Ethical Dilemmas and Diversity issues in Supervision - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Ethical Dilemmas and Diversity issues in Supervision PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 72932e-NTg5Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Ethical Dilemmas and Diversity issues in Supervision

Description:

Ethical Dilemmas and Diversity issues in Supervision. Sue C. Jacobs, Ph.D., N.D. Licensed Psychologist. Fellow, American Psychological Association – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:264
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 34
Provided by: nopi
Learn more at: http://www.nopip.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Ethical Dilemmas and Diversity issues in Supervision


1
Ethical Dilemmas and Diversity issues in
Supervision
  • Sue C. Jacobs, Ph.D., N.D. Licensed Psychologist
  • Fellow, American Psychological Association
  • Ledbetter Lemon Diversity Professor in Counseling
    Psychology
  • Oklahoma State University College of Education
  • March 6, 2015 Laureate Psychiatric Clinic and
    Hospital
  • Northeastern Oklahoma Psychology Internship
    Program

2
OVERVIEW
  • Review APA aspirational ethical principles and
    specific codes applicable to supervision and
    training
  • Professional ethics in the context of increasing
    cultural diversity and globalization
  • Cultural competency How can supervisors respond
    to elephants of conflicting world views,
    cultural values and expectations that appear in
    the supervision room between supervisors,
    supervisees, and clients (and their families and
    communities and other professions)?

3
OVERVIEW
  • Examples of ethical challenges related to
    diversity in supervision
  • Example(s) of how ethical rules can become
    barriers in supervision (and practice) if
    separated from ethical ideals (aspirational
    principles)
  • An adapted Acculturation Model for ethical
    supervision and decision making

4
REVIEW
  • Ethical Ideals and Ethical Rules

5
APA Ethical principles of psychologists and code
of conduct
  • Beneficence and Nonmaleficence
  • Fidelity and Responsibility
  • Integrity
  • Justice
  • Respect for People's Rights and Dignity
  • General Principles, as opposed to Ethical
    Standards, are aspirational in nature. Their
    intent is to guide and inspire psychologists
    toward the very highest ethical ideals of the
    profession.
  • They do not represent obligations and should not
    form the basis for imposing sanctions.

6
Standards or rules specific to supervision
  • 7.06 Assessing Student and Supervisee Performance
    (a) In academic and supervisory relationships,
    psychologists establish a timely and specific
    process for providing feedback to students and
    supervisees. Information regarding the process is
    provided to the student at the beginning of
    supervision.
  • (b) Psychologists evaluate students and
    supervisees on the basis of their actual
    performance on relevant and established program
    requirements.
  • 7.07 Sexual Relationships with Students and
    Supervisees Psychologists do not engage in
    sexual relationships with students or supervisees
    who are in their department, agency, or training
    center or over whom psychologists have or are
    likely to have evaluative authority. (See also
    Standard 3.05, Multiple Relationships.)
  • And all the other standards related to education
    and training, clinical work, assessment, etc.

7
Professional ethics in the context of increasing
cultural diversity and globalization Some
examples
8
Important trends Cultures and Contexts are ever
Changing
  • Increasingly diverse and aging population
  • in U S
  • Increasing globalization and internationalization
    of our clients, trainees/supervisees,
    psychologists, and the communities in which we
    work, live, and play
  • Changing forms of communication social media
    such as twitter, FB

9
Key Developments impacting Ethical Supervision,
Training, and Practice
  • Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for
    Psychologists (2008).
  • Focuses on ethical framework with a common set of
    ethical principals (ideals) and related values
    that could globally guide action
  • Primarily aspirational, leaving specific
    behavioral rules (codes) and ways of enforcement
    up to each region or county.

10
Advances in Ethical Training and Ethics of
Supervision
  • Competencies movement and competency benchmarks
    identified for ethics education an training
  • Continues to include knowledge of rules, and
    laws, including case law
  • More emphasis on ethical ideals (principles)
  • Increased attention to skills in ethical decision
    making when conflicts among or between rules and
    ideals, including those related to cultural
    diversity and competence.

