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Juvenile Justice in America

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Title: Juvenile Justice in America


1
Juvenile Justice in America
  • SOC 106
  • Part 8 Peers and Delinquency Juvenile Gangs

2
  • Motorcycle gangs
  • - 1945 WW II over
  • - 1,000s of veterans return
  • - rejected accepted values
  • - war exciting / home boring
  • a. Ride motorcycles
  • - high speed excitement
  • - seeking thrills / danger
  • - Harley Davidson / Indian power
  • - West Coast never seen before

3
  • - 10 to 30 young men
  • - roaming highways / adventure
  • - causing problems / crime
  • (1) Hollister, CA 1947
  • - 4th of July
  • - AMA dirt hill climb
  • - 100s contestants / 1,000s spectators
  • (a) POBOBs
  • - Pissed Off Bastards of Bloomington
  • - member arrested

4
  • (b) 7 officer police force
  • - 750 bikers
  • - tore town apart
  • (c) Highly publicized
  • - introduced society
  • - informed police
  • (2) Three important traditions
  • - 4th of July run
  • - one-percenter image
  • - not part of sub-cult citizen

5
  • (a) 4th of July run
  • - AMA hill climb
  • - different parts of country
  • - gangs make run every year
  • - heavily policed
  • (b) One-percenter image
  • - after Hollister AMA president
  • - only 1 of M/C riders
  • - violent / criminal acts
  • - image stuck
  • - M/C gangs one-percenters

6
  • (c) Bikers get all citizens of Hollister
  • - started calling others citizen
  • - set themselves apart
  • - named those who did not belong
  • (3) Riverside, CA 1947
  • - 1,000s attended AMA run
  • - rioting / destruction / two deaths
  • (a) Riverside 1948
  • - riders returned
  • - another riot occurred

7
  • (b) Police chief
  • - blamed violence
  • - visiting outlaws
  • - term now applies
  • - outlaw motorcycle gangs / OMGs
  • (4) After Hollister
  • - POBOB enrollment increased significantly
  • - new members / new ideas / changes made
  • - members voted change club name
  • (a) Hells Angels 1950

8
  • (b) Most fashioned after Hells Angels
  • (5) 1950s / 1960s OMGs became symbol
  • - younger / rebellious generation
  • - good times / general lawlessness
  • (a) Hollywood
  • - media / movies / music
  • - helped mushroom effect
  • (b) Hells Angels on Wheels / Easy Rider
  • - mostly Wild One (Brando/Marvin)

9
  • Organizational structure
  • - 900 OMGs various cities / states
  • - white male members
  • - growing black one-percent clubs
  • a. National president
  • - founder of club
  • - resides at / near national club
  • - final say
  • (1) Territorial / regional representative
  • - vice president

10
  • - handles problems in assigned region
  • (2) National secretary/treasurer
  • - clubs money
  • - collects dues local chapters
  • - changes / drafts by-laws
  • - records of national meetings
  • - usually more educated member
  • (3) National enforcer
  • - reports to president
  • - handles punishments

11
  • - retrieves colors
  • - bodyguard for president
  • b. Local clubs
  • - own hierarchy
  • - similar throughout
  • (1) Chapter president
  • - strength / leadership / personality
  • - claim position / voted in
  • - word is law
  • - follows national guidelines

12
  • (2) Vice president
  • - hand picked
  • - second-in-command
  • (3) Secretary/treasurer
  • - best handwriting / addition ability
  • - records meetings / takes minutes
  • - collects dues / pays bills
  • (4) Sergeant-at-arms
  • - maintains order
  • - strongest member / loyal / enforcer

13
  • (5) Road captain
  • - maps runs / fuel stops / food stops
  • - carries club money (costs / bail)
  • - law enforcement contact
  • c. Club members
  • - rank and file
  • (1) Full member
  • - fully accepted / dues paying
  • - carry out decisions of leadership
  • - sworn to live by club by-laws

14
  • (2) Probate / perspective member
  • - club hopefuls
  • - one month to one year on probation
  • - prove worth
  • - commit a felony
  • - nominated by regular member
  • - unanimous approval
  • (3) Associate / honorary member
  • - proven value / usefulness
  • - people who help club
  • - allowed to party / go on runs

