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Insects, Diseases, and Animals

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Horn fly, Haematobia irritans # 1 pest affecting cattle ... Black fly fever -River blindness (filarial worm) 17 million infected -Mansonellosis (tropical) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Insects, Diseases, and Animals


1
Insects, Diseases, and Animals
  • Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Ph.D.
  • Assistant Professor Extension Specialist
  • Texas Cooperative Extension
  • Texas AM University

2
Insects The Good, The Bad, The Ugly
3
Diversity of Life
4
Linneaus
  • Systema Naturae (1758)
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

5
Basic Classification of Life
  • Kingdoms
  • Animalia (multicellular)
  • Protista (unicellular eukaryotes)
  • Plantae (plants)
  • Monera (algae)
  • Fungi (mushrooms)

6
What are Insects?
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Phylum Arthropoda
  • Class Insecta
  • Species ????

7
What are Insects?
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Phylum Arthropoda
  • Class Insecta
  • Species ????
  • Characteristics
  • Six legs
  • Bi-lateral symmetry
  • Three body parts
  • Exoskeleton

8
Insect Diversity
  • -33 Orders
  • -750,000 species world-wide

9
Benefits of Insects
  • Food chain

10
Benefits of Insects
  • Food chain

Start
11
Insects Associated with Disease ????
12
Insects as Direct Agents of Disease and Discomfort
  • -Entomophobia Delusory parasitosis

13
Insects as Direct Agents of Disease and Discomfort
  • -Entomophobia Delusory parasitosis
  • -Annoyance

14
Insects as Direct Agents of Disease and Discomfort
  • -Entomophobia Delusory parasitosis
  • -Annoyance
  • -Accidental

15
Insects as Direct Agents of Disease and Discomfort
  • -Entomophobia Delusory parasitosis
  • -Annoyance
  • -Accidental
  • -Envenomization

16
Insects as Direct Agents of Disease and Discomfort
  • -Entomophobia Delusory parasitosis
  • -Annoyance
  • -Accidental
  • -Envenomization
  • -Dermatosis

17
Insects as Direct Agents of Disease and Discomfort
  • -Entomophobia Delusory parasitosis
  • -Annoyance
  • -Accidental
  • -Envenomization
  • -Dermatosis
  • -Myiasis

18
Insects as Direct Agents of Disease and Discomfort
  • -Entomophobia Delusory parasitosis
  • -Annoyance
  • -Accidental
  • -Envenomization
  • -Dermatosis
  • -Myiasis
  • -Allergies

19
Insects as Direct Agents of Disease and Discomfort
  • -Vectors

20
Insects as Direct Agents of Disease and Discomfort
  • -Vectors
  • -Mechanical
  • -Equine infectious anemia
  • -Polio
  • -Plant viruses

21
Insects as Direct Agents of Disease and Discomfort
  • -Vectors
  • -Mechanical
  • -Equine infectious anemia
  • -Polio
  • -Plant viruses
  • -Obligatory
  • -Malaria
  • -Equine encephalitis

22
Insects as Direct Agents of Disease and Discomfort
  • -What organisms do they vector?
  • -Viruses (arboviruses)
  • -Bacteria (Lyme disease)
  • -Protozoa (Malaria)
  • -Nematodes (Onchocerciasis)

23
Insects Associated with Disease
  • -Flies (Diptera)

24
Insects Associated with Disease
  • -Flies (Diptera)
  • -Bugs (Hemiptera)

25
Insects Associated with Disease
  • -Flies (Diptera)
  • -Bugs (Hemiptera)
  • -Fleas (Siphonaptera)

26
Insects Associated with Disease
  • -Flies (Diptera)
  • -Bugs (Hemiptera)
  • -Fleas (Siphonaptera)
  • -Lice (Phthiraptera)

27
Diptera
  • Flies

-120,000 species -Disease transmitters -Aquatic
and terrestrial
28
Diptera
-120,000 species -Disease transmitters -Aquatic
and terrestrial -Holometabolism -One pair of
wings halteres
  • Flies

Diseases???
29
Sites Attacked By Flies
30
Three Primary Fly Pests
  • House fly
  • Stable fly
  • Horn fly

31
House fly, Musca domestica
32
Horn fly, Haematobia irritans
33
Insect Life Cycle
34
(No Transcript)
35
Horn fly, Haematobia irritans
  • 1 pest affecting cattle
  • Both sexes feed multiple times daily
  • Reside on cow
  • Consume 10 µl/day 3000/cow30 ml/day
  • Bites hurt
  • Cosmetic defects

Biology 1
36
  • Nursing cows
  • Metabolism of cow
  • Reduce feeding

Economic Threshold250 flies/cow
Biology 2
37
Effects on weight gain
Horn fly s in Texas
38
Stable Fly, Stomoxys calcitrans
39
Insect Life Cycle
40
(No Transcript)
41
Where Are The Breeding Sites For Stable Flies?
42
(No Transcript)
43
Stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans
  • More abundant in confined areas
  • Attack many areas sides, back, primarily legs
  • Both sexes feed once/day
  • Do not reside on cow
  • Bites hurt result in wound
  • Reduced feeding

