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Characteristics of Living Things

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Characteristics of Living Things Living things are made of cells. Living things reproduce Living things are based on genetic code Living things grow and develop – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Characteristics of Living Things


1
Characteristics of Living Things
  • Living things are made of cells.
  • Living things reproduce
  • Living things are based on genetic code
  • Living things grow and develop
  • Living things obtain and use energy
  • Living things respond to the environment
  • Living things maintain a stable internal
    environment
  • Living things change over time

2
Todays Modern Kingdoms
  • Prokaryotes- simple cells
  • Eubacteria- normal bacteria found everywhere
  • Archaebacteria- unusual bacteria found in hot
    springs, brine pools and mud
  • Eukaryotes- complex cells with nucleii
  • Fungus- mold, mushrooms, etc. decomposers
  • Protists- microscopic left over group
  • Plants- make food
  • Animals- consumers of food

2
1
3
BacteriaHow is the world we live in impacted by
things that you cant see?
Health Social Education
4
Bacteria
  • Bacteria are living things that are neither
    plants nor animals.
  • Two Kingdoms Eubacteria Archaebacteria
  • Prokaryotes all bacteria. have no nucleus or
    complex organelles

5
Salmonella typhimurium (invading human cells)
6
E. coli
E. coli
7
Typical Eubacterial Cell
  • Bacteria (prokaryotes) are simpler than
    eukaryotes
  • Cell wall
  • Protects from injury
  • Determines shape
  • Made of peptidoglycan (carbohydrate molecules
    linked by proteins)

8
Shapes of Bacteria
  • Spiral-shaped?Spirilla
  • Sphere-shaped?Cocci
  • Rod-shaped?Bacilli

9
Where???
  • Eubacteria live almost everywhere
  • Fresh water
  • Salt water
  • Land
  • On within your body!

10
Archaebacteria
  • Chemically different from eubacteria
  • Lack peptidoglycan cell walls
  • DNA sequences differ from eubacteria
  • Extremophiles
  • Can live in extremely harsh environments
  • Acidic pH, temperature, saline, anaerobic(no
    oxygen)

11
Yellowstone Geyser
12
Archaebacteria vs. Eubacteria
  • Live in extreme environments
  • Chemically different
  • Cell wall lacks peptidoglycan (carbohydrate)
  • Live in non-extreme environments
  • Chemically different
  • Cell wall contains peptidoglycan (carbohydrate)

13
Name the shape!
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14
Bacteria Reproduction
  • Binary Fission
  • 1.Doubles in size
  • 2.Doubles DNA
  • 3.Splits into two
  • Conjugation
  • 1.Bridge forms between two cells
  • 2.Genes move from one cell to another
  • Spore Formation
  • 1.Thick wall within bacteria forms to protect its
    DNA
  • 2.Cell is now a spore, and goes into hibernation
    until more favorable conditions return

15
Growth Rates
  • Given good growing conditions, a bacteria can
    grow and divide at astonishing rates.
  • If the environment is optimal, bacteria cells can
    divide as often as every twenty minutes.

16
Disease Caused by Bacteria
  • Pathogens-disease causing agents
  • Two ways bacteria cause disease
  • 1. Digesting cells
  • 2. Produce toxins

17
Preventing Bacterial Disease
  • Antibiotics block the growth and reproduction of
    bacteria(not viruses)
  • Vaccines weakened pathogens injected into body
    to produce resistance

18
Methods used to control bacterial growth
  1. Sterilization by heat-great heat
  2. Disinfectants-chemical solutions that kill
    pathogenic bacteria
  3. Food storage and processing-refrigeration,
    canning, preservatives
  4. Dehydrate food

19
Importance of Bacteria
  • Decomposers
  • Recycle nutrients from dead organisms back into
    the ecosystem
  • Ex A tree dies bacteria attack and digest dead
    tissue, break it down into simpler material and
    return it to the soil.

20
Human Uses of Bacteria
  • Production of foods and beverages
  • Oil spill clean up
  • Removal of waste and poison from water
  • Mining of minerals
  • making essential vitamins in body
  • Production of medicines and chemicals

21
Where is good bacteria found?
  1. Digestive tract
  2. Skin
  3. Mouth
  4. Urinary tract
  5. Genital areas
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