11
Growing Attention to Indigenous Psychology
  • United Nations (2008). United Nations Declaration
    on the rights of indigenous peoples.
  • Many of our methods have not been tested with
    people from non-Western cultural and
    philosophical traditions, may be unacceptable,
    and ineffective.
  • Indigenization of psychology means modifying
    Western guidelines (including ethical rules or
    codes) to be more culturally relevant and avoid
    harm.
  • Example Society of Indian Psychologists recent
    Commentary on the American Psychology Association
    (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and
    Code of Conduct

12
Perspective on cultural diversity and cultural
competence has broadened
  • Now focus on knowledge, skills,
    attitudes/awareness for multicultural competence
  • To develop a working alliance that will serve the
    needs of the client and the supervision process,
    we now explore cultural identity and development
    and intersecting identities and worldviews
    (including spirituality and religion)

13
Being a clinical supervisor requires lifelong
learning
  • Many, if not most, supervisors were trained
    before recent developments in globalization and
    changes in views of cultural competence and focus
    on virtue ethics and principles rather than
    simply rules.
  • To be an ethical and culturally competent
    supervisor (and psychologist) today requires a
    lifelong attitude and openness to self
    evaluations, what Falendar et al. (2004) label
    cultural humility.

14
The elephant in the room
  • Because of the power difference between
    supervisee and supervisor, many supervisees do
    not disclose the elephant in the room,
    differences in values, beliefs, expectations.
  • Pettifor, et al. (2014) cite research that
    indicate that when diversity issues arise in
    supervision at all, supervisees perceive that
    they raised the issues, not the supervisor,
    though the supervisors believe they raised it.
  • Other research has found that supervisees raising
    diversity topics can create a strain or rupture
    in the supervisory relationship

15
Cultural competency in ethical clinical
supervision
  • How can supervisors respond to elephants of
    conflicting world views, cultural values and
    expectations that appear in the supervision room
    between supervisors, supervisees, and clients
    (and their families and communities and other
    professions)?

16
Views of ethical and cultural competent
supervision are in a continuum, are fluid, and
developing
17
Examples of Ethical Challenges Related to
Diversity and Globalization in Supervision
18
VIGNETTE 1 from Pettifor, et al. (2014)
  • A 25-YEAR OLD MALE GRADUATE STUDENT WHO
    IMMIGRATED TO U S WITH HIS FAMILY WHEN HE WAS 5
    YEARS OLD IS IN A PLACEMENT IN A CHILDRENS
    MENTAL HEALTH CENTER. HE MEETS WITH A 6-YEAR-OLD
    CHILD FOR THE FIRST TIME, ALONG WITH THE CHILDS
    PARENTS. THE FAMILY MEMBERS RECENT IMMIGRANTS
    FROM A NON-WESTERN COUNTRY
  • Supervisor attends to infraction of codes or
    rules, but appears to lose sight of the ideals
    or aspirational principles from which the codes
    were drawn

19
VIGNETTE 2 from Pettifor, et al. (2014)
  • A FEMALE GRADUATE STUDENT, WHO IMMIGRATED TO THE
    U S FROM A NON-WESTERN COUNTRY AT THE AGE OF 9
    WAS IN AN ADVANCED PRACTICUM PLACEMENT IN A
    GERONTOLOGY UNIT IN THE U S FOR INDIVIDUALS WHO
    HAD SUFFERED NEOROLOGICAL INJURY. HER MALE
    SUPERVISOR, WHO ALSO IMMIGRATED TO THE U S AS A
    YOUNG CHILD BUT FROM A DIFFERENT NON-WESTERN
    COUNTRY, WAS HAVING THE STUDENT SHADOW HIM
    DURING THE FIRST MONTH OF HER PLACEMENT. IN THE
    2ND WEEK SHE OBSERVED THE SUPERVISOR ADMINISTOR
    AN INVENTORY FOR DISABILITY FOR AN 80-YEAR OLD
    WOMAN WHO HAD SUSTAINED A HEAD IMJURY WHEN HIT BY
    A MUNICIPAL TRUCK
  • Example(s) of how ethical rules can become
    barriers in supervision (and practice) if
    separated from ethical ideals (aspirational
    principles)

