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Part I: Understanding the Writing Process


Effective Writing Part I: Understanding the Writing Process Writer s Inc. (p.1 75) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Part I: Understanding the Writing Process

Part I Understanding the Writing Process
Effective Writing
  • Writers Inc. (p.1 75)

What do we know about the writing process?
  • Writing is a highly individual, recursive
  • Writers move through several stages in that
    process but not necessarily in linear order.
  • Prewriting, drafting, SHARING, revising,
    editing, proofreading, publishing, ASSESSING

Prewriting Drafting Sharing
Revising Editing Publishing Assessing
Use 6 traits Here
Common Problems Solved by Using Writing Process
  • You dont know how to get started.
  • You dont write because you are afraid of making
  • Low productivity you dont write very much.
  • No effort in Revision no ability to rethink
    earlier drafts.
  • Sloppy work no attention to detail in final

Writers Inc. p 41-49
Prewriting all the activities you engage in
before producing the draft.
1. Devise a game plan schedule the writing
2. Ask questions to explore your rhetorical
  • What is my purpose?
  • Who is my audience?
  • What genre am I using?
  • What sort of research
  • will I need to conduct?

Prewriting Strategies Choosing a subject
Record ideas without revising or proofreading
  • Flood with questions that relate to your writing

Ask critical questions
Freewrite brainstorm
Map cluster
Keep a journal
Write personal explorations or reflections on
Invent organize ideas visually to explore
relationships processes
Ask Critical Questions
  • Dictionary definition of _____?
  • What group of things does this _____ belong to?
  • How is the _____ different from other things?
  • What are some concrete examples of the _____?

What is _____ similar to? What is _____
different from? Is _____ most unlike (like) what?
  • What causes _____?
  • What are the effects of _____?
  • What is the purpose of _____?
  • What comes before (after) _____?

  • Is there an issue?
  • How did it begin and what are its causes?
  • What changed to create the issue?
  • Who is involved?
  • Describe it (colors, shapes, etc.)
  • Compare it (what is it similar to?)
  • Associate it (makes you think of?)
  • Analyze it (how is it made?)

Writers Inc. p 45
  • Set a timer for five to ten minutes
  • Look at the topic and think about it briefly
  • Now ready? Set? Write!
  • Don't stop! Dont edit!
  • Keep your fingers typing or your pen
  • moving for your time limit

Using Graphic Organizers
Multiple Graphs p. 48-49
No Segregation
Blacks, Jews
  • Rather than writing a free-
  • flowing paragraph or list of
  • concepts, start with a central word
  • As related concepts pop in your
  • head, indicate them as
  • branches, arrows, bubbles, etc.
  • You may have an ah ha!
  • moment.

Freedom of speech
Individual freedom
Prewriting Gathering Details
Writers Inc. p 50 - 52
  • Organize ideas
  • Main ideas (Content)
  • Supporting ideas
  • Develop a rhetorical plan
  • Identify audience
  • Identify genre
  • Identify method of development

Writers Inc p 50
Taking Inventory of Your Thoughts
Purpose Does my subject meet the assignment?
What mode am I writing? Self How do I feel
about the subject? Do I have enough time
to develop this topic? Subject How much do I
know already? Can I think of an interesting
way to write about it? Is additional
information available? Audience Who are my
readers? How much do they know about this
subject? How can I get them interested in
my ideas? Form and Style How should I present
my ideas? Can I think of an
interesting way to begin?
Prewriting to Drafting
Writers Inc p 50-52
  • Makes your writing more credible.
  • Provides specific details.
  • Supports statements you make.
  • Choose one aspect to discuss.
  • Narrow enough to develop and support.
  • Main idea.
  • Details depend on type of paper.
  • Ideas relate to and support thesis.
  • Manner of organization can vary.
  • Ideas coherently connected with the others.

Drafting Connecting Your Ideas
Writers Inc. p 53 - 58
  • Write as quickly and easily as possible.
  • Writers block strategies
  • Use your prewriting
  • Share your writing
  • Re-read
  • Request a conference
  • Work on something else and go back.

When the words are flowing, Dont SToP. You can
edit later.
Escaping the Badlands
Writers Inc. p 62
  • Is your topic worn-out?
  • Is your approach stale?
  • Is your voice predictable or fake?
  • Does your draft sound boring?
  • Does your essay follow the formula too closely?

Sharing Get Some Advice most valuable and
enjoyable stage
Writers Inc p 69 - 74
  • Whole class / Small group / Partner sharing.
  • Goal
  • Constructive criticism for revision.
  • Use the 6 traits language
  • Ask questions esp. why and how questions
  • Know what are you going to do when you get your
    paper back.
  • You learn by reading and discussing samples of
  • You learn from seeing writing modeled.
  • You learn from revising the work of others.

