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Understanding Verb Tense and Mood

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Title: Understanding Verb Tense and Mood


1
Understanding Verb Tense and Mood
What are verb tense and mood? Verb tense Special
problems in the uses of tenses Mood Modals Review
A Review B
2
What are verb tense and mood?
Verbs take different forms to do different jobs.
One job is to show when an action or state of
being takes place. The form a verb takes to show
time is called tense.
Cell phones will get even smaller.
Early phones had round dials.
Our phone is red.
3
What are verb tense and mood?
Verbs also take different forms to show the
attitude of the person using the verb. These
forms are called mood.
I suggest that you polish your nails.
Polish those shoes, soldier!
I polished this apple for you.
4
Verb tense
The tense of a verb indicates the time of the
action or state of being expressed by the verb.
Perfect tenses indicate that something happened
or existed before a specific point in time.
Present
Future
Past
Past
Future
Present
Present Perfect
Future Perfect
Past Perfect
Mark studies for his classes.
He has studied hard for every test.
Tomorrow Mark will study math.
He will have studied enough by the end of the
night.
Mark studied for two hours last night.
He also had studied a little right after school.
5
Verb tense
The tenses of verbs are formed from the four
principal parts of verbs.
see
Base form
print
is see
ing
Present participle
is print
ing
Past
print
ed
s
aw
have see
n
Past participle
have print
ed
6
Verb tense
Each tense has a progressive form, which is used
to express continuing action or state of being.
am, are, is walking
Present progressive
was, were walking
Past progressive
will (shall) be walking
Future progressive
has, have been walking
Present perfect progressive
had been walking
Past perfect progressive
Future perfect progressive
will (shall) have been walking
7
Verb tense
The present and past tenses have another form,
the emphatic form, which shows emphasis.
In the present tense, the emphatic form of a verb
consists of do or does plus the base form.
do walk, does walk
Present emphatic
In the past tense the emphatic form consists of
did plus the base form.
Past emphatic
did walk
8
Verb tensePresent and present perfect
The present tense expresses an action or a state
of being that is occurring now, at the present
time.
Martina and Jen race down the field.
The fans are cheering wildly.
(Progressive form)
The players do look confident.
(Emphatic form)
9
Verb tensePresent and present perfect
The present tense is also used in these ways
We go to the mall every Saturday.
to show a customary or habitual action or state
of being
The sun sets in the west.
to express a general truth
The Dark Child relates the experiences of a boy
growing up in an African village.
to discuss a literary work (literary present)
We drive to Maine tomorrow.
to express future time
10
Verb tensePresent and present perfect
The present perfect tense
  • expresses an action or a state of being that
    occurred at an indefinite time in the past
  • is formed with the helping verb have or has

Tim and Mia have entered the data into the
computer.
Who has been using this computer?
(Progressive form)
11
Verb tenseHelping verbs
A helping verb (also called an auxiliary verb) is
used with a main verb to create a verb phrase.
Main verb
Helping verb
Lexy is showing Gwen her photos.
Lexy is showing Gwen her photos.
Lexy is showing Gwen her photos.
Some commonly used helping verbs include is,
are, has, had, did, does, can, could, should, and
will.
12
Verb tensePresent and present perfect
The present perfect tense is also used to express
an action or state of being that began in the
past and continues into the present.
Mr. Reyes has taught science for ten years.
(Progressive form)
Mr. Reed has been coaching soccer since 2003.
13
Verb tensePast and past perfect
The past tense expresses an action or a state of
being that occurred in the past and did not
continue into the present.
In the last lap the runner fell.
The fall did cause a bad injury.
(Emphatic form)
14
Verb tensePast and past perfect
A past action or state of being may also be shown
by using used to.
Grammar Guy Says...
Sasha used to collect stamps.
Used to typically expresses habitual action in
the past.
15
Verb tensePast and past perfect
The past perfect tense
  • expresses an action or a state of being that
    ended before another past action or state of
    being occurred
  • is formed with the helping verb had

Paul had traveled several miles before he
realized his mistake.
He discovered that he had misread the road map.
16
Verb tenseFuture and future perfect
The future tense
  • expresses an action or a state of being that will
    occur
  • is formed with the helping verb shall or will