20
VIGNETTE 3 from Pettifor, et al. (2014)
  • A CLIENT IS A UNIVERSITY STUDENT WHO IS MARIED TO
    AN INTERNATIONAL STUDENT FROM A NON-WESTERN
    COUNTRY THAT IS HER PARENTS COUNTRY OF ORIGIN.
    THE CLIENT AND HER SPOUSEHABE 3 CHILDREN UNDER
    THE AGE OF 3 WHO ARE CARED FOR BY HER
    MOTHER-IN-LAW, WHO RESIDES WITH THEM. THE
    PRESENTING PROBLEM IS THE CLIENTS DEPRESSION.
    HER MOTHER-IN-LAWAND HER HUSBAND ARE DISAPPROVING
    OF HER DESIRE TO PURSIDE GRADUATE EDUCATION AND
    SHE FEELS THEY DO WHATEVER THEY CAN TO UNDERMINE
    HER. THE THERAPIST IS A GRADUATE STUDENT WHO
    STRONGLY BELIEVES IN INDIVIDUAL AUTONOMY AND THE
    RIGHT OF THE MOM
  • Example of both supervisor and supervisee caught
    up in their own strong belief systems and,
    lacking respectful supervisory relationship,
    lose sight of the client and the clients
    cultural context.

21
An adapted Acculturation Model for ethical
supervision and decision making
22
From Handelsman, Gottlieb, and Knapp (2005) based
on Berrys model of acculturation applied to
ethical identity
PERSONAL ETHICS OF ORIGIN
IDENTIFICATION WITH PSYCHOLOGY ETHICS
23
Suggested decision making model for ethical
supervision
  • Move away from thinking of situations as Ethical
    vs Unethical No faster way to disrupt a working
    supervisory relationship
  • Consider supervisor-supervisee relationship as
    collaborative and refer to acculturation model in
    discussing where supervisee and supervisor is on
    a particular issue. Consider the cultural context
    also of the client.

24
Supervisory decisions not only ethical. Adapted
from Gavozzi webpage
  • Therapists decision making includes
  • decision making
  • Clinical decision-making
  • Risk management
  • Legal
  • Ethical decision-making
  • Professional ethics
  • Personal ethics, values, or morality
  • Consideration of world-view, etc. of Client
  • Supervisors decision making includes
  • All of the above plus supervisees personal
    ethic and cultural world view and level of
    clinical, ethical, and cultural development

25
Moving towards Culturally Competent Ethical
Supervision
  • Practice with Vignettes
  • Use Acculturation decision making model to look
    at supervisor and supervisee identity in context
    of case/ethical dilemma
  • Differentiate ethical decision from of decisions
  • Move towards the Ideal end of the continuum
    remembering that rules are important also and
    must be considered/interpreted in terms of the
    aspirational principles and Cultural contexts of
    client and supervisee

26
Vignette A
  • You are a White, 42-year-old U.S. born open
    lesbian who is supervising a bi-racial (White and
    second generation South Asian) trans F-to-M
    advanced practicum student beginning his second
    rotation in a university counseling center His
    client is a 21 year old Latino who tells the
    intern he is sure he is a woman in a mans body
    and wants to become a woman, but does not want to
    disappoint her family or have them reject her.
    The intern tells you he wants to tell the client
    that he is trans to help his relationship and
    trust with the client, that his research on
    counseling trans suggests that is effective.
    What is the dilemma? What rules and
    aspirations are involved. Try to apply the
    adapted acculturation supervisor ethical and
    culturally competent decision making model.