15
  • (4) Biker women
  • - OMGs male dominated / chauvinistic
  • - treated as playthings
  • - victimized (prostitution / drug dealing)
  • - bought / sold / traded / given away
  • (a) Mamas / sheep
  • - belong to the club
  • - do what they want with
  • - some allow to wear colors
  • - Property of _____ on back

16
  • (b) Old ladies
  • - wife / steady girl of member
  • - wear property of colors
  • Constitution / by-laws
  • - one form or another
  • - accepted standards of conduct
  • - outlines administrative procedures
  • a. Typical by-laws
  • - membership requirements
  • - fines for misconduct

17
  • - acceptable behavior during runs
  • - similar matters
  • (1) Colors
  • - proudest possession
  • - duty uniform / claim to membership
  • - refer to gang emblem / sleeveless denim
  • jacket / leather jacket
  • - never washed once initiated
  • (2) Motorcycle
  • - second most important

18
  • - damage / loss violation
  • - minimum 500cc / American made
  • - strong bond member / chopper
  • (3) Criminal activities
  • - motorcycle thefts
  • - prostitution
  • - narcotics
  • - illegal weapons
  • - Mafia connections (enforcers)
  • (4) Investing illegal profits

19
  • - mobile catering companies
  • - motorcycle repair shops
  • - wrecking yards
  • - massage parlors
  • - investment firms
  • - apartment houses
  • - resort hotels
  • - tow companies
  • - bars
  • - ice cream shops
  • - private residences
  • - tanning salons

20
  • (5) Mobility
  • - sophisticated clubs
  • - avoid colors
  • - cars / business suits
  • - greater security
  • b. Big Five
  • - Hells Angels / Outlaws / Pagans / Bandidos /
  • Sons of Silence
  • (1) Hells Angels 1950
  • - Fontana, CA / formerly POBOBs

21
  • (a) WW II veterans
  • - name of WW II bomber
  • (b) Mother chapter
  • - San Bernadino, CA
  • - moved to Oakland in mid-1960s
  • (c) 33 US chapters
  • - 18 foreign chapters
  • (d) 500 to 600 patch wearing members
  • - wealthiest / most powerful

22
  • (2) Outlaws
  • - Chicago 1959
  • - largest OMG
  • (a) 25 US chapters
  • - 6 Canadian chapters
  • (b) 1200 to 1500 members
  • (c) 15 eastern states
  • (3) Pagans

23
  • - Prince Georges County, Maryland 1959
  • - structure slightly different
  • - no fixed mother chapter
  • - mother club 13 to 18 member heads
  • - Northeast
  • (a) Philadelphia biggest / powerful chapter
  • - well disciplined in criminal activity
  • (b) 44 chapters
  • - between New York and Florida
  • - 700 to 900 members

24
  • (c) Closest ties to organized crime
  • - hit men / enforcers LCN
  • (4) Bandidos
  • - aka Bandido Nation
  • - Houston, Texas 1966
  • - Corpus Christi mother chapter
  • (a) 26 chapters
  • - south / northwest (Washington state)
  • (b) 500 members / 2000 associates

25
  • (5) Sons of Silence
  • aka Iron Horsemen
  • (a) Southern states to Colorado
  • - chapters in 20 states
  • (b) European chapter
  • - Germany
  • (c) 1,000 1,200 members
  • c. Additional gangs

26
  • - 520 smaller gangs
  • - 25 chapters in 5 or more states
  • - by-laws (examples)
  • (1) All persons must be 18 years of age for
    membership.
  • (2) All prospective new members must be
  • sponsored by an old member.
  • (3) All prospective new members must complete a
  • probation period.

