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Title: Ultimate AP BIOLOGY REVIEW


1
Ultimate AP BIOLOGY REVIEW
2
Question 1
  • Isotopes Isotopes are atoms with the same number
    of protons but differ in number of neutrons
    e.g., a carbon atom has six protons but may have
    more or less than usual six neutrons
  • Valence Shell Outer shell of an atom. Atoms with
    few electrons in their valence shell tend to have
    more free electrons since these valence electrons
    are more loosely bound to the nucleus.

3
Continue 1
  • Ionic Bonds Ionic bonds form when electrons are
    transferred from one atom to another. Losing or
    gaining electrons, atoms participating in ionic
    reactions fill outer shells, and are more stable.
  • Covalent Bonds Covalent bonds result when two
    atoms share electrons so each atom has octet of
    electrons in the outer shell. . Structural
    formulas represent shared atom as a line between
    two atoms e.g., single covalent bond (H-H),
    double covalent bond (OO)Three dimensional shape
    of molecules is not represented by structural
    formulas but shape is critical in understanding
    the biological action of molecules action of
    insulin, HIV receptors, etc.

4
Question 2
  • Hydrogen Bond forms between
  • slightly positive hydrogen atom of one molecule
    and slightly negative atom in another or the same
    molecule.

5
Question 3
  • pH is a measure of
  • How acidic or basic a solution is.
  • Acidic Solution has more H ions
  • Basic Solution has more OH ions

6
Question 4
  • Buffer is
  • keep pH steady and within normal limits in living
    organisms..

7
Question 5
  • Isomer is
  • Are molecules or molecular compounds that are
    similar in that they have the same molecular
    formula, however have different arrangements of
    the atoms or groups of atoms (functional groups)
    involved.
  • Example Fructose and glucose (C6H12O6) same
    molecular formula but different arrangements

8
Question 6
  • -OH Hydroxyl
  • CO Carbonyl
  • -COOH Carboxyl
  • -NH2 Amino group
  • -SH Sulfhydryl group
  • -OPO3 Phosphate group

9
Question 7
  • Hydrolysis Reaction
  • Reaction that breaks down compounds by the
    addition of H2O
  • Dehydration synthesis reaction
  • Reaction in which two compounds are brought
    together with H2O released as a product
  • Endergonic reaction
  • A reaction that requires the input of energy to
    occur
  • ABenergy? C
  • Exergonic reaction
  • A reaction that gives off energy as a product
  • AB?Energy C
  • Redox reaction
  • A reaction involving the transfer of electrongs

10
Question 8
  • General formula for monosaccharides are CnH2nOn
  • Example C6H12O6 (Glucose)
  • Simple Sugar
  • Function Sugar found in Nucleic Acid
  • Glucose Sugar for the body
  • ATP Cell Energy

11
Question 9
  • Polysaccharides Carbohydrate containing 3 or
    more monosaccharides
  • Storage form of energy
  • Structural material in and around cells
  • Difference between
  • Glycogen Glucose molecules linked together
    (animal energy storage)
  • Starch Glucose linked together (Plants energy
    storage)
  • Cellulose composed of glucose molecules
    formation of cell walls
  • Chitin Glucose molecules joined together-
    Arthopods exoskeleton

12
Question 10
  • Structural Components of the following
  • Fats Lipids made by combining glycerol and three
    fatty acids. Used as long-term energy stores in
    cells
  • Phospholipids is a lipid formed by combining a
    glycerol molecule with two fatty acids and a
    phosphate group bilayered structure component
    in cell membrane
  • Steroids are lipids composed of four carbon
    rings that look like chicken wire.
  • Examples Cholesterol, sex hormones

?Cholesterol
Testosterone ?
13
Question 11
  • Protein Chains
  • Primary Structure Sequence of amino acids to
    form a polypeptide chain (protein)
  • Secondary Structure 3-D arrangement of a protein
    caused by hydrogen bonding at regular intervals
    along the polypeptide backbone
  • Tertiary Structure 3-D arrangement of protein
    caused by interactions among the various R groups
    of the amino acids involved.
  • Quaternary structure The arrangement of separate
    polypeptide subunits into a single protein

14
Question 12
  • Enzymes are proteins that act as organic catalyst
    (speed up reaction by lowering the energy
    (activation energy) needed for the reaction to
    take place but are not used up in the reaction.

15
Continue 12
  • Induced-fit model of enzyme-substrate
    interaction describes the active site of an
    enzyme as specific for a particular substrate
    that fits its shape.
  • Allosteric enzyme An allosteric enzyme is an
    enzyme that contains a region to which small,
    regulatory molecules ("effectors") may bind in
    addition to and separate from the substrate
    binding site and thereby affect the catalytic
    activity. On binding the effector, the catalytic
    activity of the enzyme towards the substrate may
    be enhanced, in which case the effector is an
    activator, or reduced, in which case it is a
    de-activator or inhibitor

16
Continue 12
  • Four ways enzymes can be affected
  • Temperature
  • pH
  • Concentration of the substrate
  • Concentration of the enzyme involved

17
Question 13
  • Prokaryotic Simple cell
  • No nucleus
  • Nucleoid Genetic material
  • No membrane bond organelles
  • Eukaryotic is more complex
  • Nucleus
  • Membrane bound organelles

18
Question 14
  • Ribosomes protein synthesis
  • Smooth ER lipids synthesis, detoxification, and
    carbohydrate metabolism
  • Rough ER Ribosome are attached proteins are
    produced
  • Golgi apparatus proteins, lipids, and other
    macromolecules sent to the Golgi to be modified
    by the addition of sugars and other molecules to
    form glycoproteins products form vesicles
  • Mitochondria powerhouseATP is made here
  • Lysosome Digestion center
  • Nucleus Control center, contains DNA (genetic
    material)
  • Vacuole Storage (Plants have a larger structure)
  • Chloroplast Plants only site for photosynthesis

