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THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

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THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION PART ONE: Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks Transform Russia – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION


1
THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
  • PART ONE Vladimir
    Lenin and the Bolsheviks Transform Russia

2
  • Essential Question
  • How did Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks
    transform Russia during the Russian Revolution in
    1917?

3
In the 1700s, Czar Peter the Great expanded and
modernized Russia
4
Peter introduced into Russia Western-style navy,
fashions, and city-planning
5
But in the 1800s, Russia failed to keep pace with
the rapid changes taking place in Western Europe
6
The Enlightenment led to new democratic reforms
throughout Europe
7
In Russia, the Romanov czars continued to rule as
absolute monarchs
Czar Alexander III
8
Czars like Alexander III used secret police to
monitor citizens, censored the media, and sent
political prisoners to labor camps in Siberia
9
Czars organized pogroms (violent attacks) against
ethnic minorities like Jews and Poles in Russia
10
But in the 1800s, Russia failed to keep pace with
the rapid changes taking place in Western Europe
The Industrial Revolution made European
militaries and economies the strongest in the
world
11
But in the 1800s, Russia failed to keep pace with
the rapid changes taking place in Western Europe
The Industrial Revolution made European
militaries and economies the strongest in the
world
12
Russian industry lagged behind Europe, had few
railroads, and most citizens were poor farmers
13
Russia committed to industrialization, but it led
to poor wages, long hours, and discontent among
the Russian people
14
Russia used its industry and built a respectable
navy, but had problems mass-producing weapons
15
In 1894, Czar Nicholas II came to power but
failed to address major problems from 1904 to
1917
When Russian liberals called for democratic
reforms, Nicholas II ordered his secret police to
persecute those calling for reform
16
In 1904, Russia and Japan went to war over
Manchuria and Korea
17
Russias humiliating loss to Japan exposed
weaknesses in the nations military and
government
18
Losing the Russo-Japanese War set off a series of
riots among commoners who were unhappy with
Nicholas government
19
In 1905, Russian commoners met outside the czars
Winter Palace to demand better working
conditions, right to form unions, and a
democratic constitution
20
The protest became known as Bloody Sunday when
the czars guards fired into the crowd riots
broke out across Russia
21
In 1905, Nicholas II agreed to new constitution
that created a Duma (parliament) and limited
monarchy, but Nicholas ignored the Duma
22
The czars unpopularity and failure of the
government to respond to problems increased calls
for socialism
Socialists demanded that the government control
all means of production to create an equal society
23
Karl Marx developed a radical form of socialism
in called communism in which the working class
led a revolution, seized property, and shared all
wealth without a government
24
Radical workers, peasants, and soldiers began to
form councils called soviets that held meetings
and assumed control over local governments
Image of one of Russias first soviet councils
25
In 1903, a radical socialist named Vladimir Lenin
formed the Bolsheviks, a group that supported a
revolutionary overthrow of the Russian government
26
But, Lenin fled Russia to avoid arrest by the
czars secret police and waited for an
opportunity to return and lead his revolution
27
Russias involvement in World War I proved to be
the fatal blow to Czar Nicholas support in
Russia
Russian soldiers running from German army, 1917
The Russian military was no match for the German
army
28
Russia had difficulty producing weapons for
soldiers on the front, food shortages were common
for troops and civilians lack of trains slowed
supplies and communication
29
Russia drafted 15 million soldiers and nearly 7
million were killed or wounded 1.5 million
civilians died
30
Czar Nicholas refused to pull Russia out of the
war and went to the Eastern Front to personally
take command of the army
31
Nicholas left his wife, Alexandra, in charge of
the day-to-day operations of the Russian
government
32
To help cure her hemophiliac son Alexi, she
relied on a mystic named Rasputin
33
Russian nobles feared that Rasputin was
controlling the royal family and murdered him
34
Rasputin
Grigori Rasputin was an Orthodox monk who lived
anything but a holy life (womanizer, heavy
drinker) he claimed to have healing powers
35
Rasputin
After healing Alexi Romanov, Rasputin was then
brought into the czars inner circle and helped
make political decisions this made the czar even
more unpopular
Russian nobles hated Rasputin and plotted to kill
him
36
Rasputin
Luring Rasputin to a party, five Russian nobles
poisoned him, shot him three times, beat him,
tied him up, and threw him in an icy river, where
he finally died from drowning
37
By early 1917, citizens were rioting across
Russia, demanding an end the monarchy and an end
to Russias involvement in World War I
38
In March, Czar Nicholas II abdicated the throne
and the Duma created a Provisional (temporary)
government
39
Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia he led the
Bolsheviks in the Russian Revolution in November
1917
40
Lenins message of peace, land, and bread
helped him gain popularity among the Russian
people
Bolshevik Red Guards seized control of the
provisional government and declared themselves
the new government leaders of Russia
41
The Bolsheviks arrested and executed the
Romanovs, which ended 300 years of rule by czars
in Russia
42
After the success of the Bolshevik Revolution,
Lenin announced major reforms for Russia
Lenin ordered all farmland to be distributed
among the peasants
Lenin gave control of the factories to the
workers
43
Lenin signed a truce with Germany and gave up
huge territories in order to get Russia out of
the war
44
The Russian Revolution led to a civil war between
the Bolshevik Red Army and the White Army
(various people who wanted a either a new czar or
democracy or land returned to them)
45
Britain, France, and the USA supported the White
Army to stop the spread of Bolshevism
Tens of millions of people were killed in the
bloody Russian Civil War
46
After three years of fighting, the Red Army won
and Lenin became the unquestioned leader of
Russia
47
In 1922, Lenin renamed Russia the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics (USSR)
Lenin created the Communist Party, which ruled
the Soviet Union as a dictatorship
48
Lenin and his followers never forgot the
interference by the USA, which helped set the
stage for the Cold War years later
49
(No Transcript)
50
?
Revamped and redone by Christopher
Jaskowiak Thanks to Brooks Baggett for several
of the slides
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