27
  • (4) Each new member will pay (club sets fee)
    the
  • national headquarters initiation fee.
  • (5) Each member will pay monthly dues to his
  • chapter, set by the local president.
  • (6) No member shall transfer from one chapter
    to
  • another without the permission of both
  • presidents and pay a transfer fee to the
    national
  • treasurer.
  • (7) When a member is in another chapters

28
  • jurisdiction, he will abide by their
    by-laws
  • and president.
  • (8) Any member caught using the needle will
    lose
  • his colors and everything that goes with
    them.
  • (9) Harley Davidson or Indian motorcycles will
    be
  • the only bike used while in this club.
  • Other Street Gangs

29
  • Black gangs
  • - two most notorious Crips / Bloods
  • - other major gangs East Coast
  • - Vice Lords / Black Disciples / etc.
  • a. Beginning
  • - late 1960s aware
  • - Los Angeles area
  • - crossed country today
  • - Vice Lords claim first organized black
    gang
  • b. Development

30
  • - youth in neighborhood
  • - protection
  • - other youth gangs
  • c. Los Angeles gangs
  • - two separate groups
  • - Crips / Bloods (a.k.a. Pirus)
  • (1) Further divided into sets
  • - identify by local names
  • - street names / parks / neighborhoods
  • - landmarks in area

31
  • - call neighborhood hood
  • (2) Non-traditional in nature
  • - no formal structure
  • - older members most influential
  • - called OGs original gangsters
  • (a) Late 20s to early 30s
  • - high rollers access to money / drugs
  • - reputation for violence
  • (b) Influence over younger members

32
  • - use to sell drugs
  • - commit violent acts
  • (3) Early 1900s
  • - black youth formed groups
  • - express themselves
  • - singing / music / dancing
  • (a) Involved in local criminal activity
  • - beginning of black street gangs
  • (b) Free time for youth / young adults

33
  • d. Todays gangs
  • - late 1960s / early 70s
  • - police violence between gangs
  • - little done to combat
  • - society did not care
  • - stayed in their neighborhoods
  • (1) Primary age group
  • - 12 to 20 years old
  • - average age 18
  • - most violent
  • - prove themselves / be accepted

34
  • (2) Violence level
  • - extremely high
  • - South Central LA at war
  • - fight over turf / insults / looks / etc.
  • (3) Cocaine trafficking violence
  • - expansion into other areas
  • - throughout country
  • (4) Changed philosophy
  • - first controlling particular neighborhood
  • - now making large amounts of money

35
  • (5) Dress
  • - colors
  • - Crips blue
  • - Bloods red
  • - du rag head / out of pocket
  • - colorful jackets (sports teams)
  • - baggy jeans
  • (6) Graffiti
  • - not stylish
  • - spray can
  • - mark territory / make threats

36
  • Latino / Hispanic gangs
  • - first organized turn of century (1900s)
  • a. East Los Angeles
  • - more Latino than black gang members
  • - main concern is territorial
  • - called controlling dirt
  • b. Leadership
  • - handed down
  • - fathers to sons
  • - family oriented

37
  • (1) Veteranos
  • - long standing gang members
  • (2) Machismo
  • - major part gang member makeup
  • (3) Insult machismo / family
  • - direct challenge
  • c. Dress
  • - Pendelton shirts / baggy cotton pants (tan
    color)
  • - slip on leather shoes / hairnets / du rags

38
  • - tattoos artwork
  • - cover their body
  • d. Graffiti / Placa
  • - highly stylized / mark their turf
  • - greeting / threat / challenge / recognition
  • Skinheads
  • - surfaced in Europe (1970s)
  • - white hate group
  • - racially motivated crimes
  • - based on race / religion

39
  • a. Throughout US
  • - active in northwest
  • - Nazi symbols
  • - bastardized religious symbols
  • - literature / vandalism
  • b. Aligned with white supremacist groups
  • - White Aryan Nation (WAR)
  • - League of Aryan Workers (LAW)
  • (1) Dress to intimidate
  • - shaved heads / mohawk / close cropped

40
  • (a) Bomber style jacket / green flight jacket
  • / spiked black leather jacket
  • (b) Braces (suspenders)
  • (c) T-shirts
  • - pride logos
  • (d) Doc Marten boots
  • - steel tipped
  • (e) Army fatigues / blue jeans

41
  • - pant legs rolled up
  • - show combat boots
  • (f) Colored shoelaces
  • - white / red supremacists
  • - yellow recently injured someone
  • (2) Identify with white supremacy philosophy
  • - seen through dress
  • (a) Swastika tattoos
  • - indicate beliefs

