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Chapter 20 Notes

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Chapter 20 Notes Static Electricity Ben Franklin s experiment in 1752 Electrostatics-The study of electrical charges that can be collected and held in one place, in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 20 Notes


1
Chapter 20 Notes
  • Static Electricity

2
  • Ben Franklins experiment in 1752
  • Electrostatics-The study of electrical charges
    that can be collected and held in one place, in
    other words, they are AT REST

3
Something about ATOMS
  • Every atom has a positively charged nucleus
    surrounded by negatively charged electrons
  • All electrons are identical (same mass and
    charge)
  • Nucleusprotons and neutrons
  • Atoms usually have an equal number of protons and
    electrons

4
Charge
  • Electrons are negatively charged
  • Protons are positively charged
  • The attracting and repelling is due to something
    called charge
  • LIKE CHARGES REPEL
  • OPPOSITE CHARGES ATTRACT

5
Insulators
  • Materials through which charges will not move
    easily
  • Examples-glass, dry wood, plastics, cloth, dry air

6
Conductors
  • Materials, such as metals, that allow charges to
    move about easily. Charge spreads very quickly
    over the entire object
  • Examples-door knob, desk, lightening rod

7
Why are metals good conductors?
  • Because at least one electron on each atom of the
    metal can be removed easily they move freely
    throughout the entire piece of metal
  • Most of the time, the materials involved in
    Static Electricity are nonconductors of
    electricity

8
Conservation of Charge
  • Individual charges are never created nor
    destroyed
  • The combined total charge of 2 interacting
    objects remains the same

9
Things to Remember!!
  • 2 Kinds of Electrical Charges-Positive Negative
  • Charges exert force on other charges over a
    distance
  • The force is stronger when the charges are closer
    together
  • Like charges repel, Opposite charges attract

10
How do we Charge Object?
  • Conduction
  • Charging a neutral object by touching it with a
    charged object

11
  • Induction
  • Charging a neutral object by bringing it close to
    a charged object, causing a separation of
    charges, then removing the object to be charged,
    trapping equal but opposite charges

12
Coulombs Law
  • Says that the magnitude of a force between 2
    charges varies directly with the magnitude of the
    charges and inversely with the square of the
    distance of the charges
  • FK(qq/d2)
  • K is a constant
  • K9.0x109 Nm2/coul2

13
Electric Potential Energy
  • Bodies with diff. concentrations of electrons
    have a difference in potential between them.
  • This means that the 2 bodies are a source of
    potential energy.
  • The difference in potential is measured in Volts
    (v)

14
  • Electrons flow from areas of higher conc. to
    areas of lower conc.
  • An electron flow takes place if 2 bodies have a
    difference in potential and are connected by a
    conductor.
  • This flow is called an electric current.

15
  • The way to maintain a current is to maintain a
    charge on the 2 bodies that are at diff.
    potentials.
  • To maintain the potential, some devices must pump
    the electrons back to the body with higher
    concentrations as soon as they get to the lower
    concentration. These are called Voltaic
    Cells-Batteries.

16
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