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Educational Technology Learning Theory

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Learning is a process of connecting specialized ... Comparing The 4 Models. http://ci484-learning-technologies.wikispaces.com/Behaviorism,+Cognitivism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Educational Technology Learning Theory


1
Educational Technology Learning Theory
  • Kim Peacock, M.Ed.

2
Learning Theory
  • Social theory
  • Communication theory
  • Media studies
  • Technology theories
  • Neuroscience
  • Etc

3
Epistimology (aka How Can We Know)
  • Empiricism (experience)
  • Knowledge comes from sensory input experiences
    that get meshed together into complex
    associations.
  • Empirical truths (things are proven to be true).
  • Learning comes in controlling the environment

4
Epistimology (aka How Can We Know)
  • Rationalism (reason)
  • Knowledge is already in the mind. Learning and
    comes from reflection on what learners know
    combined what they observe (aka reasoning).
  • A priori truths (things are just true based on
    reason)
  • Learning comes in making connections with prior
    knowledge.

5
Three Main Theoretical Perspectives
  • Behaviourism
  • Cognitivism
  • Cognitive Load Theory
  • Constructivism

6
A Fourth Perspective ???
  • Connectivism ???
  • Others...

7
Behaviourism
  • Key theorists Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike, Skinner
  • The mind is a black box.
  • Learning is an expected response to a given
    stimulus we cant see what goes on in the black
    box.

8
The Motto of the Behaviourist
  • Practice Makes Perfect!

9
Behaviourism Key Ideas
  • Stimulus-response (repetition)
  • Operant conditioning (reinforcement)
  • Punishment
  • Consequences
  • Modelling
  • Shaping
  • Cuing
  • Drill and practice

10
Behaviourism Instructivism
  • Aka Direct instruction
  • Aka - Teacher-directed
  • Primary mode Lecture

11
Behaviourist Educational Practices
  • Learning objectives / curriculum
  • Direct instruction
  • Behaviour analysis
  • Classroom management techniques
  • Choice
  • Rewards

12
Behaviourist Technologies
  • Math Blaster

13
Behaviourist Technologies
  • iClickers

14
Behaviourist Technologies
  • Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
  • Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA)

15
Behaviourist Technologies
  • Online Tutorials

16
Behaviourist Technologies
  • TED Talks / YouTube

17
Behaviourist Technologies
  • Brainpop

18
Behaviourist Technologies
  • Foursquare, Huffingtonpost

19
Behaviourist Technologies
  • Microquest games (e.g., Robinson)

20
Behaviourist Technologies
  • The Future? http//www.youtube.com/watch?vI3ih-sm
    6hxA

21
Criticisms of Behaviourism
  • Grossly oversimplifies learning
  • Learning is not always tied to behaviours
  • Learning does not require rewards or punishments
  • The mind is not a black box
  • People adapt

22
Drill Time!
  • Tweet me another behaviourist technology and tell
    me why you feel it is behaviourist. Dont forget
    edit202!

23
Cognitivism
  • Emerged in the 1900s as a response to
    behaviourism got big in the 50s/60s.
  • Key theorists Piaget, Gagne, Vygotsky, Bruner
  • Beyond behaviour and into the black box
  • Memory systems are active, organized processors
    of information
  • Prior knowledge is key in learning

24
Cognitivist Motto
  • The mind is a computer.

25
Cognitivism - Key Ideas
  • Schema/scaffolding
  • Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model (Sensory/ST/LT
    Memory)
  • Working memory
  • Meaningful effect
  • Motivation
  • Seriality

26
Cognitivism - Key Ideas
  • Practice for retention
  • Organization
  • Mneumonic devices
  • Metaphor / Symbolism
  • Memory palace
  • Mental maps
  • Advance organizers

27
Cognitive Load Theory
  • Processing information can over or under load
    working memory.
  • Things must run smoothly in order for meaningful
    learning to occur.
  • Key Theorists Miller, Sweller
  • Example High falutin mumbo jumbo
  • Example Learning in another language
  • Example Overstimulation

28
Cognitive Load Key Ideas
  • Chunking
  • Learning structures
  • Instructional design
  • Means-ends analysis (inching closer)
  • Intrinsic load (difficulty)
  • Extraneous load (simplicity)
  • Germane load (schemas/connections)
  • Error / Fundamental Attribution Error

29
Working Memory
  • Working memory is the system which actively holds
    multiple pieces of transitory information in the
    mind when needed for verbal and nonverbal tasks
    such as reasoning and comprehension, and to make
    them available for further information
    processing.
  • Becker Morris (1999)
  • It has replaced Atkinson Shiffrins STM

30
Cognitive Load Implications for EdTech
  • What things look like matter
  • User Interface
  • HCI
  • General Aesthetic
  • How things are organized matter
  • Navigational structures
  • Layout of information

31
Cognitivist Technologies
  • Scratch

32
Cognitivist Technologies
  • Digital Concept Mapping

33
Cognitivist Technologies
  • Prezi

34
Cognitivist Technologies
  • Databases

35
Cognitivist Technologies
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Learning theorists and computer scientists
    often work together in this area.

