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Ecology Unit

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... Nutrient Cycles Cycling maintains homeostasis (balance) in the ... Biotic factors- all living organisms inhabiting the Earth Abiotic factors ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ecology Unit


1
Ecology Unit
  • Biology

2
Key concepts include
  • interactions within and among populations
  • nutrient cycling with energy flow through
    ecosystems
  • the effects of natural events and human
    activities on ecosystems

3
What is ecology?
  • Ecology- the scientific study of interactions
    between organisms and their environments,
    focusing on energy transfer
  • It is a science of relationships.

4
What do you mean by environment?
  • The environment is made up of two factors
  • Biotic factors- all living organisms inhabiting
    the Earth
  • Abiotic factors- nonliving parts of the
    environment (i.e. temperature, soil, light,
    moisture, air currents)

5
How are Parts of the Living World organized?
  • Biggest to Smallest (or Smallest to Biggest)
  • or
  • Most Complex to Simplest (or Simplest to Most
    Complex)
  • (see next slide)

6
Biosphere
Ecosystem
Community
Population
Organism
7
  • Organism- any unicellular or multicellular living
    thing (exhibiting all of the characteristics of
    life).
  • The lowest level of organization

8
Population-a group of organisms of one species
living in the same place that interbreed and
compete with each other for resources (ex. food,
mates, shelter)
9
Community- the interacting populations that
inhabit the same environment (and are
interdependent).
10
Ecosystem- The living and non-living factors
interacting in an area (ex. marine, terrestrial)
11
  • Biosphere- the life supporting portions of Earth
    composed of air, land, and water (fresh and
    salt).
  • The highest level of organization

12
  • The ecological niche of an organism depends not
    only on where it lives but also on what it does.
    By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is
    the organism's address, and the niche is its
    profession, biologically speaking.
  • Odum - Fundamentals of Ecology

13
  • Habitat vs. Niche

Niche - the role of a species in a community
its feeding relationships producer or
consumer. Habitat- the place in which an
organism lives (its home)
14
  • Habitat vs. Niche

A niche is determined by an organisms limiting
factors. Limiting factor- any thing (biotic or
abiotic) that restricts the growth of a
population.
15
Limiting Factors
  • Density Dependent (limiting factor) any limiting
    factor whose affect is changed by a populations
    density.
  • Ex Disease, Predation, Hunting
  • Density Independent (limiting factor) any
    limiting factor whose affect is not changed by a
    populations density.
  • Ex Fire, Tornado, Volcanic Eruption

16
Feeding Relationships
  • There are 3 main types of feeding relationships
  • 1. Producer- Consumer
  • 2. Predator- Prey
  • 3. Parasite- Host

17
Feeding Relationships
  • Producer- autotrophs (plants algae) that trap
    energy from the sun
  • Bottom of the food chain

18
Feeding Relationships
  • Consumer- all heterotrophs they eat other
    organisms.
  • Four Types
  • Herbivores
  • Carnivores
  • Omnivores
  • Decomposers

19
Feeding Relationships
  • Consumer-
  • Herbivores
  • Eat plants
  • Primary consumers
  • Prey animals

20
Feeding Relationships
  • Consumer-Carnivores-eat meat
  • Predators
  • Hunt prey
  • animals for food.

21
Feeding Relationships
  • Consumer- Carnivores- eat meat
  • Scavengers
  • Feed on carrion,
  • dead animals

22
Feeding Relationships
  • Consumer- Omnivores -eat both plants
  • and animals

23
Feeding Relationships
  • Consumer- Decomposers
  • Consume dead organisms
  • Breakdown the complex compounds of dead and
    decaying plants and animals into simpler
    molecules that can be absorbed

24
Symbiotic Relationships
  • Symbiosis- two species living together

3 Types of symbiosis 1. Commensalism 2.
Parasitism 3. Mutualism
25
Symbiotic Relationships
  • Commensalism-
  • one species benefits and the other is neither
    harmed nor helped
  • Ex. orchids on a tree

