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Violence, Abuse, and Harassment


... sexual abuse, exploitation, or ... Elder abuse is a serious problem for women because they generally live longer ... involves a male harasser and a female victim ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Violence, Abuse, and Harassment

Chapter 14
Violence, Abuse, and Harassment
What is Violence?
  "The intentional use of physical force or
power, threatened or actual, against oneself,
another person, or against a group or community,
which either results in or has a high likelihood
of resulting in injury, death, psychological
harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation."         
     World Health Organization
WHO's Classification of Violence
  • Self-directed violence
  • Suicidal behavior 
  • Self-mutilation
  • Risk factors include female gender,
    adolescence/college age, and previous history of
  • Interpersonal violence
  • Family/partner violencestalking, domestic
    battering, elder abuse, child abuse, rape
  • Community violencerobbery, carjackings,
    aggravated assault, rape, homicide, sexual

WHO's Classification of Violence (continued)
  • Collective Violence
  • Violence directed at a specific nation or
    population armed conflicts genocide,
    repression, and other human rights abuses
    terrorism organized violent crime
  • Violence directed at women as a group female
    genital mutilation, female infanticide,
    trafficking, acts of rape during war

Perspectives on Violence
Sociocultural Issues
  • Events that trigger violence
  • Not obeying ones husband/partner
  • Talking back to ones husband/partner
  • Not having food ready on time
  • Failing to care adequately for children or home
  • Questioning ones husband/partner about money or
  • Going somewhere without permission
  • Refusing ones husband or partner sex
  • Expressing suspicions of infidelity

Violence Against Women in the U.S.
  • Four major types of violent crime simple
    assault, aggravated assault, rape/sexual assault,
    and robbery
  • Most common crime is simple assault.
  • Most female victims of violence are attacked by
    someone they know.

Historical Trends
  • U.S. courts did not criminalize wife beating
    until the twentieth century
  • Spanish explorers used female Native American
    captives for sexual services
  • Seventeenth-century New England female servants
    represented one-third of rape victims
  • African female servants in the South were
    victimized by white overseers

Links Between Poverty and Violence, Drug and
  • Stresses of poverty make violence more likely to
    occur (for women and men)
  • Lack of a safety net makes violence harder to
  • Women in families with the lowest household
    incomes are victimized seven times more than
    women with the highest household incomes.

Other Influences on Violence
  • Alcohol/Drug Influences
  • 75 of victims report alcohol/drug use by the
    offender at the time of the crime
  • Substance use and abuse are consistently
    associated with violence
  • Media Influences
  • 1 in 5 children (ages 1017 years) receives
    unwanted sexual solicitations on the Internet

Global Issues
Violence is against women is present in every
country and setting, but the amount of violence
varies. Between 15 and 71 of women have
experienced some partner violence. At some point
in their lives.
  • Violence is associated with
  • Rural settings
  • Poverty
  • Societies with regressive views about women
  • Low education
  • Growing up in a violent household

Costs of Victimization
  • U.S. government spent 167 billion for police
    protection, corrections, and judicial and legal
    activities in 2001
  • Victims and families received 370 million in
    compensation benefits in 2001

Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)
  • Made crossing state lines to continue to abuse a
    spouse/partner a crime
  • Created tough new penalties for sex offenders
  • Prohibited anyone facing a restraining order for
    domestic abuse from possessing a firearm
  • Provided substantial commitment of federal
    resources for police and prevention service
  • Required sexual offenders to pay restitution to
    their victims
  • Reauthorized in 2013 and expanded to allow
    greater protections for Native Americans and

Violence Against Women Act, Cont.
  • Required states to pay for rape examinations
  • Provided funds for federal victim-witness
  • Extended rape shield laws to protect crime
    victims (no abusive inquiries into a womans
    private conduct allowed)
  • Required that released offenders report to local
    enforcement authorities

Global Issues
  • 20 to 50 of the female population worldwide
    will become victims of domestic violence in their
  • Sexual violence in health-care settings
  • Sexual harassment by providers
  • Genital mutilation
  • Forced gynecological exams
  • Obligatory inspections of virginity
  • Child abuse and trafficking
  • Rape as a weapon of war
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina, Sudan, and other locations
  • Progress being made in many areas

