Alternative Energy Sources - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Alternative Energy Sources PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 8310c7-MzhmZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Alternative Energy Sources

Description:

Alternative Energy Sources Bill Pyke Hilbre Consulting Limited October 2012 Delivered on to: Generating Green Electricity* – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:303
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 41
Provided by: Mandy169
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Alternative Energy Sources


1
Alternative Energy Sources
Bill Pyke Hilbre Consulting Limited October 2012
Delivered on to
Generating Green Electricity
2
Global Perspective Energy Sources for Power
Generation
Source IEA
3
Options for Large Scale Power Generation
  • Thermal
  • Coal
  • Oil
  • Gas
  • Nuclear
  • Geothermal
  • Non-Thermal
  • Wind
  • Hydro
  • Wave
  • Tidal

Fossil Fuels
4
Options for Smaller Scale Power Generation-at
present
  • Thermal
  • CHP
  • Biomass
  • Non-Thermal
  • Wind

5
Carbon Neutral Sources
  • Wind
  • Wave
  • Tidal
  • Biomass
  • Geothermal

6
Comparative Life Cycle Carbon Emissions
Source OECD Nuclear Energy Agency
7
Power Generation Forecast
8
Comparative Green Electricity Generating Costs
Source IEA
9
Green Electrical Energy Falling Generating Costs
with Time
Source CPI
10
  • BIOMASS

11
Fuels for Transport Electrical Power CHP
12
Outline
  • Sources
  • Availability
  • Advantages/Disadvantages
  • Challenges
  • Cost Parameters
  • Biomass to Power Growth Estimates

13
Biomass Sources
  • Forest products salvageable dead wood, logging
    residues, and excess polewood
  • Coppice Wood
  • Urban wood waste and mill residues mill
    residues, urban wood waste, and construction and
    demolition debris
  • Agricultural residue wheat straw and corn
    remnants
  • Energy crops switch grass, hybrid poplar and
    hybrid willow
  • Biowaste, Landfill Sites

14
Advantages
  • Cheap energy, especially if it derives from waste
    2.00/mmbtu versus Natural gas at 6.00/mmbtu
  • Feedstock is nearly everywhere available
  • Bi-product Biogas can solve the environmental
  • problems caused by organic waste
  • Fertilizer as byproduct and financing source

15
Biomass Statistics
  • Global Biomass Resource 1,250 bn. dry tonnes
  • Annual Utilisation 250 bn. Dry tonnes
  • U.K 0.015 bn. Tonnes
  • U.K. Cost of Biomass 4/GW
  • Comparative Cost of Coal 2/GW
  • Coal CO2 emissions/tonne 1/GW
  • Biomass CO2 emissions/tonne Negligible

Source Simpson-Holley Evans, Energy World,
June 2007
16
Environmental Appeal
  • Utilises solar energy and converts some of it
    into biomass a versatile fuel
  • Removes some CO2 from the atmosphere in the
    process.
  • Provides habitat for native species
  • Multiple products when harvested

17
Disadvantages
  • Ensuring Continuous supply
  • Carbon neutral ?? Transport costs
  • Drying to specification is energy-intensive
  • Biomass moisture content often 40-60, needs
    to be 10-15
  • Storage Issues
  • Impurities and toxins
  • Safety devices are necessary

18
Options
  • Dedicated Biomass Gasification and co-combustion
    / direct combustion
  • CHP Biomass Generate electricity and heat
  • Co-fire biomass with coal in existing
    conventional power stations allows substitution
    of 10-15 of fossil fuels in U.K., Belgium,
    Netherlands and Poland

19
  • WIND POWER

20
EU Member State Players in Offshore Wind power (
Sources IEA, 2009 BWEA, 2011)
21
UK Offshore Wind farms
22
Western Europe Wind Intensity Map
23
Wind CHP
  • Good in areas of wind speeds gt10m/sec
  • Performance band width from 4 to about 15m/sec
    wind speed,
  • Nominally rated at 1kW at a given wind speed of
    12 m/sec
  • net effect is a potential saving of up to 30
    overall against the UK average 'domestic'
    electricity bill e.g. 3,200 kWh per annum

24
Domestic Wind Microgeneration
Source www.windsave.com
25
Wind Power Advantages Disadvantages
  • Advantages
  • Relatively low front-end( installation cost.
    British DIY retailer sell 1kW Windsave turbines
    from 1,500)
  • Low running /maintenance costs.
  • Can sell electricity to the Grid
  • Disadvantages
  • Visually unattractive
  • Variable wind
  • Often ineffective in built-up and suburban area
  • Often need planning permission

26
  • HYDRO-ELECTRICITY

27
Outline
  • Facts
  • Process
  • Major Global Users
  • Advantages/Disadvantages
  • Pumped Storage and generation management
  • World-Class major projects
  • Three Gorges Project
  • Small-Scale Hydro
  • UK Context
  • Trends

28
Hydroelectric Facts
  • 16 of Global Electricity Generation
  • Earliest example of renewable energy on a
    large-scale
  • 120 years of experience
  • gt90 efficient energy transformation with minimal
    transfer losses

29
Hydroelectric Areas for Development
  • Large Land Areas
  • High Relief
  • High Rainfall/Snowfall
  • Ready local market for electricity consumption
  • Most of the largest land areas have been
    identified
  • Limited scope for more mega projects
  • However opportunity for numerous small-scale
    hydro
  • (SSH)

30
Hydroelectric Process
Source Environment Canada
31
Pumped Storage
  • Hydro capacity is normally applied to peak-load
    demand
  • Pumped Storage currently provide the most
    significant means of storage of energy on a scale
    useful for a utility, allowing low-value
    generation in off-peak times
  • Operation of pumped-storage plants improves the
    daily load factor of the generation system-can be
    as low as 40 without pumped storage

32
Advantages
  • Clean No sulphur, nitrous oxides or particulates.
    Low CO2 and methane.
  • Renewable energy with security of (electrical)
    energy supply
  • Low operating costs, low maintenance
  • Large reservoirs can be used for other purposes
    fish stocks etc
  • Flood control

33
Disadvantages
  • High front-end capital costs deters many
    investors Long payback period
  • Large projects have led to elimination of
    agricultural land-use with displacement of
    population and homes
  • Submergence of arable land leads to methane and
    CO2 emissions
  • Potential for dam bursts. Over 200 in 20th
    century
  • Possible negative environmental impacts both
    upstream and downstream of plant. Silt build-up
  • Barriers to fish migration

34
  • TIDAL WAVE POWER

35
Tidal Power
36
Tidal Barrages
37
Bay of Fundy, Annapolis Tidal Generating Station
Installed Capacity 20MW Tidal Range up to 17
metres
38
Wave Power
Source BBC
39
UK Comparative Generating Costs
Source Adapted from The Royal Academy of
Engineering Report
40
Carbon Emission Costs for Generating Sources
Source Adapted from The Royal Academy of
Engineering Report
About PowerShow.com