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Introduction to Wildlife Management

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Title: Introduction to Wildlife Management Author: cafls user Last modified by: Bolt, Marie Created Date: 10/13/2008 2:08:19 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Wildlife Management


1
Introduction to Wildlife Management
  • Marie Bolt

2
Introduction
  • Wildlife free-ranging birds, mammals,
    amphibians, and reptiles
  • Not all wild animals and plants
  • Not fish
  • Not just game species
  • Not just nongame species

3
Wildlife Management
  • Wildlife management is the application of
    ecological knowledge to populations of vertebrate
    animals and their plant and animal associates in
    a manner that strikes a balance between the needs
    of those populations and the needs of people.

4
Ecological Management Approaches
  • Preservation
  • Nature takes its course without human
    intervention
  • Direct manipulation
  • Animal populations are trapped, shot, poisoned,
    and stocked
  • Indirect manipulation
  • Vegetation, water, or other key components of
    wildlife habitat are altered

5
An Art or a Science?
  • Wildlife management is not purely basic nor
    applied science, but uses both to apply an
    integrated approach to solve a given problem
  • Not a cookbook approach
  • Requires application of skill, knowledge and
    imagination

6
Wildlife Management Skills
  • Ecology/Natural History
  • Law
  • Habitat Management
  • Team Work
  • Land Navigation/GIS/GPS
  • Communications
  • People Management

7
Brief History-1
  • Early US/Colonial game laws
  • 1800s Increased regulation of game
  • 1900s Gifford Pinchot Resource Conservation
    Ethic
  • 1930s Aldo Leopold, father of wildlife
    management, Game Management
  • 1937 Pittman-Robertson Act, 10 tax on hunting
    arms and ammo for research and management by
    states

8
Resource Conservation Ethic
  • The qualities found in nature could be considered
    natural resources. The goal of proper use of
    natural resources is the greatest good of the
    greatest number (of people) for the longest time.
    (G. Pinchot)
  • Resources should be fairly distributed among
    present as well as future users
  • Resources should be used with efficiencythat is,
    put to the best possible use and not wasted
    (i.e., non-use is waste)

9
Evolutionary-Ecological Land Ethic
  • The most important goal of land management is to
    maintain the health of ecosystems and ecological
    processes. Maintaining these ecological
    processes will ultimately give greater long-term
    value to humans than managing natural areas only
    for particular resources (A. Leopold)
  • Humans are part of the ecological community
    rather than standing apart from nature and
    exploiting it (move away from over-exploitation
    of conservation ethic)

10
Brief History-2
  • 1960s and 1970s greater expectations
  • Changes from maximum to optimal yield for
    game species

11
Brief History-3
  • 1970s Environmental movement and Environmental
    Laws (NEPA, ESA, CWA, CAA, FIFRA, RCRA, CERCLA,
    etc.)
  • 1980s National Forest Management Planning Act
  • Late 1980s Conservation Biology

12
Wildlife Managers
  • Address complex issues with both research and
    management skills by
  • Reviewing the scientific literature
  • Finding answers with field /or lab work
  • Implementing and evaluating remedies
  • Political, social economic factors influence
    methods and how successfully they can deal with
    stewardship of wildlife populations and habitats

13
Management Decisions
  • Desired Goal
  • Appropriate Management Option(s)
  • Best Management Action

14
Options
  • Where do we want to go?
  • Can we get there?
  • Will we know we have arrived?
  • How do we get there?
  • What are the costs?
  • What are the benefits?
  • Will benefits exceed costs?

15
Goals of Management
  • Increase Population
  • Endangered Species
  • Decrease Population
  • Nuisance species
  • Harvest
  • Game species
  • Monitor
  • Nongame species

16
Something to Ponder
  • You can not increase the numbers of all species
    on every piece of land.when you manage for
    certain species, you manage against other species

17
Overview of Lecture
  • Exploitation
  • Bison
  • Passenger Pigeon
  • Other Extinctions
  • Some Near Extinctions
  • Problems of Excess
  • Predator Control
  • Exotic Wildlife

18
Exploitation
  • Gods instructions to Adam and Eve were to be
    fruitful, multiply, and replenish the Earth, and
    subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the
    sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every
    living thing that moveth on upon the Earth.
    Genesis 128

19
Historical
  • Eliminate predators and competitors
  • Repopulate with domestic animals
  • Move familiar animals across the world
  • Privileged classes and sport hunting
  • Market hunting

20
Market Hunting
  • Waterfowl
  • Bison
  • Songbirds
  • Plumage
  • Beaver hats

21
Bison
  • To 1850, large population in American West,
    coexisted with humans
  • Provided food, shelter, bowstrings, fuel
  • Grass-bison-human food chain for years
  • 6 million in 1860 to 160 in 1889
  • Small herds existed replenished population

22
Buffalo Hunters
  • Railroads made access easy
  • Repeating rifles scopes
  • Army condoned it
  • Food for railroad workers
  • Hides/tongue prized
  • Most rotted, unused

23
Passenger Pigeon
  • Most abundant animal on the planet
  • Migration darked the sky
  • 1871, 136 million in central WI alone
  • Market hunting, nesting habitat destruction,
    single egg, no laws, lead to extinction in 1914