27
Vignette B
  • You are a 60 year-old, White male Baptist
    psychologist in a Medical School outpatient
    setting with adult patients with diabetes. Your
    psychology intern is a brilliant 30-year old
    Lakota woman, whose doctoral training was in
    Utah, where she had some counseling practice with
    members of other tribes. Her client is a 50
    year-old man from the Pawnee tribe who has been
    diagnosed with depression and complications from
    his diabetes. The client told her that he doesnt
    trust the Western medicine and only comes to so
    his daughter doesnt kick him out, that he
    doesnt like the therapy. He likes the old
    healing ways. Your intern wants to stop using CBT
    and hear about his healing traditions, tell him
    the traditions from her tribe, and perhaps go
    with him to a healing sweat or other ceremony if
    his tradition allows men and women to seat
    together. Again, what is ethical dilemma,
    rules, ideals. Discuss using the adapted
    acculturation ethical decision process.

28
  • If Time
  • Questions
  • Concerns
  • Discussion

29
REFERENCES and RESOURCES
30
REFERENCES
  • American Psychological Association (2010).
    Ethical principles of psychologists and code of
    conduct (2002, Amended June 1, 2010).Retrieved
    from http//www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
  • Falendar, C. A., Shafranske, E. P., Falicov, C.
    P. (Eds.) (2014). Diversity and multiculturalism
    in clinical supervision Foundation and praxis.
    Washington, DC American Psychological
    Association.
  • Garvozzi web page http//www.ethicalpsychology.c
    om/p/ethics-and-psychology-podcasts.html
  • Gauthier, J., Pettifor, J. L. (2012). The tale
    of two universal declarations Ethics and human
    rights. In M. M. Leach, M. J. Stevens, G.
    Lindsay, A. Ferraro, Y. Korkutr (Eds), The
    Oxford handbook of international psychological
    ethics (pp. 113-133) New York, NY Oxford
    University. Doi 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199739165.013
    .0009

31
REFERENCES RESOURCES
  • Handelsman, M. M., Gottlieb, M. C., Knapp, S.
    (2005).
  • Training ethical psychologists An
    acculturation model.
  • Professional Psychology Research and
    Practice, 36(1),
  • 59-65. doi10.1037/0735-7028.36.1.59
  • Pettifor, J., Sinclair, C., Falender, C. A.
    (2014). Ethical supervision Harmonizing rules
    and ideals in a globalizing world. Training and
    Education in Professional Psychology, 8 (4),
    201-210. http//dx.doi.org/10.1037/tep0000046
  • Society of Indian Psychologists recent Commentary
    on the American Psychology Association (APA)
    Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of
    Conduct. Available for purchase at
    http//www.aiansip.org/
  • United Nations (2008). United Nations Declaration
    on the rights of indigenous peoples. New York,
    NY United Nations. Retrieved from
    http//www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIP
    S_en.pdf
  • Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for
    Psychologists (2008). Retrieved from
    http//www.iupsys.org/ethics/univdec12008.html

32
  • Thank You!

33
MY CONTACT INFORMATION
  • Sue C. Jacobs, PhD Professor, School of Applied
    Health and Educational Psychology
  • Myron Ledbetter and Bob  Lemon Counseling
    Psychology Diversity Professor Director, OSU
    Preparing Future Faculty in Psychology
    Program Co-Director, Oklahoma Network for the
    Teaching of Psychology Team Leader, OSU Difficult
    Dialogue Program
  • American Psychological Association Fellow,
    Division 17
  • 425 Willard   Oklahoma State University   
  • Stillwater, OK 74078-4024 Phone 405-744-9895   
  • Fax 405-744-6756   Email  sue.c.jacobs_at_okstate.ed
    u
About PowerShow.com