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Stem Cells

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Stem Cells http://www.dnalc.org/resources/animations/stemcells.html * * * * * Objectives What are stem cells? What are the different types and where do they come from? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stem Cells


1
Stem Cells
http//www.dnalc.org/resources/animations/stemcell
s.html
2
Objectives
  • What are stem cells?
  • What are the different types and where do they
    come from?
  • What are the potential new medical treatments
    using stem cells?
  • What research is needed to make such treatments a
    reality?

3
What are stem cells?
  • Remarkable potential to develop into different
    cell types
  • As each new cell divides it has potential to
    remain a stem cell or another specialized cell
    like muscle, RBC or brain cell.
  • May serve as an internal repair system Divide
    without limit

4
Different from other cell types
  1. They are unspecialized cells capable of renewing
    themselves thru cell division
  2. They can be induced to become tissue or
    organ-specific with special fxns

5
Types of Stem Cells
  • Embryonic stem cells
  • Somatic or adult stem cells
  • 2006, induced pluripotent stem cells

6
Embryonic stem cells
  • Pluripotent capacity to become ANY cell
  • Grow easy in culture
  • Large numbers are easily harvested

7
IPSCs
  • First human cells introduced in lab in 2007
  • Genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem
    cell like state by being forced to express genes
  • Demonstrate the ability to be pluripotent

8
Adult Stem Cells
  • Found in brain, bone marrow, blood, skeletal
    muscle, skin, heart, liver, ovaries and testis
  • Once removed from body, Capacity to divide is
    limited
  • Trying to figure out how to regenerate in large
    quantities to use
  • Rare in mature tissue
  • Not supported yet, but less likely to be rejected

9
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10
Why do we have stem cells?
  • Blastocyst inner cells give rise to entire body
  • Bone marrow generate replacements for cells
    that are lost thru injury, disease or normal wear
    and tear.

11
What is the potential new medical treatments
using stem cells?
  • Offer potentials for treating diseases like
    diabetes, heart disease, Parkinsons and
    Alzheimer's

12
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13
  • Screen new drugs
  • Develop model systems to study normal growth and
    id causes of birth defects.

14
A new treatment strategy that specifically
targets cancer stem cells, when combined with
current treatments, may lead to a more complete
and durable regression of malignant cancers.
15

16
  • Continues to advance knowledge about how an
    organism develops from a single cell and how
    healthy cells replace damaged cells

17
What research is needed to make such treatments a
reality?
  • Number and type of adult stem cells that exist.
    What tissues contain
  • How they evolve during development
  • How do stem cells remain in undifferentiated
    state, but other cells around them are
    differentiated?
  • Donor specificity
  • Factors that stimulate stem cells to relocate to
    sites of injury?

18
  • If you had in vitro fertilization perform and as
    a result have frozen embryos remaining, what
    would you do with them?
  • Why?
  • What do you need to know to help you make an
    informed decision?
  • Support your argument with details from the
    article, Frozen Dreams, What you have learned
    in class and outside research you have done on
    stem cells.
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