19
Question 15
  • Fluid Mosaic Model the membrane consist of a
    phospholipid bilayer with proteins of various
    lengths and sizes interspersed with cholesterol
    among the phospholipids.
  • Two types of proteins in the cell membrane
  • Integral proteins implanted within the bilayer
    and can extend partway or all the way across the
    membrane
  • Peripheral proteins such as receptor proteins,
    which are not implanted in the bilayer and are
    often attached to integral proteins of the
    membrane

20
Question 16
  • Difference between
  • Diffusion movement of molecules down their
    concentration gradient with the use of energy
    (area of higher concentration to lower
    concentration)
  • Osmosis movement of water down its concentration
    gradient (passive diffusion). Going from a higher
    water concentration to area of lower water
    concentration
  • Active Transport is the movement of a particle
    across a selectively permeable membrane against
    the concentration gradient (Going from low to
    high concentration)

21
Question 17
  • Hyperosmotic (Hypertonic) moving of water from a
    high solute in the environment to area of low
    solute concentration to environment. The water
    will move out of the cell

60 water 40 solute
40 water 60 solute
22
Continue 17
  • Hypoosmotic (hypotonic) Is when the solute
    concentration is more in the cell than outside
    the cell. The water will move in of the cell

40 Water 60 Solute
60 water 40 solute
23
Continue 17
  • Isosmotic (Isotonic) The solute and water is on
    the same on both sides

50 solute 50 water
50 solute 50 water
24
Question 18
  • Phases of Mitosis
  • Prophase Nuclear envelope disappears, chromatids
    appear, centrioles moves to poles
  • Metaphase chromosomes move toward the center
    Spindle are attached to the centromere
  • Anaphase Chromatids separate and move toward the
    poles
  • Telophase Chromatids move toward each poles,
    nuclear envelope reappears, cytokinesis begins

25
Question 19
  • Mitosis is the dividing of body cells
  • Daughter cells will have the exact number
    chromosomes as the parent cells
  • Meiosis is the dividing of sex cells
  • Daughter cells will have half the number of
    chromosomes as the parent cells

26
Question 20
  • Cell cycle includes
  • Interphase the stage that prepares the cell for
    the cell division
  • Mitosis is the division of the nucleus
  • Cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm

27
Control Mechanismp. 89 and 90 in paperback
  • This is the way in which the cell has a type of
    check and balance system that ensures the cell is
    correct
  • Checkpoints
  • Density-dependent inhibition
  • Growth Factors
  • Cyclin and Protein kinases
  • You may want to go back and look over this
    information

28
Question 21
Mitosis Meiosis
Number of cells 2 diploid cells 4 haploid cells
Crossing over No Yes-Prophase I
Number of phases 1 (IPMATC) 2 (IPMATC PMATC) No Interphase in the second phase
Types of cells Body (Somatic) Cells Sex (Gamete) Cells
Number of chromosomes Same number of chromosomes as the parent cell Diploid Different number of chromosomes as the parent cell Haploid
Genetics Genetically Identical to the parent cell Genetically different to the parent cell
29
Question 22
  • The difference between meiosis I and meiosis II
    is that the cell does not go through interphase
    (Chromsome replication) during meiosis II. This
    will allow the cells to have half the number of
    chromsomes (haploid).

30
Question 23
  • Crossing over is when the homologous chromosomes
    match up during prophase I of meiosis,
    complementary pieces from the two homologous
    chromosomes wrap around each other and are
    exchanged between the chromosomes.

31
Question 24
  • Three parts to a nucleotide are5 carbon sugar,
    phosphate, and nitrogen base
  • Serves as a puzzle piece to the nucleic acid
    strand (RNA or DNA)
  • Adenine and guanine are purines
  • Cytosine and Thymine are pyrimidine
  • Base pairing states that Adenine will pair up
    with thymine and Cytosine will pair up with
    Guanine (AppleTart and GoCart)

32
Question 25
  • DNA replication occurs during the S-phase
    (interphase), semiconservative (which the one
    strands serves a template)
  • Built in the 5 to 3 direction
  • DNA helicase will unzip the strand by breaking
    the hydrogen bonds producing a replication fork
  • Specific regions along DNA strand serve as primer
    sites that signal where replication should
    originate
  • DNA polymerase enzyme superstar binds to the
    primer site and adds nucleotides to the growing
    DNA chain (will only add to the 3 end)

33
Continue 25 (REPLICATION)
  • The DNA polymerase only being used on the 3
    creates a problem which only allows the one
    strand to add nucleotides this is known as the
    leading strand.
  • The other strand is known as the lagging strand
  • The lagging strand consist of tiny pieces called
    Okazaki fragments, which are later connected by
    an enzyme called DNA ligase to produce the
    completed double stranded DNA molecule
  • RNA primer allows for the RNA strand to bind to
    the DNA strand (this occurs during replication)

34
Question 26
  • DNA can only stay in the nucleus so it must send
    its instructions out to the cell. This is done by
    the second nucleic acid (RNA).
  • Because DNA and RNA have very similar language it
    allows it to be accomplished.

35
Continue Question 26
  • Transcription is the process of taking DNA to a
    RNA strand (Occurs in the nucleus)
  • This is done by three steps
  • Initiation When RNA polymerase attaches to the
    promoter region of a DNA strand
  • Elongation a promoter region recognition site
    that shows the polymerase where transcription
    will begin. Once RNA polymerase works by adding
    the appropriate RNA nucleotide to the 3 of the
    growing strand
  • Termination tells the polymerase should
    conclude

36
Continue Question 26
  • Translation process by which the mRNA specified
    sequence of amino acids is lined up on a ribosome
    for protein synthesis (mRNA ? DNA)
  • Each amino acid carries a specific
    nucleotides/codes (codon)
  • Start Codon AUG
  • Stop Codon UAA, UAG, UGA
  • Anticodon is the complementary to the codon
    (tRNA) that has been incorporated into the
    growing protein