Epiphytes A plant, such as a tropical orchid or
a bromeliad, that grows on another plant upon
which it depends for mechanical support but not
for nutrients. Also called aerophyte, air plant.
26
Symbiotic Relationships
  • Commensalism-
  • one species benefits and the other is neither
    harmed nor helped
  • Ex. polar bears and cyanobacteria

27
Symbiotic Relationships
  • Parasitism-
  • one species benefits (parasite) and the other is
    harmed (host)
  • Parasite-Host relationship

28
Symbiotic Relationships
  • Parasitism- parasite-host
  • Ex. lampreys,
  • leeches, fleas,
  • ticks,tapeworm

29
Symbiotic Relationships
  • Mutualism-
  • benefits both species
  • Ex. cleaning birds and cleaner shrimp

30
Symbiotic Relationships
  • Mutualism-
  • beneficial to both species
  • Ex. Dog and Human
  • Clown Fish Sea Anemone
  • Cleaning Bird (Plover) Rhino Cleaning Bird
    (Plover) Crocodile

31
Symbiotic Relationships
  • Mutualism-
  • beneficial to both species
  • Ex. Lichen (algae fungi)

32
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33

Type of relationship Species harmed Species benefits Species neutral
Commensalism
Parasitism
Mutualism
1 species
34
Trophic Levels
  • Each link in a food chain (is known as a trophic
    level) or an energy level.
  • Trophic levels represent a feeding step in the
    transfer of energy and matter in an ecosystem.

35
Trophic Levels
  • Biomass- the amount of organic matter comprising
    a group of organisms in a habitat.
  • As you move up a food chain, both available
    energy and biomass decrease.
  • Energy is transferred upwards but is diminished
    with each transfer.

36
Trophic Levels
E N E R G Y
37
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39
Trophic Levels
  • Food chain- simple model that shows how matter
    and energy move through an ecosystem

40
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41
Trophic Levels
  • Food web- shows all possible feeding
    relationships in a community at each trophic
    level
  • Represents a network of interconnected food chains

42
  • Food chain Food web
  • (just 1 path of energy) (all possible energy
    paths)

43
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47
Nutrient Cycles
  • Cycling maintains homeostasis (balance) in the
    environment.
  • 3 cycles to investigate
  • 1. Water cycle
  • 2. Carbon cycle
  • 3. Nitrogen cycle

48
  • Water cycle-
  • Evaporation, transpiration, condensation,
    precipitation

49
Water cycle-
50
  • Carbon cycle-
  • Photosynthesis and respiration cycle carbon and
    oxygen through the environment.

51
Carbon cycle-
52
Nitrogen cycle- Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) makes
up nearly 78-80 of air. Organisms can not use
it in that form. Lightning and bacteria convert
nitrogen into usable forms.
53
Nitrogen cycle- Only in certain bacteria and
industrial technologies can fix
nitrogen. Nitrogen fixation-convert atmospheric
nitrogen (N2) into ammonium (NH4) which can be
used to make organic compounds like amino
acids. N2 NH4
54
Nitrogen cycle- Nitrogen-fixing bacteria Some
live in a symbiotic relationship with plants of
the legume family (e.g., soybeans, clover,
peanuts).
55
  • Nitrogen cycle-
  • Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria live free in the
    soil.
  • Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are essential to
    maintaining the fertility of semi-aquatic
    environments like rice paddies.

56
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57
Nitrogen Cycle
Atmospheric nitrogen
Lightning
Denitrification by bacteria
Animals
Nitrogen fixing bacteria
Plants
Decomposers
Nitrification by bacteria
Nitrites
Nitrates
Ammonium
58
  • Toxins in food chains-
  • While energy decreases as it moves up the food
    chain, toxins increase in potency.
  • This is called biological magnification

Ex DDT Bald Eagles
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