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Essential Question:


To what degree did Kennedy s New Frontier domestic & foreign policy differ from Truman & Eisenhower in the 1950s? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essential Question:

  • Essential Question
  • To what degree did Kennedys New Frontier
    domestic foreign policy differ from Truman
    Eisenhower in the 1950s?

Kennedy the New Frontier
JFKs New Frontier
But, it was not the 1st time TV influenced
  • The election of 1960 between Richard Nixon John
    F. Kennedy was the 1st to use TV debates
  • Nixon was much better known but the TV debates
    helped swing undecided voters towards JFK
  • 1960 marked the beginning of television dominance
    in politics
  • Image appearance became essential traits for

McCarthy was destroyed by TV in the Army-Senate
Eisenhower used TV to campaign in 1952 1956
Nixon used TV to defend himself in the Checkers
TN Senator Kefauver used TV to investigate
organized crime
JFKs New Frontier
  • Kennedys administration reflected youth, energy,
    sharp break from Eisenhower
  • JFK promised a New Frontier
  • Domestic reforms in education, health care,
    civil rights
  • A foreign policy committed to defeating the
    Soviet Union winning the Cold War

The JFK era began Camelot comparisons with JFK
as a modern-day Lancelot
JFKs New Frontier
the extension of Social Security
Aid for public schools
and medical insurance for the elderly were all
shot down by Congress
An increase in the minimum wage
unemployment benefits
  • JFKs New Frontier promised a return of FDR-era
    liberal policies
  • But, Conservatives in Congress opposed JFKs
    social reforms in education health care
  • Congress did help the poor
  • The modernization of industry, govt spending,
    a major tax cut in 1963 stimulated the economy
    created jobs

Increased funds for public housing
JFKs New Frontier
  • One long-lasting achievement of the JFK-era was
    strengthening the presidency
  • Eisenhower left many decisions to his staff, but
    JFK demanded more direct presidential control
  • JFK transferred much of the decision-making power
    from the cabinet to his White House staff

JFK appointed tough, pragmatic, academic New
Frontiersmen to his staff
Kennedy referred to his staff as the the best
the brightest
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Kennedy Intensifies the Cold War
Kennedy Intensifies the Cold War
  • Addressing U.S. foreign policy containing
    Communism was JFKs top priority as president
  • JFK believed Ike compromised with the USSR when
    the Cold War could have been won
  • JFK aimed to close the missile gap increase
    U.S. defenses
  • Looked to solve issues in Berlin, Vietnam,

Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well
or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any
burden, meet any hardship, support any friend,
oppose any foe to assure the survival success
of liberty. We will do this more. JFKs
inaugural address
Flexible Response
To combat Communism to help underdeveloped
countries, JFK created the Peace Corps the
Alliance for Progress
  • JFK shifted from Ikes mutually assured
    destruction to a flexible response capable of
    responding to a variety of future problems
  • Increased nuclear arsenal to 1,000 ICBMs 32
    Polaris subs to create a first-strike
  • Increased the army air force
  • Expanded covert operations created the Green

JFK was convinced that the USSR had more
missiles, but really the U.S. had the lead with
600 B-52s, 2 Polaris subs, 2,000 warheads
The Space Race
The Apollo Program
  • JFK hoped to avoid another Sputnik hoped to
    beat the Soviets to the moon
  • JFK greatly expanded NASA announced that the
    U.S. would get to the moon by 1970
  • The U.S. landed a man on the moon in 1969

Crisis over Berlin
  • JFKs 1st confrontation with the Soviet Union
    came in Berlin
  • Khrushchev was upset with the exodus of skilled
    workers from East Germany to West Berlin
  • The USSR threatened to remove all U.S. influence
    from West Berlin, but settled on building the
    Berlin Wall in 1961

Ich bin ein Berliner JFK, 1963
Containment in Vietnam
  • Vietnam proved to be a tough test
  • Since 1954, Communist leader Ho Chi Minh gained
    popularity in North Vietnam By 1961, he gained a
    foothold in the South
  • The U.S. gave aid to unpopular South leader Ngo
    Dihn Diem
  • When Diem lost control of the South, JFK gave the
    OK for a coup against Diem in 1963

Strongly in our mind is what happened in China
at the end of World War II, where China was lost.
We dont want that. JFK
Viet Minh are Vietnamese communists in North
Viet Cong are Vietnamese communists in South
Containing Castro Bay of Pigs
  • Fidel Castro took over Cuba in 1959 developed
    ties with Russia
  • The Eisenhower administration (directed by the
    CIA) had been training Cuban exiles for an
    invasion overthrow of Castro
  • In 1961, JFK gave the OK for the CIA to initiate
    the Bay of Pigs invasion

JFK blamed the Republicans for allowing a
communist satellite to arise on our very
The invasion called for U.S. air support but JFK
canceled the air strike without air support,
Castro squashed the invasion
Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure
of Bay of Pigs, but did not apologize for coup
Cuban Missile Crisis
24 medium-range 18 short range ICBMs
  • To protect Cuba from another U.S. invasion, the
    USSR began a secret build-up of nuclear missiles
  • On Oct 14, 1962 a U-2 spy plane discovered Cuban
    missile camps
  • How would the U.S. respond?