37
Question 27
  • Define the following
  • Promoter a base sequence that signals the start
    site of genes transcription this is where RNA
    polymerase binds to the begin the process
  • Operator a short sequence near the promoter
    that assists in transcription by interacting with
    regulatory proteins
  • Operon promoter/operator pair that services
    multiple genes
  • Well known example is the lac operon
  • Repressor protein that prevents the binding of
    RNA polymerase to the promoter site
  • Enhancer DNA region also known as regulator
    that is located thousands of bases away frm the
    promoter
  • Inducer a molecule that binds to and inactivates
    a repressor

38
Continue Question 27
  • Structural Gene one that specifies the amino
    acid sequence of a polypeptide chain

39
Question 28
  • Energy is
  • The ability to do work

40
Question 29
  • Entropy is the measure of amount of energy that
    is not available for work

41
Question 30
  • ATP power cellular work the energy currency of
    cells (adenosine triphosphate) Functions1.
    CHEMICAL WORK - Supplies energy needed to make
    macromolecules that make up the cell (and
    organism)2. TRANSPORT WORK - Supplies energy
    needed to pump substances across the cell
    membrane3. MECHANICAL WORK - supplies energy
    needed to make muscles contract and other
    cellular parts to move (flagella)

42
Question 31
  • Glycolysis
  • a) a ten-step process that occurs in the
    cytoplasmb) converts each molecule of glucose to
    two molecules of pyruvic acid (a 3-carbon
    molecule)c) an anaerobic process - proceeds
    whether or not O2 is present O2 is not
    requiredd) net yield of 2 ATP per glucose
    moleculee) net yield of 2 NADH per glucose (NADH
    is nicotine adenine dinucleotide, a co-enzyme
    that serves as a carrier for H ions liberated as
    glucose is oxidized.)

43
Continue31
  • Kreb Cycle occurs in the mitochondria
  • a) occurs in the inner mitochondrial matrixb)
    the acetyl group detaches from the co-enzyme A
    and enters the reaction cyclec) an aerobic
    process will proceed only in the presence of
    O2d) net yield of 2 ATP per glucose molecule
    (per 2 acetyl CoA)e) net yield of 6 NADH and 2
    FADH2 (FAD serves the same purpose as NAD)f) in
    this stage of cellular respiration, the oxidation
    of glucose to CO2 is completed
  • GO BACK AND LOOK AT YOUR CYCLE

44
Continue Question 31
  • Electron Transport System occurs in the
    mitochondria
  • a) consists of a series of enzymes on the inner
    mitochondrial membraneb) electrons are released
    from NADH and from FADH2 and as they are passed
    along the series of enzymes, they give up energy
    which is used to fuel a process called
    chemiosmosis by which H ions are actively
    transported across the inner mitochondrial
    membrane into the outer mitochondrial
    compartment. The H ions then flow back through
    special pores in the membrane, a process that is
    thought to drive the process of ATP synthesis.c)
    net yield of 34 ATP per glucose moleculed) 6 H2O
    are formed when the electrons unite with O2 at
    the end of electron transport chain. Note
    This is the function of oxygen in living
    organisms!

45
Question 32
  • Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm
  • Kreb Cycle occurs in the mitochondria
  • Electron Transport Chain occurs in the
    mitochondria

46
Question 33
  • Chemosismosis electrons are released from NADH
    and from FADH2 and as they are passed along the
    series of enzymes, they give up energy which is
    used to fuel a process called chemiosmosis by
    which H ions are actively transported across the
    inner mitochondrial membrane into the outer
    mitochondrial compartment.

47
Question 34
  • Photophosphorylation ATP a second product made
    during the light reaction

48
Question 35
  • Fermentation an anaerobic respiration in which
    glucose is broken down to pyruvate during
    glycolysis. There is only a net gain of 2 ATP.
    There will be no Kreb Cycle or Electron Transport
    Chain
  • Two types of Fermentation
  • Lactic Acid Fermentation The production of
    lactic acid without oxygen
  • Examples Milk products and muscles being oxygen
    deficient
  • Alcohol Fermentation The production of ethyl
    alcohol and carbon dioxide
  • Examples Yeast (Bread and Alcoholic Beverages)

49
Questions 36
  • Two parts to photosynthesis are
  • Light (light dependent) reaction Occurs in the
    thylakoid membrane(contains chlorophyll)
  • Inputs to the light reactions are water and light
  • Products ATP, NADPH, and O2
  • Oxygen produced in the light reactions comes from
    H2O and not CO2
  • Light Independent Reaction (dark reaction)
    Occurs in the stroma
  • Inputs into the Calvin cycle are NADPH, ATP, and
    CO2
  • More ATP is used than NADPH creating a need for
    cylic photophosphorylation to create enough ATP
    for reaction
  • The carbon of the sugar produced in
    photosynthesis comes from the CO2 of the Calvin
    Cycle

50
Question 37
  • Transpiration is the process of water evaporating
    out of the leaves. When the water goes out of the
    leaves the water the other parts of plants
    replace the water through the process known as
    the Cohesion Tension Theory

51
Question 38
  • Most photosynthesis takes place in the mesophyll
    portion of the leaf

Mesophyll
52
Question 39
  • Aneuploidy The fusing of an abnormal gamete with
    a normal one can lead to the production of
    offspring with an abnormal number of chromosomes
  • Polyploidy a condition in which an individual
    has more than the normal number of sets of
    chromosomes
  • Structural Alternations of chromosomes are
    mutations. Chromosomal mutation which include
    inversion, deletion, duplications, translocation

53
Continue Question 39
  • What is the difference between linked and
    unlinked genes?
  • Linked Genes group of genes on the same
    chromosome
  • If genes are close enough then there is a higher
    probability of crossing over
  • Unlinked Genes Genes that are not on the same
    chromosome
  • Only together if the Law of Independent
    Assortment (Mendels Law)

54
Question 40
  • Restriction Enzyme are enzymes that cut DNA at
    specific nucleotide sequence.
  • Gel Electrophoresis is a technique used to
    separate and examine DNA fragments. This is when
    restriction enzymes are used and then separated
    by electrophoresis. The pieces of DNA are
    separated on the basis of size with the help of
    an electric charge. This technique can be used to
    sequence DNA and determine the order in which the
    nucleotide appear.

