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Meats Identification Notes

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Title: Meats Identification Power Point Author: Josette Last modified by: anichols Created Date: 3/19/2004 1:10:07 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Meats Identification Notes


1
Meats Identification Notes
2
I. Current Issues
  • Topics
  • Quality
  • Muscling
  • Fat
  • Color
  • Age
  • Packaging
  • Country of origin
  • Additives
  • Processing
  • Disease and Bacteria
  • E. coli
  • BSE (Mad Cow disease)
  • Salmonella
  • Mold
  • Hoof and Mouth
  • Results
  • High inspection requirements
  • Certified inspectors
  • Problems
  • Overseas countries have lower standards and lower
    production prices resulting in over importation
  • NAFTA
  • Canada and Mexico exports with lower standards
  • country of origin labeling
  • over importing of animals
  • IBP (Tyson) 700 head are imports out of 1500
    slaughtered per day
  • CAFTA
  • Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador,
    Guatamala, Honduras, Nicaragua
  • Similar issues to NAFTA

3
II. Additives of Meat
  • Preservatives extend shelf life
  • Topical (spray on)
  • Irradiation
  • Enzymes
  • Tenderize meat
  • Water and salt added to ham
  • Labels required by the USDA

4
III. The Law
  • Meat Inspection Act of 1906
  • Concern about other countries not importing US
    meat
  • President Roosevelt inspected Chicago
    slaughterhouses
  • The Jungle by Upton Sinclair talking about the
    meat industry
  • Requires cleanliness and wholesomeness of meat
    moving between states or countries
  • Wholesomeness Act of 1967
  • Forces states to have inspection
  • States MUST meet or beat federal standards
  • Curtis Amendment
  • Allowed slaughter of game animals without
    inspection
  • Farmers exemption
  • Slaughter of animal for own use (NO SALE) so NOT
    need inspections

5
III. The Law (contd)
  • Articles of meat inspection act
  • Makes sure meat is from disease free animals
  • live inspection (ante mortem)
  • inspection after death (post mortem)
  • can quarantine herd if animal is diseased.
  • Meat must be processed under sanitary conditions
  • No harmful ingredients may be added during
    processing
  • Ingredients must be labeled
  • In 1981, Idaho adopted an all federal meat
    inspection program.

6
IV. Miscellaneous Information
  1. Roasts are two inches thick or thicker
  2. Steaks are one inch or less
  3. Pork Dressing - 70, Beef 60, Lamb - 50
  4. Rib eye grade between 12th and 13th rib
  5. Loin Eye is Canadian Bacon
  6. Lamb flakey fat like a pie crust, almost
    transparent, meat can look blue through fat
  7. Pig has doughy fat

7
BEEF Its Whats for Dinner
  • Large cuts
  • Cherry red in color
  • Large bones
  • Back fat average .4 to .6 inches
  • Wholesale cuts
  • Quartering
  • Eight round, loin, flank, rib, chuck, plate,
    brisket, shank

8
Beef Round
  • Large muscles
  • Very few muscles per cut
  • Round bone
  • Course texture elbow texture
  • Lighter red color than other beef cuts

9
1. Beef Round Bottom Round Roast
  • 2 major muscles
  • Boneless

10
Beef RoundBottom Round Steak
  • Same as 1
  • About one inch thick

11
Beef RoundEye Round Roast
  • Seam of fat - sometimes
  • Elbow texture
  • Little taper

12
Beef RoundEye Round Steak
  • Same as 3
  • ¾ inch thick

13
Beef RoundHeel of Round Roast
  • Eye round included
  • Elbow texture
  • Slopes off
  • May be spacewhere bone was removed

14
Beef RoundRound Steak
  • Top round
  • Bottom round
  • Eye round
  • Round bonenear edge of cut

15
Beef RoundRound Steak - Boneless
  • Same as 6
  • No bone
  • Same muscles

16
Beef RoundRump Roast (Boneless)
  • Any roast from the roundwithout a bone
  • Eye round bottomround muscles
  • Usually tied

17
Beef RoundTip Roast
  • Baseball Roast
  • Ball with a seamof gristle
  • Glove
  • Cap off ORCap on

18
Beef RoundTip Steak
  • Same as 9 only thin
  • Cap on ORcap off

19
Beef RoundTop Round Roast
  • Long and narrow
  • Top portion of round steak
  • One single muscle

20
Beef RoundTop Round Steak
  • Same as 11 only thin

21
Beef Loin
  • Body length is important
  • Most money from a beef animal comes from this
    wholesale cut
  • Marbling flecks of fat within the muscle
  • Bone shapes t-bone (back bone), sirloin bones
    (round, wedge, flat or spoon)

