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AP Biology Ecology Unit

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AP Biology Ecology Unit Chapters 50 - 54 55 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AP Biology Ecology Unit


1
AP BiologyEcology Unit
  • Chapters 50 - 5455?

2
Ch. 50 Review
  • Unit has separate ppt.
  • You should know/understand
  • Scope of ecology is huge, it encompasses
    chemistry, biology, geology and evolution (
    adaptations, natural selection, mutations/rates,
    etc)
  • Living organisms are interconnected and connected
    to their environments
  • The environment has living and nonliving
    components

3
50 continued
  • Climate
  • The longer term, prevailing weather patterns.
  • Earth has perfect conditions for life ( as we
    know it) to exist
  • Biomes, and their vegetation are defined by the
    climate
  • Oceans (position, volume, temperature) are
    responsible for air and water currents ? global
    weather.

4
Biomes
  • Terrestrial Ecosystems
  • Tropical rain forests
  • Temperate rain forests
  • Savanna
  • Desert
  • Chaparral
  • Temp. grassland
  • Temp.deciduous forests
  • Coniferous forests
  • Tundra
  • Taiga
  • Aquatic Ecosystems
  • Marine (salt)
  • Intertidal
  • Coral reef
  • Open ocean
  • Benthos
  • Freshwater
  • Oligotrophic lake
  • Eutrophic lake
  • Mesotrophic lake
  • Wetland
  • River/ stream
  • estuary

5
50 last review
  • Principle of Allocation
  • Finite amount of energy (calories) to accomplish
    all life processes
  • These resources must be divided up to meet needs
    of the individual species
  • Do you invest a lot in growth or in nest
    building? Are your flowers showy or do you have
    many seeds?
  • Regulators vs. conformers

6
Ch. 51 Behavioral Biology
  • Bird species find mates and defend territories
    with specific songs how do they know how to
    do this. Are behaviors genetic and how have they
    evolved?
  • Much of behavior is act-reaction, some
    behaviors also appear to be learned.
  • Some components are physiological and therefore
    obviously genetic
  • Other behaviors lend themselves to questions such
    as why did ancestral species start doing this
    how do they know?

7
Human Context
  • Recent discoveries of genes for depression,
    alcoholism and violence
  • Chemistry within cells and chemistry of
    environment while egg is developing and
    interactions of chemistry involved in nervous
    system. All interrelated
  • Research into heritability (of behavior) is the
    best demonstration I know of the importance of
    environment. They (genes and nongenetic
    environmental factors) build on each other
  • Robert Plomin, Pennsylvania State University

8
  • Ethology study of behaviors
  • Innate born with
  • Developmentally fixed all individuals have
    regardless of their environment
  • All new birds open mouth and cheep
  • Range of innate behaviors
  • See bird pictures

9
Adaptive nature of behavior
  • Fixed action pattern behavior that is
    unchangeable
  • Triggered by sign stimulus
  • Examples
  • Pine cones nest
  • Red aggression

10
Evolution of behaviors
  • Having a larger repertoire increases your
    fitness
  • See
  • Hear
  • forage

11
Learning
  • Modification of behavior based on prior
    experiences
  • Language ability to learn a language is innate
    (genetic)
  • Which language (or song bird dialect0 you learn
    depends on environment and exposure
  • Innate behaviors can also be expressed because of
    maturation
  • Habituation loss of response if stimulus has no
    information

12
Imprinting
  • Learning is limited to a specific time period in
    the animals life and is generally irreversible
  • Critical period
  • Imprinting of geese
  • Song bird repertoire

13
Learning associated with stimuli
  • Associative learning
  • Learn to associate one behavior with another
    behavior
  • Classical conditioning
  • Pavlovs dogs hear bell get food, learn to
    salivate at sound of bell
  • Operant conditioning
  • Trial and error/ reward and punishment
  • Skinners rat box
  • Play
  • Animals often play, with the goal of learning to
    associate a behavior with a result.
  • Cats playing tackle are learning to hunt
  • Can potentially be dangerous results to horsing
    around
  • May be more adaptive in terms of building muscle
    strength and coordination

14
Cognition
  • Ability of the nervous system to perceive,
    process and store information gathered by the
    senses.
  • Problem solving of birds and chimps
  • Sophisticated behaviors
  • Dogs catching Frisbees
  • Kinesis (rate of behavior) Taxis (movement to or
    from stimulus)
  • Migration regular/ predictable movement over
    long distances

15
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16
Social Behavior
  • William Hamilton and E.O. Wilson
  • Agonistic threatening and submissive
  • Ritual symbolic activity
  • Dominance hierarchy pecking order
  • Territoriality establish and defend
  • Courtship displays and parental investment
  • Mating systems promiscuous, monogamous,
    polygamous