55
Continue Question 40
  • Gel Electrophoresis can be used in forensics.
    This technique require the use of Restriction
    fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). DNA is
    specific of each individual and when it is mixed
    with restriction enzyme, different combination of
    RFLPs will be obtained from person to person

56
Continue Question 40
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) can be used
    during Gel Electrophoresis but can also be used
    to sequence DNA
  • PCR will amplify the gene to be studied
  • PCR will allow scientist to study genetic
    disorders and amplify trace amounts of DNA found
    at crime scences.

57
Question 41
  • Applications of DNA technology
  • Recombinant DNA contains two or more different
    sources
  • Cloning slow process by which a desired sequence
    of DNA is copied numerous times
  • Gel Electrophoresis technique used to separate
    DNA according to size (smallfaster). DNA moves
    from - to
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) produces large
    quantities of sequence in short amount of time

58
Question 42
  • Mutations Genetic Mistakes
  • Three types of muations are
  • Gene Mutation Substitutes one bases for another
  • This can include insertion, deletion, and point
    mutations
  • Chromosomal Mutation The entire chromosome is
    messed up
  • This includes inversion, duplication,
    translocation, deletion
  • Frameshift Mutation either a base is added or
    deleted which causes a change in the reading
    frame

59
Question 43
  • Three causes of mutation
  • Radiation X-rays and gamma waves
  • Viruses
  • Random Age is one example if a woman pregnant
    over 40 has a greater chance for Down Syndrome

60
Question 44
  • Difference between Viruses are protein coat,
    shape (popcorn ball compare to Apollo lunar
    lander), and Nucleic acid

61
Question 45
  • Viral Reproduction
  • Lytic cycle reproduction occurs, cells burst
  • Lysogenic cycle reproduction does not
    immediately occur (dormancy)

62
Question 46
  • Hardy-Weinberg Conditions
  • No mutations
  • No gene flow (immigration or emigration)
  • No genetic drift (populations must be kept large)
  • No natural selection (All organisms have the
    ability to survive and reproduce)
  • Random Mating

63
Question 47
  • Hardy Weinberg equation
  • p2 2 pq q2 1
  • p2 Homozygous Dominant
  • 2pq Heterozygous Dominant
  • q2 Homozygous Recessive
  • p. 144-145 you may need to go back how to
    answer Hardy-Weinberg equation

64
Question 48
  • Prezygotic barriers
  • Behavioral Isolation Different courtship rituals
  • Temporal Isolation Reproduces at different times
  • Mechanical Isolation reproductive structures
    that does not allow reproduction
  • Gametic Mortality Inability between sperm and
    egg
  • Ecological Isolation potential mates that can
    reproduce but are not in the same area
  • Postzygotic barriers feterilization takes place
    forming a hybrid

65
Question 49
  • Allopatric Speciation inbreeding ceases because
    some sort of barrier separates a single
    population into two (an area with no food, a
    mountain, etc.). The populations evolve
    independently, and if they change enough, then
    even if the barrier is removed, they can not
    interbreed

66
Continue Question 49
  • Sympatric speciation Interbreeding ceases even
    though no physical barrier prevents it.
  • Two several forms
  • Polyploidy a conditions in which an individual
    has more than the normal number of sets of
    chromosomes
  • Balanced polymorphism this condition can lead to
    speciation if two variants diverge enough to no
    longer be able to interbreed

67
Question 50
  • Microevolution Evolution on a species level
  • Macroevolution Evolution on a large scale

68
Question 51
  • Genetic Drift
  • 1. Genetic drift refers to changes in allele
    frequencies of a gene pool due to chance, more
    often in small populations2. Genetic drift
    occurs when founders start a new population, or
    after a genetic bottleneck with interbreeding.

69
Question 52
  • Gene Flow
  • 1. Gene flow (gene migration) is the movement of
    alleles among populations by migration of
    breeding individuals.2. Gene flow can increase
    variation within a population by introducing
    novel alleles 3. Continued gene flow decreases
    diversity among populations, causing gene pools
    to become similar.4. Gene flow among populations
    can prevent speciation from occurring.

70
Question 53
  • Fitness Describe the ability of an organism to
    survive and reproduce (produce fertile offspring)

71
Questions 54
  • Natural Selection The ability of the organisms
    to survive and reproduce
  • Three conditions of natural selection
  • Variation a population must exhibit phenotypic
    variance difference between individuals
  • Heritability if a trait cannot be inherited, it
    cannot be selected for or against
  • Differential reproductive success measure how
    many offspring you produce that survive relative
    to how many the other individuals in your
    population produce

72
Question 55
  • Protist is a eukaryotic
  • Autotrophic or heterotrophic
  • Multicellular or unicellular
  • Mostly asexual
  • Mostly aquatic
  • Motile or nonmotile

Ex Euglena, Amoeba, Paramecium, Algae, Slime
Molds
73
Question 56
  • The domain is larger than the kingdom on the
    hierarchical level of classification.
  • Domain is based on molecular classification
  • Three domain system
  • Archae no nucleus (prokaryote), cell wall
    without peptioglycan, lives in extreme
    environment
  • Bacteria- No nucleus (prokaryote), cell wall with
    peptioglycan, all other bacteria
  • Eukarya- Nucleus (eukaryote), some with cell
    wall, motile/nonmotile

74
Question 57
  • Six Kingdoms
  • Protista Heterotrophic or Autotrophic
  • Unicellular or Multicellular
  • Mostly aquatic
  • Mostly asexual
  • Motile or Nonmotile
  • The endosymbiosis theory explains how organisms
    developed organelles

75
ContinueQuestion 57
  • Fungi
  • Heterotrophic
  • Unicellular or Multicellular
  • Mostly terrestrial
  • Asexual or sexual
  • Nonmotile
  • Important decomposers in the environment
  • Ex Mushrooms, molds, yeasts