Family and Intimate Violence Stalking
  • Reported visual or physical proximity (on two or
    more occasions)
  • Nonconsensual communication
  • Verbal, written, or implied threats
  • A combination thereof that would cause fear in a
    reasonable person

Family and Intimate Violence
  • Stalking realities
  • 81 of women stalked by a current husband, former
    husband, or cohabitating partner were physically
    assaulted by that partner
  • 31 of women stalked were sexually abused by that
  • First anti-stalking law was passed in California
    in 1990
  • Cyberstalking is a factor in 20 to 40 of all
    stalking cases reported

Domestic Violence (Battering)
  • Root causes
  • Growing up in a cycle of violence and abuse
  • Distorted concepts of manhood
  • Insecurity, feelings of loss of power and control
  • Poverty and unemployment
  • Lack of housing and displacement
  • Alcohol and substance abuse
  • Hopelessness and despair
  • Circumstances of racism and injustice

Domestic Violence
Domestic Violence
  • Battering in same-sex relationships
  • In 2001, there were over 5,000 reported incidents
    of same-sex domestic violence 43 identified as
  • Fewer protective measures and protective services
    in place for lesbian victims
  • Battering during pregnancy
  • Each year, as many as 324,000 pregnant women
    experience intimate partner violence
  • Linked to an increased risk of miscarriage,
    premature labor, fetal distress, and low
  • Battering in women with disabilities
  • Most commonly abused by intimate partner, family
    member, personal care attendant

Child Abuse and Maltreatment
  • Roughly 700,000 U.S. children are victims of
    abuse every year
  • Women represent nearly 60 of all perpetrators
    (but a greater of caretakers)
  • Almost 1,500 children die a year from abuse or
  • Major types of maltreatment of children physical
    abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect,
    and medical neglect

Elder Abuse
  • Three major situations for abuse of the elderly
  • Domestic abuse
  • Institutional abuse
  • Self-neglect

Seven types of elder abuse
  1. Physical elder abuse
  2. Sexual elder abuse
  3. Emotional elder abuse
  4. Financial exploitation

5. Neglect 6. Self-neglect 7. Abandonment
Rape and Sexual Assault
  • More than 200,000 reported victims of rape,
    attempted rape, or sexual assault in the United
    States a year
  • Date rape drugsRohypnol, GHB, GBL, Special
    Khave been used in many cases
  • Nine of ten victims of rape were female
  • 67 of rape victims know their assailants
  • About 44 of rape victims are under the age of 18
  • Marital rape only became a crime in all 50 states
    20 years ago.

Reducing Risk of Date Rape
  • Be wary of dominance by partner in a
  • Be wary when a date tries to control behavior or
    pressures others in any way.
  • Be explicit with communication and stating no.
  • Avoid ambiguous messages with verbal and
    nonverbal behavior.
  • Consider first dates in a group setting.
  • Avoid remote or isolated spots.
  • Limit alcohol and drug use.

Violence by Strangers
Common crimes increasing
  • Carjacking
  • Robbery
  • Murder
  • Gang violence
  • Sexual assault
  • Rape

Hate crimes
  • Roughly 7,500 hate crimes are reported a year
  • Most motivated by race but also by religion,
    orientation, ethnicity or disability

Sexual Harassment
  • Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual
    favors, and other verbal or physical actions of a
    sexual nature where
  • Submission to this conduct is a term or condition
    of an individuals employment (directly or
    implied) OR
  • A persons acceptance or rejection of the sexual
    conduct becomes used for employment decisions, OR
  • The conduct unreasonably interferes with a
    persons work performance, or creates an
    intimidating, hostile or offensive working
  • --Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

  • Sexual Harassment Doesnt Just Occur at the

More than half of female students have been
subjected to inappropriate sexual comments and
jokes and more than 1/3 have experienced physical
harassment. Less than 10 reported the incident.
  • If you are sexually harassed (or if you witness
    sexual harassment)
  • Let the offending person know that the behavior
    is unwanted and inappropriate
  • If the behavior continues
  • Inform appropriate authority figure (dean,
    supervisor, HR department, etc)
  • Let other people know about the behavior can
    gain social support, and you may not be the only

Ending Violence Against Women
  • Have you, or has someone you know, been affected
    by violence?
  • How, if at all, was the problem resolved?
  • What are some ways to prevent violence and get
    help to women who need it?