42
  • (3) Groups are small
  • - disorganized
  • - supremacist groups capitalize
  • - WAR / LAW / KKK / Aryan Nation
  • c. Criminal activity
  • - racially motivated extremist groups
  • - serious assaults / malicious harassment
  • (1) Who is recruited?
  • - the nobodies

43
  • - individuals who feels set apart
  • - believe they have nothing / no-one
  • (a) Targeted audience
  • - Pacific Northwest
  • - blue collar white male youth
  • - blame others for troubles
  • (b) Low income / low income families
  • - single parent
  • - strong work ethic

44
  • (c) Recruitment
  • - schools / literature / dances
  • - hope gain superiority / power
  • - through intimidation
  • (2) Initiation
  • - ritual act of jumping in
  • - 4 to 12 of strongest members
  • - fists / feet beat for set period of time
  • (a) Newbe
  • - cannot hold own not admitted

45
  • (b) At-risk factors
  • - academic problems
  • - alienated from family / society
  • - all income levels
  • - male / female
  • - 12 to 25
  • - drug / alcohol abusers
  • - physically / sexually abused (victims)
  • - loners
  • - feelings of anger / hate / injustice
  • - hate all types of authority

46
  • (3) Oregon / Washington
  • - WAR Skins White Aryan Resistance
  • - Southeast Boot Boys
  • - American Front
  • - National Aryan Front
  • - National Socialist Front
  • Satanic cults
  • - Satanism
  • - worship of the devil
  • - teen dabblers / public worship / secretive
    cults
  • - involved in criminal activity

47
  • a. Teen dabblers
  • - great concern police / youth counselors
  • - mental / physical harm to selves / others
  • (1) Exhibit obsessions
  • - movies / videos / posters / books
  • - heavy metal music
  • - violence / rape / death / demonism
  • (a) Dungeons and Dragons
  • - occult attraction
  • - social concern

48
  • (b) Designed to attract people
  • - primarily youth
  • - into supernatural world
  • - closer Satanism / demons / witches
  • / warlocks
  • (2) Identifying Satan worshippers
  • - satanic symbols doodled on notebooks
  • - wear symbols as jewelry / on t-shirts
  • - decorate room
  • - draw / tattoo on body
  • - prefer color black

49
  • (a) Possessions
  • - candles / incense / knives / bells /
  • chalice / bones / herbs
  • (b) Body decorations / mutilations
  • - blacken all fingernails
  • - middle / little finger of left hand
  • - signs of self-mutilation
  • (c) Consistent wearing of black clothing
  • - combined with symbols
  • - major warning signs

50
  • b. Profile of Satan worshippers
  • - satanic alters hidden from view
  • - black candles / skull and bones
  • - satanic symbols
  • (1) Satanic diaries
  • - Personal Book of Grimories
  • (a) Focus of diaries
  • - satanic rituals / group activities
  • - talk of suicide
  • - mutilations

51
  • (b) Contract with Satan
  • - list / talk about thoughts of death
  • (2) Heavy metal bands
  • - favored by teens / young adults
  • - Iron Maiden / King Diamond / KISS /
  • WASP (We Are Satans People)
  • (3) Children as victims
  • - satanic cults brain wash youth
  • - control minds / wills / subject to cruelty

52
  • (a) Beatings / starvation / electric shock /
  • sexual assault / living in darkness /
    eating
  • human flesh
  • (b) Ritual takes place
  • - child born again to Satan
  • - married to Satan
  • c. Five types of Satan worship
  • (1) Religious
  • - recognized as a religious church

53
  • - publicly reject criminal activity
  • - tax exempt status
  • (2) Adolescents
  • - dabblers
  • - adopt certain symbols
  • (3) Self-styled
  • - use own fetishes
  • - usually loners
  • - obsessed with satanic themes

54
  • (4) Criminal satanic cults
  • - criminal activity through Satan
  • - Satanism is their lifestyle
  • - involvement in sacrifices
  • (5) Generational
  • - two / three generations involved
  • - secretive
  • - criminal ritual activities
  • d. At-risk factors
  • - all income levels