76
ContinueQuestion 57
  • Plantae
  • Multicellular
  • Autotrophic
  • Mostly terrestrial
  • Asexual or Sexual
  • Nonmotile

77
ContinueQuestion 57
  • Animal
  • Multicellular
  • Heterotrophic
  • Terrestrial and Aquatic
  • Sexual (a few are asexual)
  • Motile (a few are nonmotile--sessile)

78
Continue Question 57
  • Archaebacteria
  • Prokaryotic
  • Lives in Extreme Environments
  • Cell wall made up of without
  • peptioglycan
  • Eubacteria
  • Prokarytic
  • Cell wall made up of peptioglycan
  • Normal Bacteria

79
Question 58
  • Photoautotroph An organism capable of
    synthesizing its own food from inorganic
    substances using light as an energy source.
  • Chemoautotroph An organism (typically a
    bacterium or a protozoan ) that obtains energy
    through chemical process, which is by the
    oxidation of electron donating molecules from the
    environment, rather than by photosynthesis.

80
ContinueQuestion 58
  • Chemoheterotroph An organism deriving energy by
    ingesting intermediates or building blocks that
    it is incapable of creating on its own.
  • Photoheterotroph An organism that depends on
    light for most of its energy and principally on
    organic compounds for its carbon.

81
Question 59
  • Eumetazoa tissues and organs present nervous
    system with neurons
  • Acoelomate no body cavity body double-walled
    sac surrounding digestive cavity single opening
    to outside characteristic of flatworms
  • Pseudocoelomateno body cavity body
    double-walled sac surrounding digestive cavity
    single opening to outside characteristic of
    flatworms

82
ContinueQuestion 59
  • Coelomates have body cavity
  • Protostomes Mouth develops first
  • Deuterostomes Anus develops first

83
Protostome mouth develops firstDeuterostome
anus develops first
Ectoderm outside layer, skinMesoderm middle
layer, musclesEndoderm inside layer, gut
Coelom body cavityPseudocoelom - partial body
cavity
Radial Symmetry - Body parts arranged in a
wheel Bilateral Symmetry right and left sides
84
Question 60
  • Three parts to a plant include
  • Roots
  • Shoots
  • Leaves

85
Question 61
  • Three basic tissue include
  • Ground tissue that makes up most of the body of
    the plant, is found between the dermal and
    vascular tissue. It can be divided into three
    cell types collenchyma, parenchyma, an
    dsclerenchyma
  • Vascular tissue
  • Xylem support structure that strengthens the
    plant and functions as a passageway for the
    transport water and minerals from the soil
  • Phloem Function as the highway for plants in the
    assisting of sugars from one place to another.

86
Continue Question 61
  • Dermal Tissue provides the protective outer
    covering for plants.
  • Skin of the plant is its epidermis
  • Within the epidermis is guard cells which control
    the opening and closing of gaps called stomata
    which is vital to photosynthesis.

87
Question 62
  • Alternation of generation Plant life cycle, so
    named because during the cycle, plants sometimes
    exist as a diploid organism and at other times as
    a haploid organisms.

88
Question 63
  • Primary Growth Occurs in the apical meristem
    which is the region that lengthens the plants.
  • Secondary Growth Occurs in the lateral meristem
    which causes the plant to increase in width

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Question 64
  • Transpiration Is the process of moving water
    through the plant. The water is removed from the
    plant through evaporation out of the leaves.
    Transpiration creates a negative pressure in the
    leaves and xylem tissue due to the evaporative
    loss of water. Water molecules display molecular
    attraction (cohesion) and other water molecules,
    in effect creating a single united water molecule
    that runs the length of the plant.

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Continue.Question 64
  • Translocation the transport of carbohydrates
    through the phloem. The movement of the sugar
    into the phloem creates a driving force because
    it establishes a concentration gradient. The
    gradient leads to the passive diffusion of water
    into the phloem, causing an increase in the
    pressure of these cells.

91
Question 65
  • Xylem support structure that strengthens the
    plant and functions as a passageway for the
    transport water and minerals from the soil
  • Phloem Function as the highway for plants in the
    assisting of sugars from one place to another.

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Question 66
  • Abscisic acid babysitter hormone It makes sure
    that seeds do not germinate too early, inhibits
    cell growth, and stimulates the closing of the
    stomata to make sure the plant maintains enough
    water.
  • Auxin (Important AP Biology exam hormone
    selection) elongation of stems, and plants a
    role in phototropism and gravitropism

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Continue Question 66
  • Cytokinins promotes cell division and leaf
    enlargement. Supermarkets use this to keep
    veggies of fresh. Fountain of youth hormone
  • Ethylene Initiates fruit ripening and causes
    flowers and leaves to drop from trees
  • Gibberellins Stem elongation. Think Grow when
    comes to this hormone. It is also thought to
    induce the growth of dormant seeds, buds, and
    flowers

94
Question 67
  • Phototropism plants growth response to light.
    Auxin is the hormone in charge of stem elongation
    here. The stem elongation occurs at the apical
    meristem

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Question 68
  • Photoperiodism the response by a plant to change
    in the length of the day.

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Question 69
  • Short-day plants Exposure to a night longer than
    a certain number of hours.
  • Flowering end of the summer to end of the winter
  • Example Poinsettas
  • Long-day plants exposure to a night shorter than
    a certain number of hours
  • Flowering Late spring to early summer
  • Example Spinach

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Question 70
  • Four major tissue in animals include
  • Epithelial is made of closely-packed cells
    arranged in flat sheets. Epithelia form the
    surface of the skin, line the various cavities
    and tubes of the body, and cover the internal
    organs.

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ContinueQuestion 70
  • Muscle Three kinds of muscle are found in
    vertebrates
  • Skeletal muscle is made of long fibers whose
    contraction provides the force of locomotion and
    other voluntary body movements.
  • Smooth muscle lines the walls of the hollow
    structures of the body, such as the intestine,
    urinary bladder, uterus, and blood vessels. Its
    contraction, which is involuntary, reduces the
    size of these hollow organs.
  • The heart is made of cardiac muscle.