22
Beef LoinPorterhouse Steak
  • If the tenderloin is the size of a silver dollar
    or larger, it is a porterhouse NOT t-bone

23
Beef LoinBoneless Sirloin Steak
  • Mississippi Delta (fat pattern)
  • Oval muscle
  • Hanging tenderloin
  • Tenderloin is very expensive

24
Beef LoinSirloin steak
  • Mississippi Delta
  • Weird bone at the edge of cut
  • Hanging tenderloin

25
Beef LoinT-Bone Steak
  • Same as porterhouseonly smaller tenderloin
  • Size of ½ dollar

26
17. Beef LoinTenderloin Steak
  • Tender C
  • No elbow texture
  • Most expensive cut of meat

27
Beef LoinTop Loin Steak
  • Exclamation point

28
Beef LoinTop Sirloin Steak
  • No tenderloin attached
  • Mississippi Delta

29
Beef FlankFlank Steak
  • Only retail cut from this wholesale
  • No external fat
  • Lengthwise muscle fibers

30
Beef Rib
  • Marbling
  • Rabbit shaped muscle
  • Rib bone

31
Beef RibEye Roast
  • Rabbit crawling into
  • Cave

32
Beef RibEye Steak
  • Same as 21 only thin
  • Rabbit
  • Cave

33
Beef RibRoast Large End
  • Bone in
  • Extra muscle
  • 3 bones
  • Rabbit
  • Cave

34
Beef RibRoast Small End
  • No extra muscle

35
Beef RibSteak Small End
  • Same as roast only thin

36
Beef Chuck
  • Front shoulder
  • Bones
  • Round in the arm
  • Blade flat bone or seven bone
  • Muscles
  • Lots of small muscles

37
Beef ChuckArm Pot Roast
  • Swirling muscles around a round bone
  • Long muscle below
  • 2 inches thick

38
Beef ChuckArm Pot Roast Boneless
  • Same as 26
  • Bone has been removed

39
Beef ChuckArm Steak
  • Same as 26 only thin
  • Long muscle at bottom
  • Swirling muscles around bone

40
Beef ChuckBlade Roast
  • Mock tender muscle
  • Always a seam of fat through mock tender
  • Blade bone and rib bone

41
Beef ChuckBlade Steak
  • Same as 29 only thin
  • Mock tender muscle
  • Always a seam of fat through mock tender
  • Blade bone and rib bone

42
Beef ChuckMock Tender Roast
  • Similar shape to tenderloin and eye round
  • Tapering shape
  • Seam of fat through center starting at edge

43
32. Beef ChuckMock Tender Steak
  • Same as 31 only thin

44
Beef ChuckSeven Bone Roast
  • Seven shaped bone
  • Similar to blade roast

45
Beef ChuckSeven Bone Steak
  • Same as 33 only thin

46
Beef Plate
47
Beef PlateShort Ribs
  • Bones row of rib bones
  • Layers of meat and connective tissue

48
Beef PlateSkirt Steak
  • Part of the diaphragm
  • Diagonal muscle striping

49
Beef Brisket
50
Beef BrisketWhole Brisket
  • Thicker than flank
  • Diagonal muscle fibers
  • External fat cover
  • Includes flat half andpoint half

51
Beef BrisketFlat Half
  • Square cut portion of whole brisket
  • Diagonal muscle fibers
  • External fat cover

52
Beef BrisketPoint Half
  • Cut portion of whole brisket rounded end
  • Diagonal muscle fibers
  • External fat cover

53
Beef Shank
54
Beef ShankCrosscuts
  • Tiny muscles
  • Round bone at the edge
  • Arm bone

55
Beef Variety
  • Mostly internal organs

56
Beef VarietyHeart
  • Very large organ

57
Beef VarietyKidney
  • Lots of little lobes

58
Beef VarietyLiver, Whole
  • Large
  • 2 lobes
  • 1 ½ feet wide
  • 1 foot deep

59
Beef VarietyOxtail
  • Cartilage
  • Round bone in center

60
Beef VarietySweetbreads
  • Thymus Glands
  • Looks like a blob of fat

61
Beef VarietyTongue
62
Beef VarietyTripe
  • Fish net look to tissue
  • Stomach lining

63
Beef Various
  • Odds and ends cuts

64
Beef VariousBeef for Stew
  • Cubed pieces
  • Left from trimming roasts and steaks

65
Beef VariousCube Steak
  • Still in tact on the bottom of the cut
  • Has been mechanically tenderized

66
Beef VariousGround Beef
67
PORK
  • Light pink color
  • Doughy fat
  • Back fat average 1.0 to 1.25 inches
  • Need to trim fat
  • Smaller cuts than beef,larger than lamb
  • Can be smoked OR fresh
  • LARGE amounts of fat