Revising Improving Your Writing
Writers Inc p 59 - 68
  • Key to revision is effective sharing.
  • If you ignore the feedback, then you will move to
    editing and your writing will still be weak.
  • Revise your paper using the 6-traits criteria.
  • (Refer to your rubric and revise one trait at a

Revising Strategies
Writers Inc p 68
Proofreading Strategies Checking for Style and
Accuracy Usage, punctuation, capitalization,
spelling and grammar.
Writers Inc. p 75 - 80
  • Run spell grammar check. (Be aware that
    spelling and grammar checks have limitations!)
  • Read the paper aloud backwards
  • Conference with your teacher, parent, friend.
  • Focus on common errors.

Proofreading 20 Common Errors
  1. No comma after introductory element
  2. Vague pronoun reference
  3. No comma in compound sentence
  4. Wrong word
  5. No comma in nonrestrictive element
  6. Wrong/missing inflected endings
  7. Wrong or missing prepositions
  8. Comma splice
  9. Possessive apostrophe error
  10. Tense shift
  • 11. Unnecessary shift in person
  • 12. Sentence fragments
  • 13. Wrong tense or verb form
  • 14. Subject-verb agreement
  • 15. Lack of comma in a series
  • 16. Pronoun agreement error
  • 17. Unnecessary comma with restrictive element
  • 18. Run-on or fused sentence
  • 19. Dangling or misplaced modifier
  • 20. Its versus its error

Anderson, Jeff. Mechanically Inclined Building
Grammar, Usage, and Style Into Writers Workshop.
Stenhouse Publishers. Portland, Maine. 2005.
Publishing Polish for Presentation
Writers Inc p 33 - 40
  • MLA format (259-274)
  • Check that all sources are documented to avoid
  • Find a way to share your work with teachers,
    friends, and family members.
  • Submit to Turnitin.

Understanding plagiarism and avoiding it.
Writers Inc. p 256
  • Plagiarism presenting someone elses ideas as
    your own. Academic dishonesty.
  • To avoid
  • Credit the author by name and cite the work.
  • Give additional citation for additional
    information from the same source.
  • Use quotation marks around key words or phrases
    taken directly from the source
  • Cite everything you borrow unless youre sure it
    is common knowledge.
  • (Avoiding plagiarism, Writers Inc., 256)

Two ways to share information Paraphrase
Incorporating quotes.
Writers Inc p 256- 258
  • Paraphrase use your own words to restate someone
    elses ideas. Still must cite your source.
  • Quote include the exact words of the author and
    put quotation marks around them. Cite your

Writers Inc p 256-7
  • Skim the selection first to get the meaning.
  • Read carefully paying attention to key words and
  • List the main ideas on a piece of paper without
    looking at the selection.
  • Review the selection again.
  • Write your paraphrase restating the authors
    ideas in your own words.
  • Stick to the essential info drop anecdotes and
  • State each important idea clearly and concisely.
  • Put quotation marks around words taken directly
    from the source.
  • Arrange the ideas into a smooth, logical order.

Using Quoted Material
Writers Inc p 258
  • A quotation can be a single word or an entire
    paragraph. Choose quotations carefully keep as
    brief as possible use only when they are
  • Longer quotes (over 4 lines) should be set off
    from your paragraph indent 10 spaces double
    space no quotation marks. Be sure that the
    capitalization, punctuation, and spelling are the
    same as that in the original work.
  • Clearly mark changes for your readers
  • Changes within the quote are enclosed in brackets
    like this.
  • Explanations are enclosed in parentheses at the
    end of the quotation before closing punctuation
    (like this).
  • If you leave out part of the quote, use an
    ellipsis to signify the omission three periods
    with a space before and after each one
  • ( . . . )

Incorporating quotes
  • Use quote bits short, 3-4 word quoted phrases
    rather than quoting entire sentences.
  • If you DO NOT want to change the forms of words,
    each quote bit should function grammatically in
    your sentence in the same way it functions in the
    original sentence.
  • Test Read the sentence aloud, mentally erasing
    the quotation marks. Does it sound grammatically
    correct and as smooth and natural as a sentence
    you would use in normal conversation?
  • Avoid having two quotations in a row. Your own
    commentary should bridge the two.

Assessing When your paper is returneddont look
at the grade and throw it in the trash!
  • Use the rubric to assess where you need work. Is
    it the skill of development? Sentence structure?
    Editing and proofreading?
  • Which of the 6-traits is causing you the most
  • What common error are you still using
  • Is this a paper you want to keep and possibly use
    as a beginning point in college?
  • Are you satisfied with the effort you put forth
    on this paper?