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ContinueQuestion 70
  • Connective Tissue
  • The cells of connective tissue are embedded in a
    great amount of extracellular material. This
    matrix is secreted by the cells. It consists of
    protein fibers embedded in an amorphous mixture
    of protein-polysaccharide ("proteoglycan")
    molecules.
  • This includes Cartilage, bone, ligaments,
    tendons, adipose tissue

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Continue Question 70
  • Nerve Nerve tissue is composed of nerve cells
    called neurons and glial cells.
  • Neurons are specialized for the conduction of
    nerve impulses. A typical neuron consists of a
    cell body which contains the nucleus a number of
    short fibers dendrites extending from the
    cell body a single long fiber, the axon.

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Question 71
  • Ectoderm Tissue that covers the body coverings.
  • Forms the central nervous system, the lens of the
    eye, cranial and sensory, the ganglia and nerves,
    pigment cells, head connective tissues, the
    epidermis, hair, and mammary glands

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ContinueQuestion 71
  • Mesodermlayer forms in the embryos of
    triploblastic animals. During gastrulation, some
    of the cells migrating inward contribute to the
    mesoderm, an additional layer between the
    endoderm and the ectoderm.
  • The formation of a mesoderm led to the
    development of a coelom. Organs formed inside a
    coelom can freely move, grow, and develop
    independently of the body wall while fluid
    cushions and protects them from shocks
  • Forms the skeletal muscle, the skeleton, the
    dermis of skin, connective tissue, the urogenital
    system, the heart, blood (lymph cells), and the
    spleen

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ContinueQuestion 71
  • Endoderm is one of the germ layers formed during
    animal embryogenesis. Cells migrating inward
    along the archenteron form the inner layer of the
    gastrula
  • Forms into the stomach, the colon, the liver, the
    pancreas, the urinary bladder, the lining of the
    urethra, the epithelial parts of trachea, the
    lungs, the pharynx, the thyroid, the parathyroid,
    and the intestines.

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Question 72
  • Function of the circulatory system includes
  • Left side of heart ? aorta ? via arteries to
    organs, muscles ? into venous system of the body
    (vena cava) ? right side of the heart ? lungs
    (pick up oxygen) ? left side of heart

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Question 73
  • Three components of the circulatory system
    includes
  • Arteries Oxygenated blood to the body
  • Veins Deoxygenated blood bringing blood back to
    the heart
  • Capillaries Exchanging gases between arteries
    and veins

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Question 74
  • Blood buffer system regulate blood pH through the
    liquid portion of the blood called plasma.
  • The kidneys filter the blood that regulates the
    pH of the blood.

107
Question 75
  • Systemic circulation Systemic circulation
    supplies nourishment to all of the tissue located
    throughout your body, with the exception of the
    heart and lungs because they have their own
    systems. Systemic circulation is a major part of
    the overall circulatory system.
  • Pulmonary circulation Pulmonary circulation is
    the movement of blood from the heart, to the
    lungs, and back to the heart again. This is just
    one phase of the overall circulatory system.

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Question 76
  • Two main types found in the immune system in
    animals
  • Nonspecific immunity nonspecific prevention of
    the entrance of invaders into the body.
  • Example Saliva contains an enzyme called
    lysozyme that can kill germs before they have a
    chance to take hole
  • Skin covering the entire the body
  • Specific immunity multilayered defense
    mechanism 1- first line of defensephagocytes,
    macrophage, neutrophils, complement 2- second
    line of defense B cells (plasma/memory), T cells
    (helper/cytoxic)

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Question 77
  • Inflammatory response A fundamental type of
    response by the body to disease and injury, a
    response characterized by the classical signs of
    pain, heat (localized warmth), redness, and
    swelling.

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Question 78
  • Cell-mediated immunity involves direct cellular
    response to invasion as opposed to antibody-based
    defense
  • Managed by T- cells
  • Humoral immunity systemdeals with infectious
    agents in the blood and body tissues
  • Managed by B-cells with the help from T-cells

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Question 79
  • Primary Immune response antigen invader ? B cell
    meets antigen? B cell differentiates into plasma
    cells and memory cells ? plasma cells produce
    antiboides ?antibodies eliminate antigen (humoral
    immunity)
  • Secondary immune response antigen invader ?
    memory cells recognize antigen and pump out
    antibodies much quicker than primary response ?
    antibodies eliminate antigen

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Question 80
  • Kidney The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, each
    about the size of a fist. They are located near
    the middle of the back, just below the rib cage,
    one on each side of the spine. The kidneys are
    sophisticated reprocessing machines. Every day, a
    persons kidneys process about 200 quarts of
    blood to sift out about 2 quarts of waste
    products and extra water. The wastes and extra
    water become urine, which flows to the bladder
    through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores
    urine until releasing it through urination

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Question 81
  • Ectotherm Cold blooded organisms
  • Snake
  • Endotherm Warm blooded organisms
  • Human

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Question 82
  • Central Nervous System makes up the brain and
    spinal column
  • Controls skeletal muscles and voluntary movement
  • Peripheral Nervous System Can be broken down
    into sensory and motor division
  • The sensory division carries information to the
    CNS while the motor division carries information
    away from the CNS
  • Autonomic Nervous System controls involuntary
    activities of the body smooth muscles, cardiac
    muscles, and glands.
  • Can be divided down further to sympathetic and
    parasympathetic

115
Question 83
  • Sympathetic Nervous System It is the part of
    the Fright and FlightResponse. It uses energy -
    your blood pressure increases, your heart beats
    faster, and digestion slows down
  • Parasympathetic Nervous System Read and Digest
    response. It works to save you energy by lowering
    blood pressure, heart beat slows, and digestion
    starts.