68
Pork (Fresh) Leg
  • Large leg muscles
  • Round bone
  • Not cured fat is white in color

69
Pork (Fresh) LegCenter Slice
  • White fat
  • Round bone

70
63. Pork (Fresh) LegRump Portion
  • White fat
  • Triangle shape muscle
  • Round bone

71
Pork (Fresh) LegShank Portion
  • Shank tapers down into leg
  • White fat cover
  • Center slice on theend of the leg

72
Pork (Fresh) Loin
  • Variety of bones
  • Ribs, blade, t-bone, sirloin bones
  • White fat

73
Pork (Fresh) LoinBlade Roast
  • Blade on opposite ends
  • Blade chop on one end rib chop on other end
  • Loin eye above blade

74
Pork (Fresh) LoinBack Ribs
  • Ribs curl
  • Top of rib section into loin

75
Pork (Fresh) LoinBlade Chop
  • Loin eye over blade
  • Blade bone present

76
Pork (Fresh) LoinButterfly Chop
  • Boneless
  • Loin eye
  • split

77
Pork (Fresh) LoinCenter Loin Roast
  • T-bone
  • 2 muscles Loin eye and tenderloin
  • Loin chops on both ends OR one loin chop and one
    rib chop

78
Pork (Fresh) LoinCenter Rib Roast
  • One muscle no tenderloin
  • Rib chop on one end

79
Pork (Fresh) LoinCountry Style Ribs
  • Includes a rib bone
  • MAY include blade bone

80
Pork (Fresh) LoinLoin Chop
  • T Bone
  • 2 muscles Loin eye and tenderloin

81
Pork (Fresh) LoinRib Chop
  • Rib Bone
  • Muscle similar to top loin in beef
  • ONE muscle

82
Pork (Fresh) LoinSirloin Chop
  • Weird shaped bone at the edge of the cut

83
Pork (Fresh) LoinSirloin Cutlets
  • Rainbow shape
  • Boneless cut
  • Sirloin bone would have been at the base of the
    cut

84
Pork (Fresh) LoinSirloin Roast
  • If there is a sirloin chop on one end, it is a
    sirloin roast
  • Ocean wave down the top

85
Pork (Fresh) LoinTenderloin Roast
  • Same as Filet Minon from beef
  • Tapers down the length of the roast

86
Pork (Fresh) LoinTop Loin Chop (Bnls)
  • Single muscle
  • Exclamation point
  • Same as top loin in beef

87
Pork (Fresh) LoinTop Loin Roast Double (Bnls)
  • Looks like butterfly chop at the ends
  • Tied together

88
Pork (Fresh) Side
  • Ribs present if there are bones
  • From pork bellies
  • Not cured fat is white in color

89
Pork (Fresh) SideFresh Side
  • Uncured bacon
  • White fat

90
Pork (Fresh) SideSpare Ribs
  • Rib bones
  • Tapering shape
  • White fat

91
Pork (Fresh) Shoulder
  • Small muscles lots of them
  • Blade bone, seven bone, or Round bone
  • Not cured fat is white in color

92
Pork (Fresh) ShoulderArm Picnic
  • Top of shoulder
  • 90 degree Vee cut

93
Pork (Fresh) ShoulderArm Roast
  • Round bone in the center on both ends of cut
  • Small muscles around the bone

94
Pork (Fresh) ShoulderArm Steak
  • Same as 83 only thin

95
85. Pork (Fresh) ShoulderBoston Blade Roast
  • Fat layer on the top
  • Blade bones showing on two adjacent sides

96
Pork (Fresh) ShoulderBlade Steak
  • Blade bone OR seven bone
  • Steak thickness

97
Pork (Fresh) Variety
  • Internal organs
  • Smaller than beed
  • Not cured fat is white in color

98
Pork (Fresh) VarietyHeart
  • Smaller than beef heart
  • Same organ

99
Pork (Fresh) VarietyKidney
  • Kidney bean shaped

100
Pork (Fresh) VarietyLiver, Whole
  • Four lobes
  • Football texture totissue

101
Pork (Fresh) VarietyTongue
  • Tip is NOT rough
  • Skin texture at the tip

102
Pork (Fresh) Various
  • Odds and ends cuts
  • Not cured white fat

103
Pork (Fresh) VariousHocks
  • White fat
  • Round bone at the edge

104
Pork (Fresh) VariousGround Bulk Sausage
  • Ground pork
  • Includes spices
  • High fat content

105
Pork (Fresh) VariousSausage Links
106
Pork (Cured) Cured Ham
  • Round bone
  • Smoked or cured
  • Yellow fat on the cuts

107
Pork (Cured) Cured HamCenter Slice
  • Same as 62 only cured
  • Round bone
  • Large Muscles
  • Yellow fat

108
Pork (Cured) Cured HamHam (Whole)
  • Whole leg
  • Yellow fat
  • Very large
  • Smoked all the way around
  • Cured!!

