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WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT

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Wildlife animals that are adapted to live in a natural environment without the ... Vultures waiting to feed on the leftovers from another animal's kill. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT


1
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
  • UNIT 11
  • Introduction to Environmental and Agricultural
    Sciences

2
Characteristics of Wildlife
  • Wildlife animals that are adapted to live in a
    natural environment without the help of humans.
  • Vertebrates
  • Vertebrate animal with a backbone.
  • Wildness
  • Allows the animal to survive without interference
    or help from humans.
  • Contributes to human interest for hunting,
    fishing, bird watching and wildlife photography.

3
Characteristics of Wildlife
  • Must be able to adapt to whatever they have in
    terms of food and the environment or they will
    perish
  • Must possess natural senses that allow them to
    avoid predators and other dangers
  • Predators animals that feed on small or weaker
    animals.
  • Prey animal eaten by another animal
  • Ability to avoid over-population
  • Wildlife can naturally avoid over-population by
    establishing and defending territories.
  • The stress of over-population can cause some
    animals to slow or stop reproducing altogether.

4
Types of Wildlife Relationships
  • Parasitism
  • Parasitism one type of wildlife living and
    feeding on another without killing it.
  • Wood ticks, which can live on almost any
    warm-blooded animal
  • Warm-blooded animals animals with the ability
    to regulate their body temperature.
  • Mutualism
  • Mutualism two types of wildlife living together
    for the mutual benefit of both.
  • Tick picker birds that pick ticks off wildlife
    for nourishment.
  • Plant seeds that will germinate only after having
    passed through the digestive tract of a specific
    bird or animal.

5
Types of Wildlife Relationships
  • Predation
  • Predation a way of life where one type of
    wildlife eats another type.
  • Foxes keep down populations of rodents other
    small animals.
  • Commensalism
  • Commensalism one type of wildlife living in,
    on, or with another without either harming or
    helping it.
  • Vultures waiting to feed on the leftovers from
    another animals kill.

6
Types of Wildlife Relationships
  • Competition
  • Competition two types of wildlife eating the
    same source of food.
  • Foxes and owls compete for rodents other small
    animals.

7
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8
Relationships Between Predators and Prey
  • When predators are in abundance, prey becomes
    scarce because of overfeeding.
  • Predators Prey
  • When prey becomes scarce, predators may starve or
    move to other areas.
  • Prey Predators
  • This allows the population of prey to increase
    again.

9
Types of Relationships Between Humans Wildlife
  • Biological
  • Humans are animals very similar to wildlife
  • Ecological
  • Humans are but one species among nearly 1 million
    species of animals that inhabit the planet earth
  • Economic
  • Originally humans were dependent on wildlife for
    food, clothing and shelter. Today there are six
    positive values.

10
Positive Values of Wildlife Relationships with
Humans
  • Commercial
  • Recreational
  • Biological
  • Aesthetic
  • Scientific
  • Social

11
Commercial
  • Commercial
  • harvesting and sale of wildlife and/or wildlife
    products, raising wild animals for use in
    hunting, fishing or other purposes

12
Recreational
  • Recreational
  • hunting and fishing, watching and photographing
    wildlife.

13
Biological
  • Biological
  • pollination of crops, soil improvement, water
    conservation and control of harmful diseases and
    parasites.

14
Aesthetic
  • Aesthetic
  • - inspiration for artwork

15
Scientific
  • Scientific
  • - observation of wildlife by early humans to
    determine what was safe to eat

16
Social
  • Social
  • - ability of the wildlife species to increase the
    value of their surroundings simply by their
    presence

17
How has Man Abused Wildlife?
  • Overhunting
  • Senseless killing
  • Reduced habitat
  • Pollution of air and water
  • Removal of a beneficial animal (example wolf)
  • Introduction of a foreign animal

18
Classifications of Wildlife Management
  • Farm wildlife
  • Forest wildlife
  • Wetland wildlife
  • Stream wildlife
  • Lakes and ponds

19
Farm Wildlife
  • Approved Practices
  • Leaving unharvested areas in corners of fields
  • Planting fence rows with shrubs and grasses to
    proved winter feed cover
  • Leaving brush piles when harvesting wood lots
  • Leaving crop residues standing over the winter to
    provide food cover
  • Planting crops attractive to wildlife
  • Providing water supplies for wildlife during dry
    periods
  • Harvesting
  • Hunting has little impact on spring breeding
    populations
  • Excess population not harvested, usually die
    during winter
  • Heavy hunting seldom causes severe damage to
    populations
  • Sale of hunting rights increases income for farms
    and ranches

20
Forest Wildlife
  • Survive best in forests that are of mixed-age
    trees
  • Factors Influencing Wildlife
  • Type and age of trees in the forest
  • Density of the trees
  • Natural forest openings
  • Types of vegetation on forest floor
  • Presence of natural predators
  • Approved Practices
  • Making clearings in the forest so that new growth
    will make twigs available for deer to feed on
  • Selective harvesting so that trees of various
    ages exist in the forest to make a more suitable
    habitat for squirrels other species of wildlife
  • Leaving piles of brush for food cover
  • Managing harvests of forest products so that
    existing supplies of water are not contaminated.

21
Wetland Wildlife
  • Wetlands include any land that is poorly drained
  • swamps, bogs, marshes, shallow areas of standing
    water
  • Wetlands a lowland area often associated with
    ponds or creeks that is saturated with fresh
    water.
  • Specifics of Wetlands for Optimum Use
  • Open water areas 1/3 of the wetlands
  • Depth of standing water should not be more than
    about 18 inches
  • Approved Practices
  • Impounding water
  • Establishing open, grassy areas around wetlands
  • Planting millet, wild rice and other aquatic
    plants in wetlands
  • Providing artificial nesting sites (wood duck
    boxes, old tires and islands surrounded by open
    water)
  • Preventing pollution of water from agriculture,
    industry and domestic waste.

22
Stream Wildlife
  • Two general categories Warm Water Cold Water
  • Based on temperatures at which wildlife (fish)
    can best grow thrive
  • Approved Practices
  • Preventing stream banks from being overgrazed by
    livestock
  • Fencing the stream to limit access by livestock
    to reduce pollution and the destruction of stream
    banks
  • Good erosion control practices on lands
    surrounding streams to help maintain clear, clean
    water
  • Maintaining stream-side forestation to regulate
    stream temperatures during summer months
  • Artificial rearing stocking of desired species
    of stream wildlife
  • Regulating sport fishing
  • Stream Restoration of desired mix of fish species
  • Remove unwanted species by netting, poisoning or
    electric shocking
  • Regulating Sport Fishing
  • Closed Seasons, minimum size limits, creel
    limits, restricted methods of catching fish.

23
Lake and Pond Wildlife
  • Approved Practices
  • Very similar to stream wildlife management
  • Using artificial means of incorporating oxygen
    into the water to prevent fish kills
  • Other Notes
  • Easier to remove unwanted fish from lakes ponds
    because the water is contained.
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