55
  • - male and female
  • (1) Academic problems
  • - alienated from family / peers
  • - ages 12 to 24
  • - drug / alcohol abuse
  • - generally Caucasian
  • - low self-esteem
  • - strives for power / control
  • - heavy metal music obsession
  • - fantasy role-playing (games)
  • - lack of humor

56
  • - negative feelings about school / future
  • - high tolerance for pain / deviance
  • - frequent thoughts of suicide / death
  • - secretive
  • (2) Be alert to
  • - drug use
  • - backward writing
  • - cruelty to animals
  • - false sense of well-being
  • - clandestine / secretive behavior
  • - drop in grades

57
  • - loss of interest in friends / activities
  • - exaggeration of emotions
  • - preoccupation with death
  • - black bedrooms / clothing
  • - self-mutilation
  • (3) Important dates of Satanic calendar
  • - January 17 Satanic Revels
  • - February 2 Candlemas
  • - March 20 Spring Equinox
  • - April 30 Valpurgisnacht
  • - June 21 Feast Day

58
  • - September 7 Marriage to the Beast
  • Satan
  • - October 31 All Hallows Eve
  • - December 22 Winter Solar Solstice
  • Asian gangs
  • - early members US refugees
  • - 1985/86 influx gangsters to Pacific
    Northwest
  • a. Defining Asian gangs
  • - three types
  • - casual / informal / formal

59
  • (1) Casual
  • - group of friends
  • - commit crimes
  • - operate by consensus no leadership
  • - participate in most violent crimes
  • (2) Informal
  • - a charismatic leader
  • - membership fluctuates
  • - transient in nature
  • - in and out of gang
  • - move between gangs

60
  • (3) Formal
  • - defined leadership
  • - chain of command
  • - members loyal
  • - no moving in and out / between gangs
  • - primary crime extortion
  • b. Understanding Asian culture
  • - strong emphasis on family
  • - emphasis on education
  • - mistrust of police / government agencies
  • - generational conflicts traditional vs.
    popular

61
  • (1) Information received by police
  • - ages of youth not always accurate
  • - look younger give false age
  • - say juvenile avoid arrest / ticket
  • (2) Family names
  • - often same / similar
  • - many same first / last name
  • - middle name different
  • (a) Chang Low Ngai vs. Chang Lei Ngai
  • - run last, first, middle initial

62
  • - give false DOB (cousin)
  • (b) Culture
  • - called Ngai Low / Ngai Lei
  • - Chang family name
  • c. Crimes committed
  • - primarily prey on own community
  • - extortion / assault / residential
    robbery/burglary
  • - robbery jewelry / grocery / convenience
    stores
  • (1) Primary involvement

63
  • - drug trafficking
  • - stolen weapons obsessed
  • - auto theft
  • - car stereos favorite target
  • (2) Very mobile
  • - travel I-5 pipeline
  • - California / Oregon / Washington
  • - weapons martial arts / knives / guns of
  • all types / nunchakus
  • d. Gang identifiers

64
  • - using gang names / identifiers / graffiti
  • (1) Washington / Oregon names
  • - Viet Crips / V Boys / HK Homies
  • - Oriental Boys / Solo Boys / Red Cobras
  • - Cambodians With An Attitude
  • (2) At-risk factors
  • - similar to other gangs some unique
  • (a) Alienated from family / society
  • - male or female

65
  • (b) Ages 12 to 25
  • - cultural conflict family and youth
  • - divided from family (US / other)
  • (c) Immigrated without family
  • - no education
  • - Amerasians especially
  • (d) Anger with government agencies
  • - language / cultural barriers
  • - seek immediate gratification (money)
  • - hanging with known gang members

66
  • (3) Behavior / dress
  • - typical gangster not distinctive in dress
  • - difficult to identify
  • - effort dress conservatively
  • (a) Black baggy pants
  • - jacket / white shirts favored
  • - Red Cobra red clothing
  • - CWA black hats / initials
  • (b) New wave hair styles popular

67
  • (c) Long black coats
  • - tattoos
  • - intimidate / impress
  • - military theme
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