.
  • Seek medical attention and call the Poison
    Control Center
  • 1-800-222-1222

Insect Bite or Sting Treatment
  • If possible, try to catch the spider or insect
    without risk to you.
  • Check to see if the stinger is in the skin.
  • If not, Clean the area, apply ice to reduce

Insect Bite or Sting Treatment
  • If stinger is found, gently scrape the stinger
    out of the wound using a plastic card or
    fingernail, pulling away from the wound to
    minimize amount of toxin released into the body.
  • Do not squeeze stinger. Treat wound as a minor

Insect Bite or Sting Treatment
Snake Bite
Bee Sting
Brown Recluse Spider Bite
Insect Bite or Sting Treatment
  • Next, check to see if the victim is allergic to
    the bite.
  • Look for signs of shock and swelling.
  • If no, then seek medical attention or an adult
    for assistance.
  • If yes, check ABCH, treat for shock, and
    immediately seek medical attention.

Splinters and Ticks - Treatment
Tick Bite
Splinters and Ticks - Treatment
  • Use tweezers to carefully remove.
  • If splinter breaks, use sterilized tweezers.
  • Remove remainder of splinter, and treat wound as
    a minor cut.

Splinters and Ticks - Treatment
  • Treating a splinter.
  • Remove as much of the splinter as
  • If the splinter breaks off, sterilize the
  • cut into the skin.

Do not
Splinters and Ticks - Treatment
  • Treating a tick.
  • Do not yank the tick out, but pull
    it out.
  • After removing the tick, the area
    and watch for
  • Contact medical attention if swelling,
    or persists.

Lesson 4 Review Questions
True or False Questions
T F 20. To remove a tick, just yank it off of
your body. T F 21. Call the Poison Control
Center if poison is swallowed or inhaled. T F
22. For a snakebite, slice the wound, suck out
the venom, and spit it out. T F 23. To remove
the oils that rub onto the body from poison ivy,
poison oak, or poison sumac, you should change
your clothes and wash thoroughly.
Lesson 4 Review Questions
True or False Questions
T F 24. Tweezers are needed to remove a
splinter. T F 25. A plastic card could be used
to remove a stinger from an insect bite.
Lesson Five
Lesson Five Objectives
  1. Demonstrate and explain first aid for simple
  2. Assemble a personal first aid kit.
  3. Learn where a first aid kit should be stored.

Degree of Burn
First Degree Burn
Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis
Second Degree Burn
Third Degree Burn
Burns Degrees of Burns
  • First-degree burn
  • Only the top layer of skin is
  • The skin is only mildly
  • There is only a little
  • These burns usually within a week.

First-Degree Burn
Redness (Erythema)
First Degree Burn Damage to the outer layer of
skin (epidermis), causing pain, redness, and
Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis
Burns Degrees of Burns
  • Second-degree burn
  • layers of skin are burned.
  • The skin has a
  • There is greater swelling, and there are
  • These burns take up to three weeks to heal and
    should be attended by a

spotty or blotchy
Second-Degree Burn
Second Degree Burn Damage to both outer skin and
underlying tissue layers (epidermis and dermis),
causing pain, redness, swelling, and blistering.
Blisters (Bulla)
Burns Degrees of Burns
  • Third-degree burn
  • layers of skin are burned.
  • There is discoloration.
  • Some skin may be
  • These burns can be

life threatening.
Third-Degree Burn
Full thickness burn with tissue damage
Third Degree Burn Damage extends deeper into
tissues (epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis)
causing extensive tissue destruction. The skin
may feel numb.
Heat Burn Treatment
  • Go through RAP ABCH first, then ask if burn was
    caused by heat.
  • Determine degree and amount of burn.
  • If it is a third-degree burn or large
    second-degree burn, use the ABCH, then treat
    for shock.
  • Do not attempt to pull off the clothing because
    skin may come with it.

Heat Burn Treatment
  • Cut it off if attached to the skin.
  • Apply a sterile dressing and elevate.
  • Seek immediate medical attention.
  • Burn is first-degree or small second-degree,
    apply cold water/compress until pain stops.
  • If you must use ice, provide a barrier.
  • Do not apply an ointment.

Chemical Burn Treatment
  • Determine if burn was caused by a dry chemical.
  • If so, brush it off, remove clothing, wash area
    fifteen to twenty minutes.
  • If not caused by dry chemical, remove clothing
    and jewelry, wash area for fifteen to twenty
  • Seek medical attention in both cases.

Electrical Burn Treatment
  • If burn is not chemical, then its an electrical
  • Is victim in contact with electrical source, are
    you at risk.
  • If yes, ask adult to turn off power.
  • May entail calling 911 to have then call
    appropriate person.
  • Treatment same as heat burn.

Electrical Burn Treatment
  • In all cases, monitor wound for signs of
  • Large wounds seek medical attention to reduce
    risk of infection.
  • Serious burn, monitor for signs of shock.

First Aid Kit
  • Container To keep all first aid items in one
    common container.
  • Gauze Pads -To cover wounds and prevent
  • Roll Bandage -To stabilize strains and sprains
    and cover wounds.
  • Triangular Bandage -To cover wounds and prevent
    infection .

First Aid Kit
  • Bandages -To stop minor bleeding and prevent
  • Adhesive Tape -To secure bandages to wounds.
  • Antibacterial Ointment -To prevent infection on
    small cuts.

