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Informational Text Structures

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Title: Understanding Text Structures Author: Emily Kissner Last modified by: Grimes, Crystal M Created Date: 4/10/2013 1:55:12 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Informational Text Structures


1
Informational Text Structures

2
What is a text structure?
  • A structure is a building or framework
  • Text structure refers to how a piece of text is
    built

3
What is a text structure?
  • Builders can use different kinds of structures to
    build different things.
  • A skyscraper, for example, is a different kind of
    structure from a house.

4
What is a text structure?
  • Writers use different structures to build their
    ideas.
  • Each text structure communicates ideas in a
    different way.

5
Chronological Order
  • Explains how things happen in order
  • Also called sequence or time order

6
Chronological Order
  • Graphic organizer for chronological order

7
Chronological Order
  • Clue words first, next, later, then, and finally
  • Dates and times

8
Chronological Order
  • Can you find the clue words for chronological
    order?
  • Have you ever made macaroni and cheese? Its
    simple! First, boil some water and make some
    macaroni. Then, make your cheese sauce. After the
    cheese sauce is ready, mix it with the macaroni.
    Bake the entire thing in the oven. Finally, its
    time to eat!

9
Chronological Order
  • Can you find the clue words for chronological
    order?
  • Have you ever made macaroni and cheese? Its
    simple! First, boil some water and make some
    macaroni. Then, make your cheese sauce. After the
    cheese sauce is ready, mix it with the macaroni.
    Bake the entire thing in the oven. Finally, its
    time to eat!

10
Which paragraph is in chronological order?
  • Pennsylvania has many historic sites. You
    can visit Revolutionary war sites, like Valley
    Forge. You can also visit important locations
    from the Civil War, like Gettysburg. Finally, you
    can also see the site of the first oil well in
    Titusville. Pennsylvania has many neat places to
    visit!
  • Through the ages, Pennsylvania has seen
    many interesting events. The state was founded in
    1681 by William Penn. Later, Pennsylvania was the
    site of important Revolutionary War battles.
    After that, Pennsylvania was home to new
    factories during the Industrial Revolution.
    Today, Pennsylvania continues to make history.

11
Which paragraph is in chronological order?
  • Through the ages, Pennsylvania has seen
    many interesting events. The state was founded in
    1681 by William Penn. Later, Pennsylvania was the
    site of important Revolutionary War battles.
    After that, Pennsylvania was home to new
    factories during the Industrial Revolution.
    Today, Pennsylvania continues to make history.

This is the paragraph in chronological order. Can
you find the clue words that show this order?
12
Which paragraph is in chronological order?
  • Through the ages, Pennsylvania has seen
    many interesting events. The state was founded in
    1681 by William Penn. Later, Pennsylvania was the
    site of important Revolutionary War battles.
    After that, Pennsylvania was home to new
    factories during the Industrial Revolution.
    Today, Pennsylvania continues to make history.

This is the paragraph in chronological order. Can
you find the clue words that show this order?
13
Review!
  • Why would a writer use chronological order?
  • Think of an example of a text that would be
    written in chronological order.

14
Compare and Contrast
  • Explains how two things are similar and different

15
Compare and Contrast
  • Graphic organizer for compare and contrast Venn
    diagram

16
Compare and Contrast
  • Clue words both, similar, differences, while, on
    the other hand

17
Compare and Contrast
  • Can you find the clue words for compare and
    contrast?
  • The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two
    common birds. Both have crests on their heads.
    Both are common at birdfeeders. But the birds
    have some differences. The male cardinal is a
    bright red, while the waxwing is brown. The
    cedar waxwing often migrates from place to place.
    On the other hand, the cardinal stays in one
    place year after year.

18
Compare and Contrast
  • Can you find the clue words for compare and
    contrast?
  • The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two
    common birds. Both have crests on their heads.
    Both are common at birdfeeders. But the birds
    have some differences. The male cardinal is a
    bright red, while the waxwing is brown. The
    cedar waxwing often migrates from place to place.
    On the other hand, the cardinal stays in one
    place year after year.

19
Review
  • Explain the difference between chronological
    order and compare and contrast?
  • Think of an example of a text that would be
    written using compare and contrast.

20
Cause and Effect
  • Explains how one event leads to another

21
Cause and Effect
  • Graphic organizer for cause and effect

22
Cause and Effect
  • Clue words cause, effect, as a result,
    consequently, so

23
Cause and Effect
  • Can you find the clue words for cause and effect?
  • The nights snowstorm had many effects. Inches
    of snow were piled everywhere, so people were out
    shoveling snow from their sidewalks. Snow plows
    drove down every street. The unexpected snow also
    caused school to be cancelled!