17
Social Behavior
18
Altruism
  • Animals usually act in ways that minimize
    competition and are therefore selfish
  • Altruistic behaviors actually reduce your
    individual fitness to benefit the group.
  • Sterile worker bees
  • Sentry prairie dogs

19
help your kin
  • Inclusive fitness total effect an individual
    has on proliferating its genes and aiding close
    relatives
  • Coefficient of relatedness altruism seems
    proportional to percentage of genes that are
    similar between an individual and its relatives.
    Helping gene pool if aid a cousin
  • Seen in colonial animals
  • Reciprocal altruism
  • The favor is usually returned in social animals,
    so is there really any true altruism???

20
Ch. 52 Population Ecology
  • Population is all the organisms of the same
    species that simultaneously occupy the same
    general area.
  • Human population explosion
  • Demography is the study of factors that affect
    the growth and decline of populations
  • Biodemography relates to factors that influence
    the distribution of a species over its range.
  • Density ? individuals per unit volume
  • Dispersion ? pattern of space between individuals
  • Clumped schooling fish
  • Uniform each bird as a certain territory
  • Random trees in the forest

21
Demography
  • Age structure- results from coexistence of
    generations, are male and female ratios
    consistent? Is percentage surviving in each
    generation consistent?
  • Birthrate also called fecundity, number of
    offspring per time.
  • Death rate effected by maturity and predation
  • Life tables, survivorship curves and age
    structures

22
Diversity of Life Histories
  • PRINCIPLE OF ALLOCATION (again)
  • Number of eggs per nest matches the amount of
    food parents can expect to find/ number of
    hatchlings that can be fed.
  • First age of reproduction also varies , what are
    chances of surviving to be more (biologically)
    mature at time of mating. Healthier, better
    parent
  • Number of reproductions per lifetime
  • Lots of mice, frequently, all with low survival
    rates
  • One spawning per salmon lifetime with millions of
    eggs only 1-2 will survive to reproduce

23
Population Growth Models
  • DN/Dt B D
  • Change in population size over time the birth
    rate death rate
  • B is absolute births, b is births per capita---
    34 births in population of 1000 is 0.034
  • Zero population growth is when birth rates and
    death rates are equal.
  • 2 parents, 2 children to replace them

24
Population curves
  • Logistic
  • Increases then levels off
  • Idea of carrying capacity
  • Exponential
  • Point in time when a population is increasing
    exponentially
  • Bacterial growth
  • Invasive species without predator

25
Population Limiting Factors
  • Intraspecific competition
  • individuals rely on the same resources
  • Density dependent factors
  • Food, habitat, territory, predation, disease,
    toxins
  • Density independent factors
  • Early frost, natural disaster like flood, fire or
    tornado
  • Mixed situations
  • Colder temps and a lack of food
  • Boom or bust
  • Some species have regular cycles of growth and
    decline

26
Human Population Growth
  • Exponential growth since Plague
  • Over all increase
  • Many countries with actual decreses
  • Age structures vary greatly
  • CARRYING CAPACITY
  • Limiting factors ????

27
Ch. 53 Community Ecology
  • Species richness
  • how many different species
  • Oak, maple, hickory, aspen and pine vs. oak and
    hickory only
  • Relative abundance
  • Ratio of species to each other
  • 5050 oak and hickory or 8020
  • Species diversity
  • Species richness and relative abundance
  • There are many species and each is well
    represented Good Biodiversity

28
Interspecific Interactions
  • Predator Prey
  • Competition
  • Commensalism
  • Mutualism
  • Parasitism
  • Animals
  • Camouflage
  • Warning colors
  • mimicry
  • Plants
  • Thorns
  • Toxins
  • Taste
  • coloration

29
Niche
  • Ecological niche is defined as the sum total of
    the organisms use of biotic and abiotic resources
  • Habitat address
  • Niche occupation
  • Fundamental niche
  • Resources it could theoretically use
  • Realized niche
  • Resources it actually uses

30
Resources
  • Competitive exclusion 2 species with similar
    requirements wont live in same area
  • Sympatric species in same area, must interact
  • Allopatric species populations in dif.
    geographic areas
  • Resource partitioning 2 species use resources in
    slightly different ways
  • Key stone species vital to maintaining species
    richness

31
Succession
  • Succession ? transition in species composition
    over time
  • Primary succession ? start with lifeless soil
    (volcanic island)
  • Secondary Succession ? starting over after fire
    or tornado

32
Biogeography
  • Study of why species are found where they are
    found and why they are successful there.

33
Chapter 54
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