36
Criticisms of Cognitivism
  • Ignores the affective and psychomotor
  • Too focused on knowledge difficult to measure
    understanding and HOTS
  • The brain is not a computer

37
Drill Time!
  • Tweet me an example of a web tool or site that
    has high extraneous load. Label it edit202 AND
    extraneousload

38
Constructivsm
  • Emerged in the early 1930s
  • Key Theorists Dewey, Kolb, Montessori, Piaget,
    Bruner, Jonassen
  • The mind is a rhizome (network)
  • Teacher as facilitator

39
Constructivism
  • Learning is building connections by actively
    interacting with the environment
  • begin with complex problems and teach basic
    skills while solving these problems
  • learning involves constructing one's own
    knowledge from one's own experiences

40
Jonassons Definition
  • Learners construct their own reality or at least
    interpret it based upon their perceptions of
    experiences, so an individual's knowledge is a
    function of one's prior experiences, mental
    structures, and beliefs that are used to
    interpret objects and events.... What someone
    knows is grounded in perception of the physical
    and social experiences which are comprehended by
    the mind."
  • Jonasson, 1991

41
David Jonasson
  • Constructivism and Technology
  • Computers in the Classroom Mindtools for
    Critical Thinking (1996)
  • http//web.missouri.edu/jonassend/

42
Constructivism Key Ideas
  • Problem-based learning
  • Project-based learning
  • Authentic tasks
  • Discovery learning
  • Case-based learning
  • Collaborative learning
  • Active learning (responsibility on learners)
  • Vygotskys Zone of proximal development

43
Seymour Papert
  • Constructionism
  • Learning is most effective when learners create
    tangible, real-world objects.
  • Learning by making
  • Mindstorms Children, Computers, and Powerful
    Ideas (1980)
  • Father of Lego Robotics
  • http//www.papert.org/

44
Merrills Assumptions of Constructivism
  • Knowledge is constructed from experience
  • Learning is a personal interpretation of the
    world
  • Learning is an active process in which meaning is
    developed on the basis of experience

45
Merrills Assumptions of Constructivism
  • Conceptual growth comes from the negotiation of
    meaning, the sharing of multiple perspectives and
    the changing of our internal representations
    through collaborative learning
  • Learning should be situated in realistic
    settings testing should be integrated with the
    task and not a separate activity (Merrill, 1991,
    in Smorgansbord, 1997)

46
Constructivist Technologies
  • Many video games

47
Constructivist Technologies
  • Lego Robotics (Constructionist)

48
Constructivist Technologies
  • Technology as tool A means to an end
  • Google Sites
  • Wikispaces
  • PB Works
  • Blogger
  • Wordpress
  • Etc...

49
Constructivist Tech Strategy
  • Webquests Bernie Dodge webquest.org

50
Aside Constructivist Schools
  • Quest 2 Learn http//q2l.org/
  • High Tech High http//www.hightechhigh.org/
  • New Tech High http//newtechhigh.org/
  • Edutopia Schools That Work
  • http//www.edutopia.org/schools-that-work

51
Criticisms of Constructivism
  • Time consuming
  • Subjective learning
  • Mature learners required
  • Difficult assessment
  • Impractical without prior knowledge
  • Lack of research / empirical evidence

52
An Important Note
  • Constructivism is COMPLEX!
  • You can take entire courses on it.
  • This is a very, very simplified version...

53
Drill Time!
  • Tweet me an example of a good constructivist
    learning activity you can do in your major/minor
    area. Tag it edit202 AND constructivism

54
Connectivism
  • Theory that has emerged since 2006
  • Learning is the process of creating connections
    and developing a network
  • Key theorists George Siemens (http//www.connecti
    vism.ca) and Stephen Downes
  • Key work http//www.elearnspace.org/Articles/conn
    ectivism.htm

55
Connectivism Motto
  • A learning theory for the digital age.

56
What is Connectivism?
  • What is Learning to Me? http//www.youtube.com/wat
    ch?vbVwxDzCTEa8

57
What is Connectivism?
  • At its heart, connectivism is the thesis that
    knowledge is distributed across a network of
    connections, and therefore that learning consists
    of the ability to construct and traverse those
    networks

58
What is Connectivism?
  • It shares with some other theories a core
    proposition, that knowledge is not acquired, as
    though it were a thing Knowledge is, on this
    theory, literally the set of connections formed
    by actions and experience.
  • Stephen Downes

