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The Progressive Era 1890-1920

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Title: The Progressive Era 1890-1920


1
The Progressive Era1890-1920
  • What were the causes and effects of the
    Progressive Movement?

2
  • SSUSH13 The student will identify major efforts
    to reform American society and politics in the
    Progressive Era.a.  Explain Upton Sinclair's The
    Jungle and federal oversight of the meat packing
    industry.b.  Identify Jane Addams and Hull
    House, and the role of women in reform
    movements.c.  Describe the rise of Jim Crow,
    Plessy v. Ferguson, and the emergence of the
    NAACP.d.  Explain Ida Tarbell's role as a
    muckraker.e.  Describe the significance of
    progressive reforms such as the initiative, the
    recall, and referendum, direct election of
    senators, reform of labor laws and efforts to
    improve living conditions for the poor in cities.

3
Read Chapter 17!
  • Compare and contrast populism and Progressivism.

4
The Drive for Reform Section 1
  • What areas did Progressives think were in need
    of the greatest reform?
  • Vocabulary
  • Progressivism Jane Addams
  • muckraker direct primary
  • Lincoln Steffens initiative
  • Jacob Riis referendum
  • Social Gospel recall
  • settlement house

5
The Drive for Reform
Origins of Progressivism   Main Idea The
Progressive Movement was started to fight for a
variety of political, social, and religious
problems. Muckrakers Reveal the Need for Reform
Main Idea Journalists called muckrakers and
fiction writers brought social problems to the
publics attention. Progressives Reform Society
Main Idea As Progressives gained support, they
achieved reforms for the poor and children and
improved the education system and working
conditions for industrial workers. Reforming
Government Main Idea Progressives made changes
to local governments and reformed election rules
to give citizens more power. Progressive
leaders were elected into offices in many states,
making it easier for reforms to occur.

Continued
6
The Progressive Era
  • The American Progressive Era occurred in the
    years before and after the turn of the 20th
    century
  • It lasted approximately 25 years
  • 1890 to 1916
  • Caused by industrialization, urbanization, and
    immigration
  • The time period was typified by many reforms at
    the city, state, and federal levels

7
3 Progressive Presidents
  • Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1908 Republican
  • The Square Deal and New Nationalism
  • William Howard Taft 1909-1912 Republican
  • Dollar Diplomacy
  • Woodrow Wilson 1913-1920 Democrat
  • The New Freedom

8
Roots of Progressive Movement
  • The roots of the Progressivism are in the late
    19th century and resulted from four arenas of
    concern
  • The fight against corruption and inefficiency in
    government
  • Big-city political machines and government
    corruption
  • Concerns about the welfare of the urban poor from
    settlement-house workers and other reformers
  • - Concerned with slum living conditions, child
    labor, and work hours and conditions
  • The effort to regulate and control big business
    growing out of the Granger and Populist movements
  • Issues from farmers and the working class
  • These also included concerns about the gold
    standard
  • Equal Rights for women and minorities
  • The struggle for womens suffrage
  • The birth of the Civil Rights Era
  • What problems did Progressive reformers hope to
    solve?
  • Problems in the areas of politics and government,
    business,
  • social welfare, and labor conditions

9
Muckrakers
  • TR called writers who wrote about wrongdoing in
    politics and business muckrakers
  • (Because they dug up the muck/dirt).
  • They were the journalists alerted public to
    wrongdoing by investigating issues and
    publicizing the results.
  • Readers pressured legislators to pass new laws
    attempting to fix these problems.

10
Muckrakers Reveal the Need to Reform
  • Journalists uncover injustices
  • -Lincoln Steffens editor of McClures
    Magazine
  • -The Shame of the Cities- articles on
    political corruption
  • Jacob Riis photographer for the New York
    Evening Sun
  • -published How the Other Half Lives photos
    of tenements

11
Important Progressive Author and Photographer
  • Jacob Riis
  • In his 1890 landmark book, How the Other Half
    Lives, Jacob Riis discussed the dismal conditions
    in which thousands of New York immigrants lived.
  • Most of the residential tenements were
    "unventilated, fever-breeding structures" that
    housed multiple families
  • His pictures helped document the living
    conditions and bring about changes
  • What role did journalists and other writers play
    in the Progressive Movement?
  • Wrote sensational reports on problems in the U.S.