24
Cause and Effect
  • Can you find the clue words for cause and effect?
  • The nights snowstorm had many effects. Inches
    of snow were piled everywhere, so people were out
    shoveling snow from their sidewalks. Snow plows
    drove down every street. The unexpected snow also
    caused school to be cancelled!

25
Cause and Effect
  • Baby painted turtles spend all winter in
    their nests. They have special chemicals in their
    blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As
    a result, baby painted turtles can survive
    freezing temperatures!

26
Cause and Effect
  • Baby painted turtles spend all winter in
    their nests. They have special chemicals in their
    blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As
    a result, baby painted turtles can survive
    freezing temperatures!

This is the cause
27
Cause and Effect
  • Baby painted turtles spend all winter in
    their nests. They have special chemicals in their
    blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As
    a result, baby painted turtles can survive
    freezing temperatures!

This is the effect
28
Review
  • Which text structure tells about how things are
    similar and different?
  • Compare and contrast
  • Which text structure explains how things happen
    in time order?
  • Chronological order

29
Problem and Solution
  • Explains a problem and then shows one or more
    solutions

30
Problem and Solution
  • Graphic organizer for problem and solution

31
Problem and Solution
  • Clue words problem and solution
  • Synonyms for problem include difficulty,
    struggle, uncertainty, worry, threat, and trouble
  • Synonyms for solution include possibility, hope,
    bright spot, answer, and future

32
Problem and Solution
  • Can you find the problem and the solution in this
    paragraph?
  • Park School had a terrible problem. Every day
    at recess, students would argue over the slides.
    Teachers had to spend time every day taking care
    of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up
    with a great solution. They bought another set of
    slides that everyone could enjoy.

33
Problem and Solution
  • Park School had a terrible problem. Every day
    at recess, students would argue over the slides.
    Teachers had to spend time every day taking care
    of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up
    with a great solution. They bought another set of
    slides that everyone could enjoy.
  • Here is the problem

34
Problem and Solution
  • Park School had a terrible problem. Every day
    at recess, students would argue over the slides.
    Teachers had to spend time every day taking care
    of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up
    with a great solution. They bought another set of
    slides that everyone could enjoy.
  • Here is the problem

Here is the solution
35
Problem and Solution
What is the problem? What is the solution?
  • The Chesapeake Bay faces an uncertain
    future. Issues such as pesticides, too many
    nutrients, and habitat loss all threaten the
    Bays water quality and animal life. However,
    scientists are hopeful that the future may be
    brighter. If everyone in the Chesapeake Bay
    watershed works together, solutions may be found.

36
Problem and Solution
  • The Chesapeake Bay faces an uncertain
    future. Issues such as pesticides, too many
    nutrients, and habitat loss all threaten the
    Bays water quality and animal life. However,
    scientists are hopeful that the future may be
    brighter. If everyone in the Chesapeake Bay
    watershed works together, solutions may be found.

Problem Solution
37
Informational Text Structures
  • Chronological order
  • Compare and contrast
  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution

38
Match the Clue Words
  • however, on the other hand, similarity, like,
    unlike

compare and contrast
39
Match the Clue Words
  • as a result, consequently, therefore, so, cause,
    effect

cause and effect
40
Match the Clue Words
  • problem, solution, threat, difficulty, hope,
    answer, possibility

problem and solution
41
Identify the Text Structure
  • On the next few slides, you will read some
    paragraphs about the Great Chicago Fire
  • Your task is to decide on the text structure for
    each one
  • Understanding the text structure will help you to
    understand each paragraph

42
Whats the text structure?
  • Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice
    the flames coming from the OLeary barn at around
    830 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm
    box made it impossible for the people in the area
    to call for the fire department. By 930 pm, the
    entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours,
    there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind
    coming from the lake only made the fire bigger.
    It would be another day before the fire would be
    completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings
    had been burned.
  • Chronological order
  • Compare and contrast
  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution

43
Whats the text structure?
  • Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice
    the flames coming from the OLeary barn at around
    830 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm
    box made it impossible for the people in the area
    to call for the fire department. By 930 pm, the
    entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours,
    there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind
    coming from the lake only made the fire bigger.
    It would be another day before the fire would be
    completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings
    had been burned.
  • Chronological order
  • What are the clue words?