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Question 84
  • Glial CellsA supportive cell in the central
    nervous system -- the brain and spinal cord.
    Glial cells do not conduct electrical impulses
    (as opposed to neurons, which do). The glial
    cells surround neurons and provide support for
    them and insulation between them. Glial cells are
    capable of extensive signaling in response to a
    diversity of stimuli.

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Question 85
  • There are three parts that make up a neuron
  • Cell Body Main body of the neuron
  • Dendrite is one of many short, branched
    processes of a neuron that help bring the nerve
    impulses toward the cell body
  • Axons are longer extensions that leave from a
    neuron and carry the impulse away from the cell
    body toward target cells.

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Question 86
  • Mechanoreceptors enable us to detect touch
    monitor the position of our muscles, bones, and
    joints and detect sounds and the motion of the
    body
  • Chemoreceptors a sensory nerve cell or sense
    organ, as of smell or taste, that responds to
    chemical stimuli
  • Photoreceptors A nerve ending, cell, or group of
    cells specialized to sense or receive light.

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Question 87
  • A skeletal muscle fiber shows striations.
  • These straitions result from a specific
    arrangements of proteins inside the myofibre. The
    two principal type of proteins are myosin
    (forming the thick filament) and actin (forming
    thin filaments)
  • The sarcomere is the distance between two Z lines
    which are formed by the joining points of the
    thin filaments. The lighter I band represents
    areas where the thin filaments are present while
    the H band is where both actin and myosin run
    parallel to each other.

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Question 88
  • Sliding filament model contraction occurs in the
    sarcomere of striated muscle, by the sliding of
    the thick filaments relative to the thin
    filaments.

122
Question 89
  • Four essential nutrients
  • Carbs- ingested in the form of polysaccharides,
    used mainly as fuel
  • Lipids- are used as fuel, as components of cell
    membranes, and to synthesize steroid hormones and
    other lipid substances, ingested as triglycerides
  • Proteins- serve as enzymes and are essential
    structural components of cells
  • Vitamins- are organic compounds required in small
    amounts for many biochemical processes, some
    serve as components of coenzymes
  • Minerals- are inorganic nutrients ingested as
    salts dissolved in food and water

123
Question 90
Blood traveling through the heart 1- Blood
arrives through vena cava into right atrium 2-
Right atrium through tricupsid valve 3- Right
ventricles (least oxygenated blood) 4- To lungs
through pulmonary artery by route of pulmonary
valve 5- Blood returns to heart through pulmonary
vein 6- Enters left atrium (most oxygenated
blood) 7- Enters the left ventricle through the
mitral valve 8- Goes to the aorta by route of
aortic valve 9- To the rest of the body
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Question 91
Blue section of the heart is the deoxygenated
blood Red section is the oxygenated blood
125
Question 92
  • Plasma The liquid portion of the blood, which
    contains minerals, hormones, antibodies, and
    nutritional materials.
  • Plasma purpose is allows blood to flow so
    efficiently

126
Question 93
  • Erythrocytes Red blood cells that contains the
    protein hemoglobin
  • Leukocytes White blood cells that function for
    the defense of the organisms
  • Platelets or thrombocytes these blood cells
    are responsible for stopping blood around the
    wound.

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Question 94
  • Each heartbeat has two basic parts diastole or
    relaxation, and atrial and ventricular systole
    (SIS-toe-lee), or contraction.
  • During diastole, the atria and ventricles of your
    heart relax and begin to fill with blood. At the
    end of diastole, your heart's atria contract
    (atrial systole) and pump blood into the
    ventricles. The atria then begin to relax. Next,
    your heart's ventricles contract (ventricular
    systole) and pump blood out of your heart.

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Question 95
  • Humoral immunity involves the T lymphocytes cells
    and B lymphocytes
  • The plasma cells are the factories that produce
    antibodies that function in the elimination of
    any cell containing on its surface the antigen
    that it has been summoned to killed. These
    antibodies, when released, bind to the antigens,
    immobilzing them and marking them for the
    marophages to engulf and eliminate

129
Question 96
  • Cell-mediated immunity involves direct cellular
    response to invasion as opposed to anitbody-based
    defense.
  • Cytotoxic T Cells into play

130
Question 97
  • Aldosterone regulates sodium concentration of
    the body.
  • It helps in maintaining the blood pressure and
    liquids/electrolytes in the blood.
  • The kidney hormone kenin normally stimulates the
    adrenal glands released aldosterone

131
Question 98
  • Renin-angiotensin system is the hormone that
    regulates blood pressure

132
Question 99
  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stimulates
    reabsorption of water by the collecting ducts of
    the nephron.
  • ADH is a hormone stored in the posterior
    pituitary gland in the brain. It regulates water
    in the body. ADH acts on the kidneys to increase
    total body water. This increases blood volume and
    blood pressure.
  • These cells sense the concentration of particles
    in the blood. When the concentration is high, the
    pituitary releases more ADH. This causes more
    water to be retained to dilute the body fluids.
    When the concentration is low, the pituitary
    releases less ADH.

133
Question 100
  • Steroid hormones are lipid-soluble molecules
    that pass through the cell membrane and combine
    with cytoplasmic proteins.
  • Function Reproduction, glucose metabolism, and
    the response to stress and salt balance

134
Question 101
  • Peptide (Protein) Hormone water-soluble hormones
    comprised of a few amino acids that introduce a
    series of chemical reactions to change the cell's
    metabolism. Examples include hormones of the
    pituitary gland and parathyroid glands.
  • The proteins are too large to move into cells and
    thus bind to receptors on the surface of cells

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Question 102
  • Secondary Messengers In response to the binding
    of a protein hormone, a change in the receptor
    that leads to the activation of molecules inside
    the cell, which serve as intermedairies,
    activating other proteins and enzymes that carry
    out the mission
  • Two examples
  • cAMP
  • G proteins
  • Calicum ions

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Question 103
  • Insulin produced in the pancreas
  • Three functions of insulin include
  • To release insulin in the pancreas to be stored
    in the glycogen
  • Used for energy
  • Sometimes between meals, your glucose level drops
    below the desired glucose level this will cause
    your glycogen into action causing the pancreas
    into action.

