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CHAPTER 12 RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION

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Title: CHAPTER 12 RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION


1
CHAPTER 12 RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION
2
SECTION 1
3
Renaissance and Reformation
  • Renaissance- means rebirth.
  • Important characteristics of the Italian
    Renaissance
    1. Italy was a largely an urban society
    (many people lived in large cities). A secular
    (worldly) viewpoint developed.
  • 2. An age of recovery from the disasters of the
    14th century plague, political instability,
    decline of Church power.
  • 3. A rebirth of interest in ancient culture
    (culture of ancient Greece and Rome).

4
  • People of the Renaissance began to emphasize what
    individuals could achieve. They believed humans
    could accomplish anything and a well rounded
    person who had achievements in many areas was
    ideal.
  • Leonardo da Vinci- painter, sculptor, architect,
    inventor, mathematician.

5
The Italian States
  • City-states remained independent.
  • Three main city-states emerged.
  • 1. Milan was the crossroads of some of the main
    trade routes. Conquered by Sforza with the help
    of mercenaries. Centralized state that had a tax
    system that gave the government a huge income.

6
  • 2. Venice developed into a trade empire by
    trading with both Asia and Western Europe.
    Merchant-aristocrats ran the government according
    to their own interests.
  • 3. Florence was the cultural center of Italy.
    Ruled by Medici family. Best known Cosimo de
    Medici Lorenzo de Medici. Economy declined due
    to competition in the cloth market with the
    English and Flemish. Turned over to Savonarola,
    who regulated gambling, horseracing, swearing,
    painting, music, and books. Returned to the
    Medici rule.

7
The Italian Wars
  • French King Charles VIII attacked Naples,Italy in
    1494 in search for riches. Italy asked for help
    and for the next 30 years, Spain and France
    fought over Italy.
  • In 1527, Spanish King Charles I led mercenaries
    to Rome. They had not been paid in months, so
    they destroyed nearly everything. Looted much of
    the city and sold church officials as slaves.

8
Niccolo Machiavelli
  • Wrote The Prince, a book about how to acquire
    and keep political power. Most important works
    on political power that was ever written. The
    prince must understand human nature. He believed
    that a prince must act on behalf of the state and
    must be willing to act against his conscience if
    necessary.

9
Renaissance Society
  • Nobility, peasants, townspeople
  • Baldassare Castiglione wrote The Book of the
    Courtier. Believed a noble was born, not made,
    have 2 basic skills warrior educated, show
    their achievements.
  • 1. Patricians were the top of urban society-
    wealthiest. 2. Burghers were the artisans,
    shopkeepers, guild members. 3. Workers who earned
    pitiful wages. 30-40

10
  • Family was important. Parents arranged marriages
    to improve their status. Paid dowry to husband.
    Father was center of the Italian family and made
    all decisions for the family until he died or
    went before a judge freed his children
    (adulthood).
  • Johannes Gutenburg of Germany helped with the
    invention of the printing press in Europe.
    Allowed to compete with China and their printing
    press.

11
SECTION 2
12
Italian Renaissance Humanism
  • Humanism- based on the study of the classics, the
    literary works of ancient Greece and Rome.
  • Petrarch was called The Father of Italian
    Renaissance Humanism. Described the
    intellectual life as a life of solitude.
  • In the 1400s, humanists believed it was the duty
    of intellectuals to live active lives and serve
    the state

13
Vernacular Literature
  • Vernacular- language of their region. German,
    Italian, French.
  • Dante wrote Divine Comedy which told the story
    of the souls journey to salvation.
  • Chaucer wrote Canterbury Tales which was a
    collection of stories told by a group of pilgrims
    on their way to St. Thomas a Beckets tomb.

14
Education in the Renaissance
  • Believed education could change people.
  • Believed that liberal arts helped people reach
    their full potential.
  • Their goal was not to create great scholars but
    complete citizens.
  • For women, religion and morals were emphasized,
    do they would become good wives and mothers.

15
Artistic Renaissance
  • Artists tried to imitate nature in their works.
  • Developed a new worldview in which human beings
    became the focus of their attention.
  • Massaccio- mastered the laws of perspectives and
    fresco.
  • Chief aim of art was realistic portrayal of
    people, especially human nudes.

16
  • Donatello created realistic, free-standing
    figures.
  • Leonardo da Vinci mastered the art of realistic
    painting. Painted The Last Supper and Mona Lisa.
  • Raphael tried to achieve the ideal beauty.
    Well-known for his Madonnas (paintings of the
    Virgin Mary).
  • Michelangelo painted the Sistine Chapel.