44
Whats the text structure?
  • Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice
    the flames coming from the OLeary barn at around
    830 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm
    box made it impossible for the people in the area
    to call for the fire department. By 930 pm, the
    entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours,
    there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind
    coming from the lake only made the fire bigger.
    It would be another day before the fire would be
    completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings
    had been burned.
  • Chronological order
  • How does the text structure better help you
    understand the topic?

45
Whats the text structure?
  • Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice
    the flames coming from the OLeary barn at around
    830 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm
    box made it impossible for the people in the area
    to call for the fire department. By 930 pm, the
    entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours,
    there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind
    coming from the lake only made the fire bigger.
    It would be another day before the fire would be
    completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings
    had been burned.
  • Understanding that this text is written in
    chronological order can help you to understand
    how the Great Fire started.

46
Whats the text structure?
  • Chronological order
  • Compare and contrast
  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution
  • Why was the Great Chicago Fire so disastrous?
    After all, Chicago had fire departments and fire
    alarms. One reason for the terrible fire is that
    the alarm malfunctioned. The local fire company
    noticed the fire by accident as it was returning
    from another fire. As another problem, a watchman
    who saw the flames directed other fire companies
    to a location that was nearly a mile away from
    the fire. Because of these two problems, a fire
    that could have been controlled rapidly spread
    across the city.

47
Whats the text structure?
  • Cause and effect
  • What is the cause? What is the effect?
  • Why was the Great Chicago Fire so disastrous?
    After all, Chicago had fire departments and fire
    alarms. One reason for the terrible fire is that
    the alarm malfunctioned. The local fire company
    noticed the fire by accident as it was returning
    from another fire. As another problem, a watchman
    who saw the flames directed other fire companies
    to a location that was nearly a mile away from
    the fire. Because of these two problems, a fire
    that could have been controlled rapidly spread
    across the city.

48
Whats the text structure?
  • Cause and effect
  • How does the text structure better help you
    understand the topic?
  • Why was the Great Chicago Fire so disastrous?
    After all, Chicago had fire departments and fire
    alarms. One reason for the terrible fire is that
    the alarm malfunctioned. The local fire company
    noticed the fire by accident as it was returning
    from another fire. As another problem, a watchman
    who saw the flames directed other fire companies
    to a location that was nearly a mile away from
    the fire. Because of these two problems, a fire
    that could have been controlled rapidly spread
    across the city.

49
Whats the text structure?
  • After the fire, thousands of people were
    left homeless. Many escaped the fire with nothing
    except the clothes on their backs. Providing all
    of these people with food, clean water, and
    shelter was a huge task. Luckily, the city
    quickly formed a Relief and Aid Society. This
    group started giving out the food donations that
    were pouring in from other cities. The society
    built places for people to live, gathered the
    tools that people needed to rebuild their houses,
    and even vaccinated 64,000 people against
    smallpox.
  • Chronological order
  • Compare and contrast
  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution

50
Whats the text structure?
  • After the fire, thousands of people were
    left homeless. Many escaped the fire with nothing
    except the clothes on their backs. Providing all
    of these people with food, clean water, and
    shelter was a huge task. Luckily, the city
    quickly formed a Relief and Aid Society. This
    group started giving out the food donations that
    were pouring in from other cities. The society
    built places for people to live, gathered the
    tools that people needed to rebuild their houses,
    and even vaccinated 64,000 people against
    smallpox.
  • Problem and solution
  • What is the problem? What is the solution?

51
Whats the text structure?
  • After the fire, thousands of people were
    left homeless. Many escaped the fire with nothing
    except the clothes on their backs. Providing all
    of these people with food, clean water, and
    shelter was a huge task. Luckily, the city
    quickly formed a Relief and Aid Society. This
    group started giving out the food donations that
    were pouring in from other cities. The society
    built places for people to live, gathered the
    tools that people needed to rebuild their houses,
    and even vaccinated 64,000 people against
    smallpox.
  • Problem and solution
  • Here is the problem

52
Whats the text structure?
  • After the fire, thousands of people were
    left homeless. Many escaped the fire with nothing
    except the clothes on their backs. Providing all
    of these people with food, clean water, and
    shelter was a huge task. Luckily, the city
    quickly formed a Relief and Aid Society. This
    group started giving out the food donations that
    were pouring in from other cities. The society
    built places for people to live, gathered the
    tools that people needed to rebuild their houses,
    and even vaccinated 64,000 people against
    smallpox.
  • Problem and solution
  • Here is the solution
  • How does the text structure better help you
    understand the topic?

