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Patterns of Macroevolution

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Red Panda Raccoon Panda Andean Bear Black Bear ... MILKWEED AND MONARCH BUTTERFLIES Milkweed is toxic Monarch butterflies feed on milkweed and have evolved to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Patterns of Macroevolution


1
Patterns of Macroevolution
  • (and review of phylogenetic trees worksheet)

2
1

Class
Order
Genus
Family
3
1b
  • No, they do not share a recent common ancestor
  • Should not group them together in any taxa
    without also including A, E and F

4
2.
  • DNA
  • Proteins
  • Anatomical Homologies
  • Embryos
  • Data supports tree II
  • Camel is least related to others
  • Hippo and whale share many similarities

5
3.
Panda
Raccoon
Red Panda
Andean Bear
Polar Bear
Grizzly Bear
Black Bear
6
(No Transcript)
7
4.
Algae
Moss
Pine Tree
Rose Bush
Ginkgo
Liverwort
Corn
Fern
-Dicotyledon
-Flowers
-Seeds
-Xylem
-Terrestrial living
8
5. Woops. Should have been Not consistent
  • A B and C are all consistent
  • D is not

9
Patterns of macroevolution
10
1. Timing
  • Gradualism
  • Punctuated Equilibrium
  • Rate of evolution is very slow and constant
  • (millions of years)
  • Evolution occurs in bursts (thousands of years)
    followed by millions of years of stasis

11
More on punctuated Equilibrium
  • Evidence that evolution occurs more rapidly
    following environmental change

12
2 Convergent
  • Different species evolve to appear similar
    despite different ancestry
  • Leads to formation of analogous structures

13
Example Placental vs. marsupial mammals
14
Example of analogous structures - wings
15
3 Divergent/Adaptive Radiation
  • Species evolve to look different
  • Often times many groups evolve from one common
    ancestor

16
Fall of dinosaurs gave rise to adaptive radiation
of mammals
17
4 Coevolution
  • Evolution of one species affects evolution of
    another
  • E.g. predator changes, causing prey to change
  • E.g. Plants and pollinators evolve in tandem

18
Example milkweed and Monarch Butterflies
  • Milkweed is toxic
  • Monarch butterflies feed on milkweed and have
    evolved to withstand the toxin
  • They become toxic to predators

19
5 Aposematic coloration
  • Prey evolve very bright coloration
  • Predators have evolved to avoid butterflies with
    bright coloration

20
6 mimicry
  • Harmless species evolve to appear similar to
    toxic/dangerous species
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