24
Other Extinctions
  • Stellers sea cow
  • Carolina parakeet
  • Labrador duck
  • Heath hen
  • Great auk

25
Some Near Extinctions
  • Wood Duck
  • Wild Turkey
  • California Condor
  • Beaver
  • Canada Goose
  • Mountain Lion
  • Grey Wolf
  • Double-crested cormorant
  • Bald eagle

26
Problems of Excess
  • White-tailed deer
  • Raccoon
  • Canada goose
  • Beaver
  • Double-crested cormorant

27
Response of Prey without Predators
  • Two charts
  • Reindeer
  • Mule deer
  • Beaver Basin deer herd

28
Predator Control
  • Bounties
  • Not effective, no population changes
  • Fraud
  • Poison controls
  • Non-target animals
  • Overall, not effective

29
Exotic Wildlife
  • Man has moved animals from place to place across
    the world, either intentionally or
    unintentionally
  • Exotic wildlife may increase or fail to prosper
  • If they increase, many times they become nuisance
    species
  • Many examples on trying to control, new
    immigrants who alter the ecology of the habitats
    they are released into by fulfilling/displacing
    native species niches

30
Aquatic Exotic Species
31
Continuing Challenges
  • Spotted owl
  • Sea turtles
  • California condor
  • Grey wolf

32
Overview
  • Background
  • Bison
  • Lead Poisoning
  • Wood Ducks
  • Wild Turkeys
  • Mammals
  • Marine Mammals
  • Birds
  • Elusive Measures

33
Background
  • 1639, 1st closed season for white-tailed deer in
    Rhode Island colony (May-Nov)
  • Many laws to protect species including heath hens
    and passenger pigeons
  • No ecological considerations, no habitat
    protection
  • No preservation of food, cover, water
  • Not until 1900s did management occur

34
Bison
  • American Bison Association, NY Zoo
  • Bison preserves
  • Yellowstone NP
  • Canada 2 NPs, one for Wood Buffalo
  • European bison restocked in Bialowieza Forest,
    Poland/Russia

35
Bison
  • 2 Problems with Bison reintroduction
  • Lack of natural predators, leads to
    overpopulation
  • Overpopulation and outstripping resources, and
    control measures not accepted by populus

36
Lead Poisoning
  • Primary issues
  • Use of lead in shotgun shells
  • Use of lead in rifle bullets
  • Use of lead in fishing gear

37
Lead Poisoning
  • Lead shot
  • Banned in 1976/78
  • Decrease in raptor deaths
  • Decrease in waterfowl losses
  • No increase in waterfowl crippling deaths
  • Lead Poisoning
  • Primary Routes
  • Shot
  • Grit for gizzard
  • Grinding plus acid in stomach, organo- lead,
    neurotoxin
  • Secondary Route
  • Incidental ingestion of lead in prey

38
Crippling Losses of Waterfowl
Mean No. Lost/100 Retrieved
39
Lead Poisoning
  • Rifle bullets
  • Issues for California Condor
  • Issues for Stellers sea eagle in Japan

40
Wood Ducks
  • Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 1918
  • Protected wood ducks
  • Population rebounded without help at first

41
Wood Ducks
  • 1938, biologists in Illinois erected wood duck
    houses
  • Noticed insufficient nesting sites
  • Quickly spread
  • Some areas have more produced in boxes than
    natural habitat
  • Now, 2nd/3rd most abundant waterfowl species

42
Wild Turkeys
  • Extirpated in most of North America by 1930s
  • Reintroductions were tried, many failed
  • Finally appropriate genetic types were used for
    each site

43
Wild Turkeys
  • New populations were protected
  • When appropriate, hunting was allowed
  • Now 40 states have turkeys

44
Mammals
  • White-tailed deer
  • 0.5 million, 1900
  • 12 million, 1980
  • Elk
  • 0.04 million, 1900
  • 1 million, 2000
  • Pronghorn antelope
  • 13,000--1920
  • 400,000--1980
  • Beaver
  • Nearly extirpated 1800s
  • Nuisance species, now

45
Marine Mammals
  • Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972)
  • Endangered Species Act (1973)
  • Pinnepeds (seal)
  • Sirenians (manatee)
  • Cetaceans (dolphins whales)

46
Marine Mammals
  • Sea Otter
  • Reintroductions, natural increases
  • Protection from trapping, fishermen
  • Orcas new threat in Aleutian Islands
  • Gray whales
  • Predictable migratory route
  • Stay close to shore
  • Now problems with carrying capacity
  • Salt plant in calving grounds

47
Birds
  • Trumpeter swans
  • Roseate spoonbills
  • Upland sandpipers
  • Sage grouse
  • Sharp-tailed grouse
  • Snowy egrets
  • Whooping cranes
  • Wood ducks
  • California condors
  • Heath hen
  • Candidates for oblivion listed in Our vanishing
    wild life, by William Hornaday 1913
  • Only the Heath hen is extinct today

48
Birds that have come back
  • Bald eagles
  • Peregrine falcons
  • Kirtlands warbler
  • Atlantic puffin
  • Many other species

49
Elusive Measures
  • Need to have neither extinction nor excess
    populations
  • How do we measure success, is 40 million ducks
    from 400 million a success or a failure?
  • Need to include the social dimension in answering
    these types of questions

50
Elusive Measures
  • Technical
  • Current status of population
  • Size
  • Rate of population change
  • Reproductive capacity
  • Seasonal requirements
  • Social
  • Public education
  • Public support
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