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Section 104
  • Glucagon Stimulates conversion of glycogen into
    glucose.
  • Stored in the liver
  • Raises the blood sugar
  • Stores blood sugar (in the liver) and will
    stimulate the pancreas to release insulin from
    the pancreas when blood sugar (glucose) drops.

138
Question 105
  • Introduction development begins as soon as the
    egg is fertilized to produce a diploid zygote
    (2n).
  • Cleavage cytoplasm is distributed unevenly to
    the daughter cells but genetic information is
    distributed unevenly.
  • These cleavage division take a while in humans.
    The first three division takes 3 days to
    complete. After the fourth division, the one cell
    has become 16 cells and is now called a morula.

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  • As it undergoes it next round of cell division,
    fluid fills the center of the morula to create
    the hollow-looking structure known as the
    blastula.
  • Gastrulation (also called morphogenesis)- cells
    separate into three primary layers called germ
    layers, which eventually give rise to the
    different tissues of an adult
  • Holoblastic Total or entire cleavage
  • Meroblastic Partial Cleavage

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  • Archenteron Hollow space
  • This results in the formation of three dermal
    layers
  • The ectoderm (forms outer covering nervous
    tissue)
  • The endoderm (gut outpocketings like liver
    lungs)
  • The mesoderm (muscles other organs, forms later
    in the blastocoel of the gastrula)

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142
Question 106
  • Cytoplasmic Determinants (distribution)
    different amounts of cytoplasmic signal different
    structures
  • Gene Expression (homeotic genes) regulate or
    direct the body plan of organisms
  • Morphogenesis (same as gastrulation) cells
    separate into three primary layers called germ
    layers
  • Pattern Formation Formation of different germ
    layers

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Continue..Question 106
  • Positional Information During gastrulation will
    allow the cell to form different cells (endoderm,
    mesoderm, and ectoderm)
  • Morphogens Substance that governs tissue
    development.

144
Question 107
  • Autonomic Nervous System(ANS) Controls
    involuntary activities of body.
  • Regulates Muscles
  • in the skin (around hair follicles smooth
    muscle)
  • around blood vessels (smooth muscle)
  • in the eye (the iris smooth muscle)
  • in the stomach, intestines and bladder (smooth
    muscle)
  • of the heart (cardiac muscle)

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Continue Question 107
  • Somatic Nervous System Is responsible for
    voluntary body movements
  • Skeletal Muscles
  • Touch
  • Hearing
  • Sight

146
Question 108
  • Parts of the brain
  • Medulla Control center for involuntary
    activities such as breathing
  • Pons Arousal, controlling autonomic function,
    relaying sensory information between cerebrum and
    cerebellum, sleep
  • Cerebellum is in charge of coordination and
    balance
  • Reticular formation located inside the brain
    stem responsible for Arousal, Attention,
    Cardiac Reflexes, Motor Functions, Regulates
    Awareness, Relays Nerve Signals to the Cerebral
    Cortex, Sleep

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ContinueQuestion 108
  • Thalamus Motor Control, Receives Auditory,
    Somatosensory and Visual Sensory Signals, Relays
    Sensory Signals to the Cerebral Cortex Controls
    Sleep and Awake States
  • Hypothalamus is the thermostat and hunger-meter
    of the body, regulating temperature, hunger and
    thirst
  • Cerebral cortex many "higher-order" functions
    likelanguage and information processing. Gray
    matter

148
Question 109
  • Demography is the scientific study of
    characteristics and dynamics pertaining to the
    populations. The characteristics encompassed by
    this study include size, growth rate, density,
    vital statistics, and distribution of a specified
    population

149
Question 110
  • Density dependent factors is dependent on the
    size of the population
  • Three density dependent factors
  • Disease
  • Competition
  • Parasites

150
Question 111
  • Density independent factors is a limiting factor
    that does not depend on population size.
  • Natural disaster
  • Seasonal changes
  • Climate/Weather

151
Question 112
  • Exponential growth the population grows at a
    rate that creates a J-shaped curve. The
    population grows as if there are no limitation as
    to how large it can get (biotic potential)
  • Logistic growth the population grows at a rate
    that creates an S-shaped curve similar to the
    initial portion. Limiting factors are the
    culprits responsible for the S shaped of the
    curve, putting a cap on the size to which the
    population can grow.

152
Question 113
  • K-selected populations Populations of roughly
    constant size whose members have low reproductive
    rates. The offspring produced by these K-selected
    organisms require extensive postnatal care until
    they have sufficiently matured. Humans are an
    example
  • R-selected Populations that experience rapid
    growth of the J-curve variety. The offspring
    produced by R-selected organisms are numerous,
    mature quite rapidly, and require very little
    postnatal care. Also known as opportunistic
    population

153
Question 114
  • Survivorship Curves
  • Type I individuals live long life until an age
    is reached where the death rate in the population
    increases rapidly, causing the steep downward
    end. Example Human and larger mammals
  • Type II Individuals have a death that is
    reasonably constant across the age spectrum.
    Example lizards, hydra, other small mammals
  • Type III Individuals have steep downward curve
    for those of young age, representing a death rate
    that flattens out once a certain age is reached .
    Example many fishes, oysters, and other marine
    organisms

154
Example of Survivorship Curves
155
Question 115
  • Defense Mechanisms
  • Aposematic coloration warning coloration adopted
    by animals that possess a chemical defense
    mechanism
  • Batesian mimicry an animal that his harmless
    copies the appearance of an animal that is
    dangerous to trick predators.
  • Cryptic coloration organisms hunted adopt a
    coloring scheme that allows them to blend in tto
    the colors of the environment
  • Mullerian mimicry two species that are
    aposematically colored as an indicator of their
    chemical defense mechanism mimic each others
    color scheme in an effort to increase the speed
    with which their predators learn to avoid them
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