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Section 1:Civil War and Revolution

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CHAPTER 11 Enlightenment and Revolution in England and America Section 1: Civil War and Revolution Section 2: Constitutional Monarchy in England – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Section 1:Civil War and Revolution


1
CHAPTER 11
Enlightenment and Revolution in England and
America
Section 1 Civil War and Revolution Section
2 Constitutional Monarchy in England Section
3 English Colonial Expansion Section 4 The
Enlightenment Section 5 The American
Revolution
2
  • Taxes that cause dissatisfaction
  • A. The seven years war left England with a
    large debt.
  • England felt that the American colonists,
    should help pay the debt.

3
  • B. The Sugar Act of 1764
  • (sugar and molasses)
  • The Stamp Act of 1765 (documents)
  • Trials held in the colonies against
    smugglers were held before judges only.
  • The colonist considered this a denial of the
    rights of Englishmen which guaranteed a trial
    by jury.

4
  • The call for Independence
  • A. The colonist argued that they should not have
    to pay English taxes because they were not
    represented in the English Parliament.
  • No taxation without representation.

5
  • B. Those wanting independence were called
    Patriots.
  • But the people of the colonies were not
    united on wanting independence.
  • Those opposed to independence were called
    Tories or Loyalists.

6
  • War Begins
  • A. The First Continental Congress met at
    Philadelphia in September 1774.
  • The First Continental Congress urged
    colonists to take up arms and organize
    militias.

7
  • B. Fighting erupted between colonists and the
    British army at Lexington and Concord in April
    1775.
  • In May 1775 the Second Continental Congress
    met to form an army, called the Continental
    Army, with George Washington as commander.

8
  • C. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental
    Congress approved the Declaration of
    Independence written by Thomas Jefferson.
  • The Declaration of Independence was based
    on the ideas of John Locke.

9
  • The Battles
  • A. By 1778, England had been fighting
    for three years. They had won many sea
    battles, but were unable to capture the
    interior land of America.
  • This gave the Continental Army the will to
    continue fighting.

10
  • B. The Americans won a decisive victory at
    Yorktown, Virginia in 1781.
  • There the British general, Lord Cornwallis,
    surrendered his army to combined American
    and French forces.

11
  • Articles of Confederation
  • The Articles of Confederation, Americas
    first constitution, did little to provide for a
    strong central government.
  • United States was governed under the Articles
    from 1781 to 1789.

12
  • The Constitution
  • A. The Constitution was created in 1789 in
    which power would be shared between the
    national government and the state
    government.

13
  • B. The federal government was divided into
    three branches, each with some power to
    check the workings of the others.
  • Executive Branch - President
  • Legislative Branch House of Representatives
    and Senate

14
  • C. The third branch of government was the
    Judicial branch.
  • The Judicial branch would enforce the
    Constitution as the supreme law of the land.

15
  • D. The Bill of Rights guaranteed freedom of
    speech, religion, press, petition, and
    assembly.
  • The Bill of Rights also guaranteed a trial
    by jury, and the protection of property rights.
  • Many of the rights in the Bill of Rights were
    derived from the natural rights proposed by
    17 18th century philosophers.

16
SECTION 5
The American Revolution
Mercantilist trade laws began to be enforced.
And the colonists reacted .
17
SECTION 5
The American Revolution
Doesnt EVERYONE have to pay taxes?
Taxation without representation is tyranny."
WHY would the colonists believe that they didnt
have to pay??
18
SECTION 5
The American Revolution
19
SECTION 5
The American Revolution
  • Patriots
  • 'Whigs', 'Congress-men', or 'Americans'
  • included a full range of social and economic
    classes, but all agreed to the need to defend the
    rights of Americans
  • Loyalists
  • "Tories", or "King's men"
  • about 15-20 of the population remained loyal to
    the British Crown
  • typically older, less willing to break with old
    loyalties, often connected to the Church of
    England, and included many established merchants
    with business connections across the Empire, as
    well as royal officials

20
SECTION 5
The American Revolution
The Patriots take action . Met in Philadelphia
in 1774 (First Continental Congress) and demanded
full rights of British citizens Agreed to meet
the next year
21
SECTION 5
The American Revolution
By April 1775 British Troops felt threatened by
colonists so they tried to seize colonists guns
powder The shot heard 'round the world" --
Lexington Concord
22
SECTION 5
The American Revolution
Second Continental Congress May
1775 Philadelphia The colonies prepare for
war.
23
SECTION 5
The American Revolution
Thomas Jefferson Declaration of Independence
24
SECTION 5
The American Revolution
Articles of Confederation 1781
One-house congress each state had one vote Weak
central govt could not levy taxes or coin
money could not regulate trade with foreign
nations or states no chief executive only
courts were state courts Power was in the hands
of the States.
25
SECTION 5
The American Revolution
Philadelphia Convention 1787
James Madison and Alexander Hamilton from the
outset wanted to create a new government rather
than "fix" the existing one.
The result was the Constitution of the United
States.
26
The Constitution
SECTION 5
The American Revolution
  • Federal system dividing power between a strong
    central govt and the states
  • Three branches in central govt
  • Ratified 1789
  • Bill of Rights added in 1791

27
Effects of American Independence
SECTION 5
The American Revolution
  • Major event in world history
  • Democratic govt was a radical idea at the time
  • Restricted voting to males and property owners

How are the ideals of the Enlightenment reflected
in the Declaration of Independence and the
Constitution?
28
SECTION 5
The American Revolution
Now, lets look at todays bellringer
What British policies were implemented in the
mid-1700s, and how did the American colonists
react to them?
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