12
Infographic Exposing How the Other Half Lives
Exposing How the Other Half Lives
INFOGRAPHIC
13
Ida Tarbell famous Muckraker
  • Wrote The History of Standard Oil
  • Reported that John D. Rockefeller used ruthless
    methods to ruin his competitors, charge higher
    prices and reap huge profits
  • Worked for McClures
  • Her articles led to the breakup of Standard Oil

14
Novelists
  • Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle
  • Related the horrors of the Chicago stockyards,
    revealing the unsanitary conditions
  • Related the despair of immigrants who worked
    there

15
Other Important Progressives
  • Theodore Dreisel Novelist and author of Sister
    Carrie
  • Walter Rauschenbusch Social reformer and author
    of Social Gospel who believed that the Bibles
    teachings had instructions for how to teach the
    poor.

16
Progressives Reform Society
  • Social Gospel Guides Reform
  • Settlement Houses
  • -Jane Addams opened Hull House in Chicago
  • -By 1911, country had more than 400 settlement
    houses

17
Protecting Children and Improving Education
  • Florence Kelley helped ban child labor
  • Helped create the U.S. Childrens Bureau to
    protect health and welfare of children
  • Child labor not ended for good until 1938
  • John Dewey wanted students to think creatively
    and to teach new subjects like history and
    geography

18
Chart Children Enrolled in Public Schools and
Employed 1870-1930
Children Enrolled in Public Schools and Employed,
1870-1930
CHART
19
Progressives Help Industrial Workers
  • In the early 1900s, 30,000 workers died on the
    job
  • March 1911, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire
    killed 146 workers
  • Led to laws to make workplaces safer
  • Workers compensation laws
  • Efforts to limit workday to 10 hours
  • How did Progressives work to help the urban
    poor?
  • Helped the urban poor by establishing settlement
    houses, working to end child labor, improving
    education, and improving workplace conditions

20
The Fire
  • On May 25, 1911, a fire broke out in the upper
    floors of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory.
  • Many workers could not escape as the doors had
    been locked to prevent unauthorized breaks and
    union agitation.

21
Results of the Fire
  • The factory owners were found innocent of
    negligence in criminal trials.
  • In civil suits they were order to pay 75 per
    dead worker.
  • New Yorks Tammany Hall created a series of labor
    laws that protected the workers safety.

22
Reforming Government
  • Reform of city government
  • -Commission form of government
  • Progressives reform election rules
  • -direct primary citizens vote to select
    nominees
  • -initiative people propose new law directly
  • -referendum citizens approve or reject laws
    that have been passed
  • -recall voters remove public servants from
    office before terms expire

23
Transparency City Commission
City Commission
TRANSPARENCY
24
Progressive Governors Take Charge
  • Robert La Follette of Wisconsin railroad
    reform, improved education, make factories safer,
    adopted direct primary
  • Hiram Johnson of California ended Southern
    Pacific Railroads dominance of state government,
    instituted direct primary, initiative,
    referendum, and recall, protected natural
    resources
  • How did Progressive reformers change local and
    state government?
  • Realized that it would be necessary to reform the
    political process in order to make social reforms
    (direct primary, initiative, referendum, recall)

25
Transparency Analyzing Political Cartoons
Business and Government Corruption
Analyzing Political Cartoons Business and
Government Corruption
TRANSPARENCY
26
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Details
Reading Skill Identify Details
NOTE TAKING
27
The First Area of Reform The Fight against
Corruption and Inefficiency in Government and
Politics
28
The First Area of ReformThe
Fight against Corruption and Inefficiency in
Government and PoliticsT
  • Cause Political corruption
  • Results
  • Direct Primary
  • Initiative
  • Referendum
  • Recall
  • 17th amendment
  • Commission form of city government (Galveston
    Plan)