Leah will attend a writers workshop this summer.
She will be writing poetry and fiction.
(Progressive form)
17

Verb tenseFuture and future perfect
A future action may also be expressed in other
ways.
Grammar Guy Says...
We are going to visit Japan in July.
Ms. Scheirer is about to announce the winners.
Finals begin next Monday.
18
Verb tenseFuture and future perfect
The future perfect tense
  • expresses an action or a state of being that will
    end before some other future occurrence
  • is formed with the helping verbs will have or
    shall have

You will have saved enough money for the car by
the time you start back to school.
By then, you will have been working here a year.
(Progressive form)
19
Verb tense
Identify the tense of each verb in bold. Be
prepared to explain the difference in meaning
between the sentences in each pair.
1. Channel 5 News has reported on the
flood. Channel 5 News is reporting on the flood.
2. We will do our research on Friday. We will
have done our research on Friday.
3. Jane had studied thoroughly for the
test. Jane did study thoroughly for the test.
20
Verb tense
Identify the tense of each verb in bold. Be
prepared to explain the difference in meaning
between the sentences in each pair.
1. Channel 5 News has reported on the
flood. Channel 5 News is reporting on the flood.
present perfect
present, progressive form
The action is occurring now and is continuing.
The action occurred at an indefinite time in the
past.
21
Verb tense
Identify the tense of each verb in bold. Be
prepared to explain the difference in meaning
between the sentences in each pair.
2. We will do our research on Friday. We will
have done our research on Friday.
future tense
future perfect
The action will end before some other future
occurrence.
The action will occur later.
22
Verb tense
Identify the tense of each verb in bold. Be
prepared to explain the difference in meaning
between the sentences in each pair.
3. Jane had studied thoroughly for the
test. Jane did study thoroughly for the test.
past perfect
past, emphatic form
The action ended before some other past action or
state of being.
The action occurred in the past and did not
continue into the present. The emphatic form
shows emphasis.
23
Verb tense
On Your Own
Change the tense of the verb in each sentence, as
indicated in parentheses. 1. Max has studied
piano for one year. (Change to future.) 2. Ivy
roots made their way into the bricks. (Change to
present progressive.) 3. The smell of gas filled
the air. (Change to past perfect.) 4. Ray runs
every day. (Change to past perfect
progressive.) 5. The picture has been needing a
new frame. (Change to present emphatic.)
End of Section
24
Special problems in the use of tensesSequence of
tenses
Use tense forms correctly to show relationships
between verbs in a sentence.
To describe events that occur at the same time,
use verbs in the same tense.
Present tense
Present tense
The bell rings, and the classroom empties.
Past tense
Past tense
The bell rang, and the classroom emptied.
25
Special problems in the use of tensesSequence of
tenses
For events that occur at different times, use
verbs of different tenses to show the order of
events.
Past tense
Present tense
She plays soccer now, but last year she swam on
the swim team.
Her soccer playing is occurring now. Her swimming
on the swim team occurred in the past and
preceded her soccer playing.
26
Special problems in the use of tensesSequence of
tenses
For events that occur at different times, use
verbs of different tenses to show the order of
events.
Past tense
Past perfect tense
Serena told us that she had invited Josh to the
party.
The action of inviting was completed before the
action of telling.
27
Special problems in the use of tensesIf clauses
In an if clause that expresses the earlier of two
events, do not use would have. Instead, use the
past perfect tense.
If he would have taken more time, he would have
won.
If he had taken more time, he would have won.
Nonstandard
Standard
28
Special problems in the use of tenses
Each of the following sentences contains an
error in the use of verb tense. Identify each
error, and give the correct form of the verb.
1. The official blew her whistle and calls a foul
on one of our players.
2. If they would have called sooner, we would
have given them a ride.
3. By the time the rain began, we left the park.
29
Special problems in the use of tenses
Each of the following sentences contains an
error in the use of verb tense. Identify each
error, and give the correct form of the verb.
1. The official blew her whistle and called a
foul on one of our players.
The actions occur at the same time, so the verbs
should both be in the same tense.
30
Special problems in the use of tenses
Each of the following sentences contains an
error in the use of verb tense. Identify each
error, and give the correct form of the verb.
2. If they had called sooner, we would have given
them a ride.
Would have should not be used in an if clause
that expresses the earlier of two past actions.
Instead, the past perfect tense should be used.
31
Special problems in the use of tenses
Each of the following sentences contains an
error in the use of verb tense. Identify each
error, and give the correct form of the verb.
3. By the time the rain began, we had left the
park.
The action of leaving the park happened before
the rain began.
32
Special problems in the use of tenses
On Your Own
Correct each error in the use of verb tenses. If
a sentence is already correct, label it C. 1.
After she graduated, Corrine joins the
navy. 2. We would have walked there if the
weather would have been nice. 3. She delivers
the mail when the regular mail carrier is
sick. 4. After Sam had answered, Mr. Cain says,
That is correct. 5. If you had asked politely,
I might have helped you.
End of Section
33
Mood
Mood is the form a verb takes to indicate the
attitude of the person using the verb.
The indicative mood expresses a fact, an opinion,
or a question.
Fact
Jimmy Carter won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002.
Isabel Allende is a gifted writer.
Opinion
Can you explain the difference between a meteor
and a meteorite?
Question
34
Mood
The imperative mood expresses a direct command or
a request.
Explain the difference between a meteor and a
meteorite.
Direct command
Please pass me that astronomy book.
Request
35
Mood
The present and past tenses have distinctive
forms in the subjunctive mood.
  • The present subjunctive expresses a suggestion or
    a necessity.