Immediate air strike?
Full-scale invasion?
Kennedy chose to quarantine Cuba to keep new
missiles out an invasion of Cuba if the USSR
did not remove its nukes
Diplomacy trade nukes in Cuba for nukes in
Naval blockade to keep warheads out?
Kennedy announced a quarantine (blockade) to keep
more missiles out demanded that the Soviets
remove the missiles already in Cuba
The Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
AndU.S. removal of nuclear weapons in Turkey
  • The standoff ended when Russia removed its Cuban
    missiles the USA vowed to never invade Cuba
  • The impact of the crisis
  • Seen as a political victory for JFK
  • Installed a hot line to improve US-Soviet
  • This near-nuclear war convinced both sides to
    move from confrontation to negotiation

Our most basic common link is the fact that we
all inhabit this planet. We all breathe the same
air. We all cherish our childrens future. We are
all mortal. JFK
  • Essential Question
  • To what degree was Lyndon Johnsons Great
    Society a continuation of JFKs New Frontier
    domestic agenda?

Let Us Continue
"Let Us Continue"
  • On Nov 22, 1963 in Dallas, JFK was assassinated
    VP Lyndon Johnson became president
  • LBJ was a master politician with a reputation for
    getting results
  • LBJ promised to continue Kennedy's liberal agenda
  • LBJ ultimately exceeded JFKs record on providing
    economic racial equality

LBJ helped push through the greatest array of
liberal legislation in U.S. history
(Great Society), surpassing FDRs New Deal
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Americans were stunned this rapid succession of
Lyndon Johnson in Action
  • LBJ quickly pushed through Congress 2 key
    Kennedy bills
  • A 10 billion reduction in income taxes that led
    to increased consumer spending new jobs
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 that declared
    segregation in public facilities illegal
    protected black voting rights

The most significant legislation on race since
the Reconstruction Amendments
Lyndon Johnson in Action
  • In 1964, LBJ waged a war on poverty in America
    created the Office of Economic Opportunity
  • Created the Job Corps for high school dropouts
  • Head Start for preschoolers
  • Adult education technical training
  • As a result of, America had 10 million fewer poor
    people by 1970

In 1964, the U.S. had 35 million poor people
The Election of 1964
  • In 1964, LBJ ran against
  • Conservative Republican Barry Goldwater rejected
    LBJs liberal welfare programs called for a
    stronger foreign policy stance
  • Segregationist George Wallace
  • LBJ won in a landslide the Democrats took
    control of Congress for 1st time in 25 years

The Daisy Campaign Spot
  • http//
  • Click on the Daisy Ad

The Great Society
  • Once elected, LBJ initiated his Great Society
    domestic agenda
  • Medicare Medicaid extended health insurance to
    the elderly the poor
  • Extended 1 billion to improve public parochial
  • The Voting Rights Act of 1965 banned literacy
    tests provided for federal registrars for polls

The Triumph of Reform
  • By 1965, Congress passed 89 laws or
    reforms as part of LBJs social agenda
  • The Great Society was the most comprehensive
    agenda of social reform since FDR
  • Butthe American people did not respond well to
  • Soonevents in Vietnam, would taint his presidency

Johnson Escalates the Vietnam War
LBJ Escalates the Vietnam War
I am not going to lose Vietnam. I am not going
to be the president who saw Southeast Asia go the
way China went. LBJ
  • LBJ continued JFKs strong foreign policy
    positions too
  • He supported CIA-sponsored coups in Brazil,
    Panama, the Dominican Republic
  • LBJ continued Eisenhower JFK policies towards
  • But in doing so, LBJ found himself under attack
    from Congress, the media, universities

LBJ Escalates the Vietnam War
  • During the Gulf of Tonkin affair in Aug 1964, the
    military bombed North Vietnam in retaliation for
    an attack on the USS Maddox
  • The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave LBJ the
    authority to
  • Defend Vietnam at any cost
  • Unlimited military intervention to be used at
    LBJs discretion

The Vietnam War
LBJs advisors wanted 100,000 troops in 1965 a
plan for 100,000 more in 1966 Estimations were
500 U.S. deaths per month
  • 1965 marked the beginning of full-scale U.S.
    involvement in Vietnam
  • LBJ was informed that without U.S. action,
    defeat is inevitable
  • LBJ authorized bombing raids into North Vietnam
    requested 50,000 U.S. soldiers sent to Asia
  • LBJ never explained to the American people how
    the govt planned to win the war in Vietnam

LBJ took middle road of limited U.S.
intervention not a withdrawal not a full-scale
invasion of North Vietnam
  • By 1968, 500,000 U.S. troops stationed to keep
    Vietnam from falling to Communism
  • U.S. bombings search destroy attacks were
  • Soviet Chinese weaponry freely flowed into
    North Vietnam
  • Reckless bombings killed thousands of innocent
  • The bloody stalemate media depiction of the war
    led to protests

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  • The early 1960s under JFK represented consume
    spending, a strong stance on the Cold War,
    more social reforms at home
  • The transition to LBJ in 1963 brought success at
    home (civil rights the Great Society)
  • But, heightened involvement in Vietnam signaled
    the onset of the counter-culture movement by 1968

Class Discussion To what degree was the USA
winning the Cold War from 1945-1963?
The Cold War 1948-1975
The Cold War under Truman 1945-1952
The Cold War 1948-1975
The Cold War under Eisenhower 1953-1960
The Cold War 1948-1975
The Cold War under Kennedy 1961-1963
The Cold War 1948-1975
The Cold War under Johnson 1963-1968