Economic Threshold 2-4/leg
44
Greene et al. (Kansas State University)
45
Greene et al. (Kansas State University)
46
Greene et al. (Kansas State University)
47
Mosquitoes?
-How do they transmit diseases?
-Practically everywhere -Tropics primarily -100
viruses
48
Mosquitoes
  • Larvae live in water (standing)
  • Can enter diapause
  • Adult females bite day or night
  • Transmit filarial worms, viruses, and protozoa

49
Mosquitoes
  • -Major problems
  • Malaria -300 to 500 million cases annually
  • -1 million deaths annually
  • -Colonial time
  • Yellow Fever -1905 New Orleans
  • Dengue Fever -1995 Texas

50
Mosquitoes
  • -Major problems
  • Malaria
  • Yellow Fever
  • Dengue Fever
  • -How do we treat?

51
Methods of Control for our problem aquatic
insects?
  • Bt dunks

6.00/packet
52
Methods of Control for our problem aquatic
insects?
  • Bt dunks
  • Dumping containers

Or screen buckets
53
Methods of Control for our problem aquatic
insects?
  • Bt dunks
  • Dumping containers
  • Community spray project

54
Mosquitoes
  • Why are they still a problem?

55
Mosquitoes
  • Why are they still a problem?
  • -secondary hosts
  • -sexual transmission
  • -diapause

56
Blackflies?
57
Blackflies
  • Larvae live in water (running)
  • Adult females are blood-feeders
  • Distributed anywhere with running water (even
    frozen)
  • Day feeders

58
What Pathogens are Associated with Blackflies?
  • -Black fly fever
  • -River blindness (filarial worm) 17 million
    infected
  • -Mansonellosis (tropical)
  • -Painful bites (asphyxiation)
  • -Bovine onchocerciasis (Africa)
  • -Leucocytozoonosis (U.S.) similar to malaria

59
Sandflies and Tabanids?
60
Sandflies and Tabanids
  • -Larvae in moist
  • substrate
  • -Feed on organic matter
  • -Adults are day feeders
  • -Females need blood

-Larvae are in muddy or wet areas -Razor sharp
mandibles -Adults are day feeders -Females only
on blood
61
Sandflies and Tabanids
  • Annoyance
  • Transmit filarial worms or anthrax
  • Common sandfly species develop in tree holes
    (water source)
  • Bluetongue (virus)
  • Hemorrhagic disease

62
Phthiraptera
-3,000 species -dorso-ventral flattened -Hemimetab
olism -Diseases?
  • Lice

63
Phthiraptera
  • Lice

-Taxonomy Two Groups Anoplura Mallophaga
Anoplura Obligate blood-feeders on
mammals Mallophaga Are more diverse and will
colonize mammals, birds, marcupials Which is
more important?
64
Phthiraptera
  • Lice

Anoplura -Vessel feeders (solenophages) -Typically
host specific (head vs crotch) -Must have blood
meal -Symbionts present in gut -Transferred
transovarial
65
Phthiraptera
  • Lice

Mallophaga -Head much broader than Anoplura -Feed
on feathers and fur -Will take in some blood
66
Phthiraptera
  • Lice

Lice of Livestock (winter problem) -Cattle Biting
Louse -World-wide distribution -Attack all
ages of cattle -Head, neck, shoulders, and
rump -Irritate skin of animal
67
Phthiraptera
  • Lice

Lice of Cattle -Cattle Biting Louse -World-wide
distribution -Attack all ages of
cattle -Head, neck, shoulders, and
rump -Irritate skin of animal Control Prevent
an infestation (examine new cattle)
68
Phthiraptera
  • Lice

Lice of Cattle -Cattle Biting Louse -World-wide
distribution -Attack all ages of
cattle -Head, neck, shoulders, and
rump -Irritate skin of animal Control Prevent
an infestation (examine new cattle) Insecticides
Numerous pour-ons available, as well as
feed-throughs
69
Phthiraptera
  • Lice

Lice of Cattle -Longnosed Cattle
Louse -World-wide distribution -Deposit one
egg/day -Calves dairy stock -Dewlap
shoulders
70
Phthiraptera
  • Lice

Lice of Cattle -Longnosed Cattle
Louse -World-wide distribution -Deposit one
egg/day -Calves dairy stock -Dewlap
shoulders Control Not any different
71
Phthiraptera
  • Lice

Lice of Cattle -Cattle Biting Louse -Longnosed
Cattle Louse -Shortnosed Cattle Louse -Little
Blue Cattle Louse -Cattle Tail Louse
present during summer
72
Hemiptera
  • Bugs

-80,000 species (11 K in NA) -Aquatic
terrestrial -Hemimetabolic -Large
pronotum -Mouthparts originate at
bottom -Forwings ½ scleritized
Diseases?
73
Siphonaptera
  • Fleas

-3,200 species -Laterally flattened -Usually have
ability to jump -Diseases?
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