We recommend that Mary Collins be invited to
speak at the assembly.
Suggestion
It is required that you attend the special
training session.
Necessity
36
MoodPresent subjunctive
The present subjunctive form of a verb is the
same as the base form of the verb.
Present Subjunctive of Be Present Subjunctive of Be
Singular Plural
(that) I be (that) we be
(that) you be (that) you be
(that) he, she, it be (that) they be
37
Mood
  • The past subjunctive expresses a condition
    contrary to fact or expresses a wish.

If I were you, Id check the oil level in the
car.
Condition contrary to fact
Margaret wishes she were an auto mechanic.
Wish
38
MoodPast subjunctive
Be is the only verb whose past subjunctive form
is different from its past indicative form.
Past Indicative Past Indicative Past Subjunctive Past Subjunctive
Singular Plural Singular Plural
I was we were (if) I were (that) we were
you were you were (if) you were (that) you were
he, she, it was they were (if) he, she, it were (that) they were
39
Mood
Identify the mood (indicative, imperative,
present subjunctive, or past subjunctive) of each
verb in bold. Be prepared to explain your answers.
1. Theo, stand back when I start the mower.
2. Hector wishes he were taller.
3. I suggest that the trees be planted soon.
4. Did you know that Kates sister is the new
produce manager.
40
Mood
Identify the mood (indicative, imperative,
present subjunctive, or past subjunctive) of each
verb in bold. Be prepared to explain your answers.
1. Theo, stand back when I start the mower.
Imperativeexpresses a direct command
41
Mood
Identify the mood (indicative, imperative,
present subjunctive, or past subjunctive) of each
verb in bold. Be prepared to explain your answers.
2. Hector wishes he were taller.
Past subjunctiveexpresses a wish
42
Mood
Identify the mood (indicative, imperative,
present subjunctive, or past subjunctive) of each
verb in bold. Be prepared to explain your answers.
3. I suggest that the trees be planted soon.
Present subjunctiveexpresses a suggestion
43
Mood
Identify the mood (indicative, imperative,
present subjunctive, or past subjunctive) of each
verb in bold. Be prepared to explain your answers.
4. Did you know that Kates sister is the new
produce manager.
Indicativeexpresses a fact
44
Mood
On Your Own
For each sentence, identify the mood of the
boldfaced verb as indicative, imperative, or
subjunctive. ________ 1. Was your brother
excited about the game? _________ 2. Be a good
dog and stay right there, Molly. _________
3. Ms. Harper suggested that we volunteer.
_________ 4. Mr. Darwin said that he will lead
a field trip to the animal sanctuary. _________
5. If I were as talented a singer as you, I
would try out for the chorus.
End of Section
45
Modals
A modal is a helping verb that is joined with a
main verb or an infinitive to express an attitude
toward the action or state of being of the main
verb.
Helping Verbs Used as Modals Helping Verbs Used as Modals Helping Verbs Used as Modals Helping Verbs Used as Modals Helping Verbs Used as Modals
can could may might must
ought shall should will would
46
Modals
The modals can and could are used to express
ability.
Can you swim the freestyle?
I could have taken swimming lessons this spring.
47
Modals
The modal may is used to express permission or
possibility.
May I use your pencil?
Permission
You may want to add more garlic to the pasta
sauce.
Possibility
The modal might is also used to express
possibility.
Janelle might get a new bicycle.
48
Modals
Often the possibility expressed by might is less
likely than the possibility expressed by may.
Grammar Guy Says...
You may find your library card in your locker.