17
SECTION 3
18
The Protestant Reformation
  • This is the name that is used for the reform
    movement that divided the western Church into
    Catholic and Protestant groups.
  • Major goal was to reform the Catholic Church.
  • Believed that in order to change the Church and
    society, they needed to change the individuals
    first.

19
  • Desiderius Erasmus believed that Christianity
    should show people how to live good lives. He
    criticized the abuses of the Catholic Church. He
    didnt want to break away from the Church,
    however, he sought to reform within the Catholic
    Church.

20
Religion on the Eve of the Reformation
  • Between 1450 and 1520, the popes were more
    concerned with Italian politics and worldly
    interests than with spiritual matters. Concerned
    more about money and used their church offices to
    become wealthy.
  • People wanted meaningful religion and assurance
    of salvation, but many Priests were unable to
    teach them.

21
  • A person could gain an indulgence (a release from
    all or part of the punishment of sins) through
    relics and later in the form of certificates.
  • This upset many of the reformers.

22
Martin Luther
  • A monk and Professor at University of Wittenberg.
  • Catholic teaching stressed both faith good
    works were needed to gain salvation. Believed
    that people could never do enough good works to
    be saved, rather they are saved by their faith in
    God.
  • Justification (being right with God) by faith.
  • Nailed his 95 Theses to the door of a Church
    attacking the sale of indulgences.

23
  • Also believed that there should be only 2
    sacraments baptism and Eucharist.
  • Believed that clergymen should be able to marry.
  • Catholic Church excommunicated him in 1521.
  • Charles V issues the Edict of Worms made Luther
    an outlaw in the empire. Protected by German
    rulers.
  • Created Lutheranism, the first Protestant faith.
    Changed worship services to Bible readings,
    sermons, and song.

24
  • When Charles V finally brought military forces to
    Germany, the Lutheran princes were well prepared
    for him.
  • Peace of Augsburg ended the war and allowed the
    German states ruler to choose between Catholicism
    and Lutheranism.

25
SECTION 4
26
The Zwinglian Reformation
  • A priest in Zurich, Switzerland who sought to
    have religious reforms take place.
  • Removed all paintings, decorations, and relics
    from the churches.
  • Services now consisted of scripture readings,
    prayer, and sermons.
  • Was killed during battle.

27
John Calvin
  • Frenchman who converted to Protestantism.
  • Believed in Justification and emphasized the
    all-powerful nature of God.
  • Predestination- the belief that God has
    determined in advance who will be saved (the
    elect) and who will be damned (the reprobate).
  • By 16th century, Calvinism replaced Lutheranism
    as the most important form of Protestantism.
  • Consistory had the right to punish people who
    deviated from the churchs teachings moral.

28
The Reformation in England
  • King Henry VIII wanted to divorce his wife,
    Catherine because she did not have a son. He
    needed a male heir.
  • Wanted the Pope to annul (declare invalid) his
    marriage.
  • Pope refused.
  • Asked the church courts in England and was
    granted an annulment.

29
  • Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn.
  • Parliament passes Act of Supremacy of 1534 which
    separated the Church of England from the pope in
    Rome. King was now head of the church.
  • Sold the churches lands and closed monasteries.
  • Similar beliefs as those of the Catholic Church.
  • Died and his son, Edward VI took over.
  • Church headed in the direction of Protestantism.

30
  • People opposed this direction.
  • Edward dies and Mary takes the throne.
  • Mary was Catholic and wanted to restore England
    to Roman Catholicism.
  • Bloody Mary killed 300 Protestants, which
    angered England and pushed them more in the
    direction of Protestantism.

31
The Anabaptists
  • People who believed that the state should not
    play an important role in the church.
  • Based their beliefs and practices on the accounts
    of the early Christian Church and the New
    Testament.
  • Believed in complete separation of the church and
    state. Government should be kept out of religion.

32
The Catholic Reformation
  • Three factors led to a reformation of the
    Catholic Church are 1. the Jesuits, 2. reform of
    the papacy, 3. the Council of Trent.
  • The Jesuits took a vow of absolute obedience to
    the pope. Used education to spread their
    message.
  • Blamed the popes for corruption and questionable
    financial dealings and in Italian political and
    military affairs.
  • The Council of Trent decided that both faith and
    good works were necessary for salvation. Kept
    the 7 sacraments and forbid the selling of
    indulgences.
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