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Hazardous Waste Management

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Title: Waste Management Author: Morgan Last modified by: ITS Created Date: 2/16/1999 9:29:22 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Other titles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hazardous Waste Management


1
Hazardous Waste Management
  • Chapter 15

2
Why is it managed?
  • Silent Spring
  • Love Canal
  • Times Beach and Seveso, Italy
  • Bhopal, India
  • Methyl isocyanate
  • Toxins
  • Dioxin
  • Pesticides

3
Federal HWM Laws (Sections 15.1 and 15.2)
RCRA/HSWA
CERCLA/SARA
TSCA/FIFRA
4
Household and Other Special Haz Wastes
RCRA Hazard
Ignitable
Corrosive
Toxic
Reactive
None
Material
Bleach
Drain cleaner
Lighter fluid
Antifreeze
Aspirin
5
Whos involved?
(Not to scale)
6
What can we do with this nasty, nasty
stuff? (Sections 15.2, 15.4, and 15.5)
7
In-Class Activity
  • An industrial plant produces approximately 1000
    kg/month of waste pentachlorophenol (C6Cl5OH).
    The plant decides to install an incinerator to
    dispose of the waste. Assume complete
    combustion. Note that this reaction requires
    water.
  • How much oxygen is theoretically required to
    combust the material?
  • How much acid is theoretically produced?
  • What theoretical quantity of sodium hydroxide
    (NaOH) is required to neutralize the acid?
  • In operation, why would you expect the quantities
    of air, acid, and caustic to be different from
    the theoretical amounts?

8
Which activities are the riskiest?
9
Risk Assessment
Hazard Identification
Exposure Assessment
Dose-Response Assessment
Risk Characterization
10
Site Remediation (Section 15.2.1)
  • Levels of response
  • Emergency response
  • Long-term remediation

11
Where is the contamination?
12
Pollutant Transport
13
Pollutant Transport
14
What can we do?
  • Remediation strategies

15
Containment Pumping and/or Injection
16
Containment Trenching/Slurry Wall Injection
17
Pump-and-Treat
18
AS and/or SVE
19
Excavation and . . .
20
In-situ Bioremediation
  • Nutrient injection

21
Phytoremediation
22
Natural Attenuation
23
In-Class Activity
  • Explain why the proposed process would be
    inappropriate for a site with the given
    contaminant. Offer a plausible alternative.
  • Volatile soluble organic excavation
    landfilling
  • Soil in vadose zone contaminated with metals
    pump treat
  • Soil in unsaturated zone contaminated with
    radioactive waste in-situ bioremediation

24
In-Class Activity
  • Lake Jasmine is a 20-acre lake with an average
    depth of 30 ft. Yesterday afternoon four
    55-gallon drums of Fuel Oil A and six 55-gallon
    drums of Solvent C fell off a truck during an
    accident, rolled into Lake Jasmine, and burst
    open on the rocky shore. The entire contents of
    all the drums spilled into the lake. Should
    local public health officials take measures to
    keep vacationers near Lake Jasmine out of the
    water? The allowable quantity in recreational
    waters of Fuel Oil A is 2.2 ppm, and the
    allowable quantity of Solvent C is 1.3 ppm.

25
Radioactive Materials and Waste
  • Sections 5.4 and 15.3

26
Choose the best answer.
  1. Radiation is scary. Radioactivity is even
    scarier.
  2. Radiation is a method of surveying in which
    points are located by knowledge of their
    distances and directions from a central point.
    Radioactivity is the intensity of a radioactive
    source.
  3. Radiation is emitted energy without the
    absorption of any energy. Radioactivity is a
    characteristic natural, spontaneous process in
    which unstable atoms emit mass or energy.

27
Isotopes
  • Element with same atomic number but different
    mass number, e.g., H-1, H-2, H-3

28
Uses of Radiation
  • Historical/Discontinued
  • X-rays Hair removal, Shoe sizing
  • 226Ra Hair tonic, Skin cream, Clock dials,
    Toothpaste, Chocolate bars
  • 210Po Spark plugs
  • 232Th Toothpaste, Dentures
  • Uranium Pigments, Photographic toner, Adhesive
    tape dispenser
  • Current
  • 235U, 239Pu Reactor fuel
  • 241Am Smoke detectors
  • 60Co, x-rays Food sterilization
  • x-rays, ?-rays Medical instrument sterilization
  • 60Co, 131I, etc. Radiation treatment
  • Neutrons Bomb detection, Illegal drug shipment
    detection

29
There are lots of units
  • Curie (Ci) decay rate
  • Becquerel (Bq) decay rate, 1 per second
  • Roentgen (R) rate of ionizations produced
  • Rad (radiation absorbed dose) energy absorbed
    from radiation
  • Rem (roentgen equivalent man) energy absorbed
    by tissue
  • Gray (Gy) absorption of 1 J of energy per kg of
    absorbing material
  • Sievert (Sv)) dose equivalent to tissue damage
    from 1 Gy of gamma radiation or X-ray 100 rem

30
Annual Radiation Dose
31
Ionizing Radiation
32
Effects of Level of Ionizing Radiation
33
Storage
34
Yucca Mountain
35
Vitrification
36
Radon
37
Half Life
  • Time required for half of original material to
    decay
  • Characteristic of an isotope
  • A Aoe-?t
  • t1/2 ln 2
  • ?

38
In-Class Activity
  • What would be the activity after 5 days of 1.0 Ci
    of radon-220?
  • On April 1, 2001 a waste containing Po-210 was
    found at an abandoned site. Its activity was 3.2
    ?Ci. From site records, you estimated that the
    waste dated from 1952. What was the original
    activity?
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