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Probiotics

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Antimicrobial susceptibility changes in children with H. pylori infection over 13 years in northern Italy Marco Manfredi MD, PhD Pediatrician & Gastroenterologist – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Probiotics


1
Antimicrobial susceptibility changes in children
with H. pylori infection over 13 years in
northern Italy
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Pediatrician
Gastroenterologist Pietro
Barilla Children's Hospital
University of Parma, Parma, Italy

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
2

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Helicobacter pylori infection
40-50 developed countries
80 developing countries
GI diseases
Chronic Gastritis
Gastric Cancer
Eradication
European, Asian, American Guidelines
Risk of developing GC
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
3

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Many efforts have been made in trying eradication
Several difficulties remain to be overcome
Triple therapy
the main eradication therapy
Widespread use/abuse antibiotics (respiratory
tract infections)
Maastricht guidelines
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
4

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
mainly due to primary resistance towards
antibiotics
Effectiveness of triple therapy
80
9.8
clarithromycin over the past 10 years
17.5
Maastricht
clarithromycin
in empirical eradication therapy
testing susceptibility for this antibiotic
before using it if its resistance prevalence is
higher than 15-20
Maastricht guidelines
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
5

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Looking for the best eradication therapy
if the antimicrobial susceptibility is not
available
we should ask to patients
which
1
2
how many antibiotics
they used before
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
6

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
ESPGHAN/NASPGHAN guidelines
Gut 2011
antibiotic susceptibility testing for
clarithromycin
before starting clarithromycin-based triple
therapy
in areas/populations with a known high
resistance rate (gt20)
In Italy the clarithromycin resistance is around
25 both in adults and children
Megraud et al, Gut 2013 Francavilla et al, J
Pediatr 2010
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
7

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
invasive diagnostic method

common
specific
Culture
antimicrobial susceptibility of H. pylori
Thijs JC et al, Am J Gastroenterol 1996
sensitivity
variable (6090)
several methodological factors
time from sampling to processing
biopsy site
culture medium
Transportation time
transport medium
incubation conditions
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
8

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
the detection of H. pylori in gt 90
culture of a single antral biopsy
antrum
One biopsy
at least
for optimal results
Dixon MF et al, Am J Surg pathol, 1996
corpus
Two biopsies
to ensure a correct diagnosis
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
9

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
in H. pylori eradication
the most common antibiotics used
in children
clarithromycin
metronidazole
amoxicillin
ESPGHAN-NASPGHAN Guidelines, 2011
Looking for the best eradication therapy
if the antimicrobial susceptibility is not
available

we should ask to patientss
which
1
how many antibiotics
2
they used before
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
10

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
We wanted to evaluate the variations in primary
antibiotic susceptibility over last 13 years
in children with H. pylori infection in Parma,
northern Italy comparing with our previous
results obtained in 2001
Street ME, .. Manfredi M, et al, Arch Dis Child
2002
2011
we diagnosed by endoscopy and histological
examination
66 naïve children with H. pylori infection
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
11

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Clinical and endoscopical characteristics of
patients
two from the gastric antrum two from the gastric
corpus-fundus
Endoscopic biopsy specimens
and microbiological culture
from the antrum
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
12

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
13

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
The eradication of H. pylori infection represents
an enormous challenge in gastroenterology
H. pylori is not so easily attachable
importance
local prevalence of antibiotic resistances
mainly if the antimicrobial susceptibility
Culture development
Megraud F et al, Gut 2013
therefore we must use an empirical eradication
treatment
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
14

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Difficulty
Culture
Useful, but disadvantages
Sensitivity
High costs
Our study shows a decline of culture development
of H. pylori over the last 13 years from 84 in
1998/99 to 70 in 2011/12 with no statistically
significant value
Three biospy samples
62 culture pos
Culture can be negative
RUT positive
Porowska B et al Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
15

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
On the contrary
Other italian researchers obtained a very high
culture development rate of 94 in adults
Saracino IM et al, J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2012
main cause of culture failure
Chronic PPI intake
Selgrad M, Malfertheiner P Aliment Pharmacol Ther
2012
biopsy specimens should also be taken from the
gastric body
.
Culture development
Intrinsic difficulty
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
16

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
HELICOBACTER pylori THERAPY
alternative antimicrobial regimens
problem
drug-resistance
Children
Range of antibiotics
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
17

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
ESPGHAN/NASPGHAN
In areas with R gt 20
In empirical therapy
clarythromicin
A good alternative choices
Sequential therapy
Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy
(BACM)
Horvath A et al, Aliment Paharmacol Ther
2012 Francavilla R et al, GUT 2008
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
18

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
more attention
to treat by knowing
the antimicrobial susceptibility prevalence
for increasing the successful eradication rate
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
19

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Therefore
clarithromycin-based therapy
should be performed
local clarithromycin resistance rate is known to
be low (lt 10)
clarithromycin-susceptible strain
Maastricht guidelines
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
20

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Our studies
today
2001
Street ME, Manfredi M, et al, Arch Dis Child
2001
(16 to 25)
( 56 to 32)
R
Clarithromycin
Metronidazole
R
Seo JH et al, Pediatr Int 2013
Similar results
Vecsei A et al, Helicobnacter 2010
very rare around the world
R
Vakil N, Vaira D, J Clin Gastroenterol 2013
Amoxicillin
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
21

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Culture
Not only single biopsy specimen from the antrum
We should taken at least another one sample from
the gastric body
Selgrad M, Malfertheiner P Aliment Pharmacol Ther
2012
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
22

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Conclusion 1
H. pylori culture
FISH
biopsies
could now be substituted by molecular methods
PCR
do not require strict conditions of biopsy
specimens transport
can be used to detect the point mutation
associated to clarythromicin-resistance
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
23

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Conclusions 2
Before recommending H. pylori eradication therapy
we should know
either
or
the local distribution of antibiotic resistance
rates
the antibiotic susceptibility of patient
to have higher successful probabilities
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
24
www.novapublishers.com
25
(No Transcript)
26

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
27

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Dante Alighieri
drew inspiration for the mountain of Purgatory
You can walk at Sanleo, near Urbino, and
descend to Noli, near Savone you can climb
Mount Bismantova, south of Reggio, up to the
summit, on foot but here a man had to fly
Dante Alighieri Divina Commedia Purgatory Canto,
IV, 26
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
28
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
29


3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Thank you for your attention
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
30

3rd International Conference on
Clinical Microbiology Microbial Genomics
September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Thank you for your attention
Marco Manfredi MD, PhD
Track 8 Infectious Diseases Public Health
Infection Control Immunity
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