53
Whats the text structure?
  • Chicago changed in many ways after the
    fire. Before the fire, most of the buildings were
    less than five stories high. The buildings that
    were constructed after the fire, however, were
    some of the first skyscrapers in the country.
    Before the fire, most of the houses were made of
    wood. After the fire, people chose to build their
    houses out of stone or brick. There were changes
    in where people lived, as well. The poor people
    in the city lived close to the center of the city
    before the fire. After the fire, they moved into
    neighborhoods that were farther away from the
    downtown area.
  • Chronological order
  • Compare and contrast
  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution
  • Main idea

54
Whats the text structure?
  • Chicago changed in many ways after the
    fire. Before the fire, most of the buildings were
    less than five stories high. The buildings that
    were constructed after the fire, however, were
    some of the first skyscrapers in the country.
    Before the fire, most of the houses were made of
    wood. After the fire, people chose to build their
    houses out of stone or brick. There were changes
    in where people lived, as well. The poor people
    in the city lived close to the center of the city
    before the fire. After the fire, they moved into
    neighborhoods that were farther away from the
    downtown area.
  • Compare and contrast

55
Whats the text structure?
  • Chicago changed in many ways after the
    fire. Before the fire, most of the buildings were
    less than five stories high. The buildings that
    were constructed after the fire, however, were
    some of the first skyscrapers in the country.
    Before the fire, most of the houses were made of
    wood. After the fire, people chose to build their
    houses out of stone or brick. There were changes
    in where people lived, as well. The poor people
    in the city lived close to the center of the city
    before the fire. After the fire, they moved into
    neighborhoods that were farther away from the
    downtown area.
  • Compare and contrast
  • What is being compared and contrasted?

56
Whats the text structure?
  • Chicago changed in many ways after the
    fire. Before the fire, most of the buildings were
    less than five stories high. The buildings that
    were constructed after the fire, however, were
    some of the first skyscrapers in the country.
    Before the fire, most of the houses were made of
    wood. After the fire, people chose to build their
    houses out of stone or brick. There were changes
    in where people lived, as well. The poor people
    in the city lived close to the center of the city
    before the fire. After the fire, they moved into
    neighborhoods that were farther away from the
    downtown area.
  • Compare and contrast
  • How does the text structure better help you
    understand the topic?

57
Navigating Text Structures
  • The colored folders represent the four different
    stations. There are two of each station. Folders
    need to stay on the desks they start on.
  • There will only be 10 minutes at each stations,
    so stay on task!
  • When switching stations, move clockwise.
  • The first few minutes at each station will be
    focused reading.

58
Navigating Text Structures
  • Open the station folder and read the text closely
    and quietly.
  • As a group, decide which text structure on the
    guide matches the text. Write the title of the
    text onto that page.
  • Scan the QR code on the front inside cover of
    the station folder to check if you have matched
    the text and structure correctly.
  • Complete the graphic organizer to break down the
    text structure.
  • Answer the questions that appear in your
    guidebook.

59
Navigating Text Structures
  • On a sheet of paper, write down the following ERQ
    to be completed for homework
  • Analyze how the structure of a text better helps
    the reader understand an element of survival.

60
Navigating Text Structures
  • To prepare for your homework, scan and discuss
    the following QR codes on the back of the station
    folder
  • Model ERQ (back inside cover)
  • Tips to make sure you go APE on the ERQ (back of
    folder)

61
Model ERQ
  • In the article about the great fire in Chicago,
    the author uses a chronological text structure.
    The chronological order of the text helps the
    reader understand the order of events during this
    great Chicago catastrophe. The article states
    that, In another 3 hours, there were fires all
    over Chicago. The phrase another 3 hours helps
    the reader understand how quickly the fire spread
    after beginning. In another example, the article
    states, It would be the next day before the fire
    would be completely out. By using the
    chronological words of the next day, the reader
    learns how long it was before the fire were
    stopped.

62
Go APE on the ERQ
  • A ANSWER the question
  • Begin by restating the question
  • Refer directly to the text you are discussing
  • Clearly state the type of text structure in the
    first sentence
  • P PROVE with evidence
  • Use transitions to introduce evidence
  • Use at least two specific quotes or examples
  • Make sure examples clearly show text structure
  • E EXPLAIN how evidence supports answer
  • Explain EACH piece of evidence
  • How does it show the text structure?
  • How does that help readers understand the content?
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