likely
I might have put my library card in my locker,
but I doubt it.
less likely
49
Modals
The modal must is used most often to express a
requirement. Sometimes must is used to express an
explanation.
You must take care of houseplants if you want
them to live.
Requirement
Explanation
I must have watered this plant too much some of
its leaves have turned yellow.
50
Modals
The modal ought is used to express an obligation
or a likelihood.
Gary ought to send a thank-you note.
Obligation
Likelihood
The post office ought to be open by now.
51
Modals
The modals shall and will are used to express
future time.
I shall graduate from high school this June.
Where will the ceremony be held?
52
Modals
The modal should is used to express a
recommendation, an obligation, or a possibility.
Doug should visit each campus before deciding on
a college.
Recommendation
You should have asked before borrowing the book.
Obligation
Should you decide to accept the other job offer,
please let me know.
Possibility
53
Modals
The modal would is used to express the
conditional form of a verb.
If it had rained, we would have cancelled the
hike.
I would have let you know about any changes.
54
Modals
Would can also be used to express future time in
a subordinate clause when the main verb in the
independent clause is in the past tense.
modal expresses future time
past tense verb
Calista told us that she would meet us at the
park.
Main clause
Subordinate clause
55
Modals
Would is sometimes used to express
  • an action that was repeated in the past

Every summer my family would travel to Colorado.
  • a polite request

Would you please help him set the table?
  • an invitation

Would you go to the folk festival with me?
56
Modals
Identify the modal in each of the following
sentences. Be prepared to tell what is expressed
by the modal.
1. Students may write on whatever topic they
wish, within reason.
2. The board is too short I should have measured
more carefully.
3. We were so close to the stage that we could
touch the microphone.
57
Modals
Identify the modal in each of the following
sentences. Be prepared to tell what is expressed
by the modal.
1. Students may write on whatever topic they
wish, within reason.
The modal may expresses permission.
58
Modals
Identify the modal in each of the following
sentences. Be prepared to tell what is expressed
by the modal.
2.The board is too short I should have measured
more carefully.
The modal should expresses an obligation.
59
Modals
Identify the modal in each of the following
sentences. Be prepared to tell what is expressed
by the modal.
3. We were so close to the stage that we could
touch the microphone.
The modal could expresses ability.
60
Modals
On Your Own
Supply an appropriate modal for each sentence. 1.
I definitely _____ call you tomorrow, Ellen
promised. 2. Take your umbrella because it _____
rain. 3. Explain this math problem to me I _____
not figure it out. 4. The committee _____ not
have chosen anyone better than Esteban. 5. Now
that I have read that book, I _____ highly
recommend it to all my friends.
End of Section
61
Review A
Identify the tense or mood of each boldfaced
verb, as indicated in parentheses. If the verb is
in the progressive or emphatic form, also
identify the form.
__________ 1. The band had finished the concert,
but the audience called for another set. (tense)
__________ 2. The class will be reading a play.
(tense)
__________ 3. If you were more patient, you would
succeed. (mood)
__________ 4. I have been stung by a bee. (tense)
__________ 5. Remember to remove your shoes in a
Japanese restaurant. (mood)
62
The End
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