First Aid Kit
  • Calamine Lotion -To prevent itching.
  • Soap -To clean minor wounds and cuts and to
    prevent infection.
  • Latex Gloves -To protect the rescuer from
    infection and blood pathogens.

First Aid Kit
  • Bandage Scissors -To cut gauze and bandages.
  • Tweezers -To pull splinters.
  • Moleskin -To protect blisters and prevent

First Aid Kit
Where should a first aid kit be placed?
  • It should be placed in a visible location near
    the center of the activities. Everyone should be
    aware of its location.

Lesson 5 Review Questions
True or False Questions
T F 26. A first-degree burn should be cooled
using ice, not water. T F 27. When helping a
victim with a chemical burn, quickly rinse the
burn for a few seconds. T F 28. You should
remove clothing from a burn, even if it is
sticking, so you can treat it more effectively. T
F 29. When approaching a victim or electrical
burns, you should make sure the power is off.
Lesson 5 Review Questions
True or False Questions
T F 30. Duck tape is an important item in a
first aid kit. T F 31. Large second-degree
burns are just as dangerous as third-degree burns.
Lesson Six
Lesson Six Objectives
  1. What is Cardiopulmonary resuscitation ?
  2. The ABCs of Cardiopulmonary resuscitation .
  3. Explain the steps in Cardiopulmonary

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a
lifesaving technique useful in many emergencies,
including heart attack or near drowning, in which
someone's breathing or heartbeat has stopped.
Ideally, CPR involves two elements chest
compressions combined with mouth-to-mouth rescue
Call 911
Airway Breathing
Hand Placement
Before you begin
  • Assess the situation before starting CPR
  • Is the person conscious or unconscious?
  • If the person appears unconscious, tap or shake
    his or her shoulder and ask loudly, "Are you
  • If the person doesn't respond and two people
    are available, one should call 911 or the local
    emergency number and one should begin CPR. If you
    are alone and have immediate access to a
    telephone, call 911 before beginning CPR unless
    you think the person has become unresponsive
    because of suffocation (such as from drowning).
    In this special case, begin CPR for one minute
    and then call 911.
  • If an AED is immediately available, deliver one
    shock if advised by the device, then begin CPR.

Remember the ABCs
Think ABC Airway, Breathing and
Circulation. Move quickly through Airway and
Breathing to begin chest compressions to restore
AIRWAY Clear the airway
  • Put the person on his or her back on a firm
  • Kneel next to the person's neck and shoulders.
  • Open the person's airway using the head-tilt,
    chin-lift maneuver. Put your palm on the person's
    forehead and gently tilt the head back. Then with
    the other hand, gently lift the chin forward to
    open the airway.
  • Check for normal breathing, taking no more than
    five or 10 seconds Look for chest motion, listen
    for breath sounds, and feel for the person's
    breath on your cheek and ear. Gasping is not
    considered to be normal breathing. If the person
    isn't breathing normally and you are trained in
    CPR, begin mouth-to-mouth breathing. If you
    believe the person is unconscious from a heart
    attack and you haven't been trained in emergency
    procedures, skip mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing
    and proceed directly to chest compressions to
    restore circulation.

BREATHING Breathe for the person
  • Rescue breathing can be mouth-to-mouth breathing
    or mouth-to-nose breathing if the mouth is
    seriously injured or can't be opened.
  • With the airway open (using the head-tilt,
    chin-lift maneuver) pinch the nostrils shut for
    mouth-to-mouth breathing and cover the person's
    mouth with yours, making a seal.
  • Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Give the
    first rescue breath lasting one second and
    watch to see if the chest rises. If it does rise,
    give the second breath. If the chest doesn't
    rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver
    and then give the second breath.
  • Begin chest compressions to restore

CIRCULATION Restore blood circulation with chest
  • Place the heel of one hand over the center of
    the person's chest, between the nipples. Place
    your other hand on top of the first hand. Keep
    your elbows straight and position your shoulders
    directly above your hands.
  • Use your upper body weight (not just your arms)
    as you push straight down on (compress) the chest
    2 inches (approximately 5 centimeters). Push hard
    and push fast give two compressions per second,
    or about 120 compressions per minute.
  • After 30 compressions, tilt the head back and
    lift the chin up to open the airway. Prepare to
    give two rescue breaths. Pinch the nose shut and
    breathe into the mouth for one second. If the
    chest rises, give a second rescue breath. If the
    chest doesn't rise, repeat the head-tilt,
    chin-lift maneuver and then give the second
    rescue breath. That's one cycle. If someone else
    is available, ask that person to give two breaths
    after you do 30 compressions.
  • If the person has not begun moving after five
    cycles (about two minutes) and an automatic
    external defibrillator (AED) is available, apply
    it and follow the prompts. The American Heart
    Association recommends administering one shock,
    then resuming CPR starting with chest
    compressions for two more minutes before
    administering a second shock. If you're not
    trained to use an AED, a 911 operator may be able
    to guide you in its use. Trained staff at many
    public places are also able to provide and use an
    AED. Use pediatric pads, if available, for
    children ages 1 to 8. Do not use an AED for
    infants younger than age 1.
  • Continue CPR until there are signs of movement
    or until emergency medical personnel take over.