109
Pork (Cured) Cured HamRump Portion
  • Cured
  • Yellow fat
  • Round bone
  • Rounded end

110
Pork (Cured) Cured HamShank Portion
  • Tapers down to hock
  • Yellow fat
  • Large muscles
  • Round bone

111
Pork (Cured) Loin
  • Smoked or cured
  • Yellow fat on the cuts
  • Rib Bone
  • T - Bone

112
Pork (Cured) LoinCanadian Bacon
  • Natural Casing
  • Loin eye muscle
  • Cured

113
Pork (Cured) LoinRib Chop
  • Yellow fat
  • Rib bone
  • One muscle
  • No tenderloin

114
Pork (Cured) LoinLoin Chop
  • T Bone
  • 2 musclesLoin eye and Tenderloin
  • Yellow fat

115
Pork (Cured) Shoulder
  • Smoked or cured
  • Yellow fat on the cuts
  • One retail cut

116
Pork (Cured) ShoulderPicnic (Whole)
  • Smoked all the way around
  • About 1/3 the size of the whole ham

117
Pork (Cured) Side (Belly)
  • Smoked or cured
  • Yellow fat on the cuts
  • From pork bellies

118
Pork (Cured) SideSlab Bacon
  • Cured
  • Yellow fat
  • Unsliced bacon

119
Pork (Cured) SideSliced Bacon
  • Cured
  • Yellow fat
  • If it is sliced, it is this cut

120
Pork (Cured) Jowl
  • Smoked or cured
  • Yellow fat on the cuts

121
Pork (Cured) JowlJowl
  • A big chunk of fat with a little meat
  • Cured
  • Yellow fat
  • Looks like bricks and mortar

122
LAMB
  • Small cuts
  • Dark red in color
  • Small bones

123
Lamb Leg
  • Largest muscles in the lamb
  • Round bone
  • Leg of the animal

124
Lamb LegAmerican Style Roast
  • Leg bone on one end
  • Muscle on the other end tucked under

125
Lamb LegCenter Slice
  • Round bone
  • Thin cut
  • Large muscles

126
Lamb LegFrenched Style Roast
  • Center Slice on one end
  • Bone exposed on the other end

127
Lamb LegSirloin Chop
  • Weird bone at the edge of the cut

128
Lamb LegSirloin Half
  • Center slice on one end
  • Sirloin chop on the other

129
Lamb LegShank Half
  • Half of the leg
  • Center slice on one end
  • Tapers down to the hockon the other end

130
Lamb Loin
  • T bone

131
Lamb LoinDouble Chop
  • 2 Loin chops
  • Not cut apart

132
Lamb LoinLoin Roast
  • Loin chop on both ends

133
Lamb LoinLoin Chop
  • T-bone
  • 2 muscles loin eye and tenderloin

134
Lamb Rib
  • Rib Bones

135
Lamb RibRib Chop
  • Rib bone
  • Thin cut

136
Lamb RibRib Roast
  • Rib Chop on both ends
  • Rib bones

137
Lamb Shoulder
  • Arm bone and rib bones

138
Lamb ShoulderArm Chop
  • Arm bone and rib bones
  • Smaller muscles than other cuts

139
Lamb Shoulder Blade Chop
  • Blade or seven bone

140
Lamb ShoulderNeck Slice
  • Slice through the neck of the animal
  • Can see the back bone and space for spinal cord

141
Lamb ShoulderShoulder (Bnls)
  • Whole shoulder
  • Bones removed
  • Rolled and tied

142
Lamb ShoulderSquare Cut (Whole)
  • Square shape
  • Chop on one side
  • Chop on the other

143
Lamb Foreshank and Breast
  • Some rib bones present

144
Lamb Foreshank BreastBreast
145
Lamb Foreshank BreastRiblets
146
Lamb Variety
  • Internal Organs
  • Smallest of the three species

147
Lamb Variety Heart
  • Smallest heart
  • Size of your fist

148
Lamb VarietyKidney
  • Kidney bean shaped
  • Small

149
Lamb VarietyLiver
  • Small
  • 2 lobes

150
Lamb VarietyTongue
  • Smallest tongue
  • Rough to the tip

151
Lamb Various
  • Odds and Ends cuts

152
116. Lamb VariousLamb Patties
  • Ground lamb
  • Patty shape in form
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