59
Layperson Definition
  • Fast forward to today and connectivism is all
    the rage. In this digital era, we recognise that
    theres simply too much knowledge to take in
    and it changes too quickly anyway. So forget
    about trying to know everything instead, build
    your network of knowledge sources, and access
    them whenever you need them.
  • Ryan Tracey http//ryan2point0.wordpress.com/2009/
    03/17/ instructivism-constructivism-or-connectivis
    m/

60
The Need for Connectivism
  • A central tenet of most learning theories is that
    learning occurs inside a person. Even social
    constructivist views, which hold that learning is
    a socially enacted process, promotes the
    principality of the individual (and her/his
    physical presence i.e. brain-based) in
    learning. These theories do not address learning
    that occurs outside of people (i.e. learning that
    is stored and manipulated by technology). They
    also fail to describe how learning happens within
    organizations
  • George Siemens http//www.elearnspace.org/Articles
    /connectivism.htm

61
Connectivism Key Principles
  • Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of
    opinions.
  • Learning is a process of connecting specialized
    nodes or information sources.
  • Learning may reside in non-human appliances.
  • Capacity to know more is more critical than what
    is currently known
  • Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed
    to facilitate continual learning.
  • Ability to see connections between fields, ideas,
    and concepts is a core skill.

62
Connectivism Key Principles
  • Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the
    intent of all connectivist learning activities.
  • Decision-making is itself a learning process.
    Choosing what to learn and the meaning of
    incoming information is seen through the lens of
    a shifting reality. While there is a right answer
    now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations
    in the information climate affecting the
    decision.
  • George Siemens http//www.itdl.org/Journal/Jan_05/
    article01.htm

63
Networks and Nodes
  • Networks are a set of connected notes.
  • Nodes are anything that can be connected to
    another node.
  • Nodes can include people, information, data,
    feelings, images, etc...
  • Learning can exist outside of people
  • It is more important to know-where to find
    things in your network than to know-how or
    know-what

64
The Network IS the Learning
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vrpbkdeyFxZw

65
Practicing What They Preach
  • MOOC!
  • http//cck11.mooc.ca/index.html

66
Connectivist Technologies
  • Twitter

67
Connectivist Technologies
  • Social Networking

68
Connectivist Technologies
  • RSS Feeds and Newsreaders

69
Connectivist Technologies
  • Bookmarking Apps

70
Connectivist Technologies
  • Search Engines

71
Connectivist Technologies
  • Any communication tool
  • Email
  • Webcam
  • Chat
  • VC
  • Discussion forums

72
Connectivist Technologies
  • Anywhere we can store data
  • Databases
  • Intranets
  • Drives
  • WWW
  • Servers

73
Criticisms of Connectivism
  • Informal vs. formal learning
  • Is it really a new theory?
  • http//jennymackness.wordpress.com/2011/02/25/atta
    cks-on-connectivism/
  • http//stranack.ca/2012/08/16/critical-review-of-c
    onnectivism-a-learning-theory-for-the-digital-age/

74
Internal Criticism
  • Downes Socialization should not be a goal of
    education.
  • Siemens Groups are networks.

75
Drill Time!
  • Connectivism or Constructivism? Which one do you
    connect with more? Why? Tag it edit202 and cvsc

76
Comparing The 4 Models
  • http//ci484-learning-technologies.wikispaces.com/
    Behaviorism,Cognitivism,Constructivism26Conne
    ctivism

77
BCCC 1
  • Scenario Learning Pythagorean Theorem
  • Behaviourist Practice, practice, practice
  • Cognitivist Connect to prior knowledge. Show
    how it works.
  • Constructivist Give real life application
    situations where the PT can be applied.
  • Connectivist Here are 5 links that show how, why
    and applications of PT.

78
BCCC 2
  • Scenario Learning grammar rules
  • Behaviourist Worksheets!
  • Cognitivist Use mneumonics to remember rules.
    Practice in context.
  • Constructivist Write stories, essays, etc... And
    correct grammar as you go.
  • Connectivist Bookmark 5 good grammar sites and
    find a good grammar checking program.

79
Drill Time
  • BCCC3 Tweet me a scenario to discuss. Tag it
    edit202 AND bccc

80
Blooms Taxonomy (Cognitive)
Lorin Anderson
81
Blooms Digital Taxonomy
Andrew Churches
82
Mike Fishers Interpretation
83
Theories of Technology
84
Media Ecology
  • Technology influences society
  • Key theorists Postman, McLuhan,
  • We are currently in the digital era.
  • The medium is the message.
  • Hot (low involvement) and cool (high involvement)
    media

85
What is Media Ecology?
  • "the study of media environments, the idea that
    technology and techniques, modes of information
    and codes of communication play a leading role in
    human affairs.
  • The Media Ecology Association

86
SCOT
  • Social Construction of Technology
  • Society and human action influence technology
  • Key theorists Bijker, Pinch
  • Bicycle example
  • Symmetry
  • Closure
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