29
The Second Area of ReformConcerns about the
Welfare of the Urban Poor
30
The Second Area of ReformConcerns about the
Welfare of the Urban Poor
  • Jane Addams Hull House
  • Florence Kelley ban child labor- U.S.
    Childrens Bureau
  • Keating-Owens Act banned child labor, but was
    ruled unconstitutional
  • John Dewey education mandatory age
  • Margaret Sanger birth control
  • Cities added parks, playgrounds fire regulations,
    utilities
  • Muller v. Oregon limit womens work hours to 10
    per day
  • Temperance Movement 18th Amendment
  • National Urban League

31
The Third Area of Reform The Effort to Regulate
and Control Big Business
32
The Third Area of ReformThe Effort to Regulate
and Control Big Business (Economy)
  • Hepburn Act
  • Sherman Antitrust Act
  • Ida Tarbell and Standard Oil
  • Meat Inspection Act
  • Pure Food and Drug Act
  • 16th Amendment
  • Federal Reserve Act
  • Federal trade Commission (FTC)
  • Clayton Antitrust Act
  • Workingmans Compensation Act
  • Conservation
  • Labor Strikes

33
The Fourth Area of ReformThe Struggle for Equal
Rights for Women and Minorities
34
The Fourth Area of Reform The Struggle for Equal
Rights for Women and Minorities
  • Susan B. Anthony womens suffrage
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton womens suffrage
  • Carrie Chapman Catt National Woman Suffrage
    Association (NAWSA)
  • Alice Paul National Womans Party (NWP)
  • 19th Amendment
  • Ida B. Wells National Association of Colored
    Women
  • Florence Kelley National Consumers League
  • Booker T. Washington
  • W.E.B. Du Bois
  • Niagara Movement NAACP
  • Urban League

35
Women Make Progress Section 2
  • How did women of the Progressive Era make
    progress and win the right to vote?
  • Vocabulary
  • -Florence Kelley suffrage
  • -Carrie Chapman Catt NCL
  • -temperance movement NAWSA
  • -Margaret Sanger Alice Paul
  • -Ida B. Wells Nineteenth
  • Amendment

36
Women Make Progress
Progressive Women Expand Reforms Main Idea
During the Progressive Movement many women took
steps to gain reform for working conditions and
family life. Women Fight for the Right to Vote
Main Idea Carrie Chapman Catt and Alice Paul
were two Progressive leaders who helped
reenergize the national suffrage movement.
Eventually, they were successful when Congress
approved the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920.
37
Progressive Women Expand Reforms
  • More women went to college
  • Hardships of working women
  • Reformers
  • -Florence Kelley National Consumers
    League (NCL)
  • -Margaret Sanger birth-control clinics
  • -Ida B. Wells National Association of
    Colored Women (NACW)

38
Margaret Sanger
  • Margaret Sanger was educated as and worked as a
    nurse.
  • In her work with poor women on the Lower East
    Side of New York, she was aware of the effects of
    unplanned and unwelcome pregnancies.
  • She came to believe in the importance to women's
    lives and women's health of the availability of
    birth control, a term which she's credited with
    inventing.
  • In 1912, Sanger gave up nursing work to give
    advice about birth control
  • This was against the law according to the
    Comstock Act!!!
  • What steps did women take to win workers
    rights?
  • Successful in some states to reduce work hours
    for women

39
Transparency Analyzing Political Cartoons
Womens Suffrage
Analyzing Political Cartoons Womens Suffrage
TRANSPARENCY
40
Womens Suffrage
  • Goal of Movement
  • To get Congress to pass a Constitutional
    Amendment and get ¾ of the states to ratify it
  • To get individual states to permit women to vote
  • Western states had given women the right to vote
    before the amendment was passed
  • Women attended the Seneca Falls Convention in
    1848 and for the first time formally demanded the
    right to vote

41
Woman Suffrage
  • Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    worked for womens political issues
  • Carrie Chapman Catt worked to promote the
    National American Woman Suffrage Association
    (NAWSA)
  • Plan to get Congress to pass a constitutional
    amendment and to get state legislatures to let
    women vote

42
Susan B. Anthony
  • Susan B. Anthony led the fight for suffrage.
  • Anthony was involved in the temperance and
    abolitionist movements.
  • She was arrested in 1872 for trying to vote
  • National American Woman Suffrage (NAWSA) formed
    in 1890 with Anthony as president

43
Carrie Chapman Catt
  • From 1890 to 1900 an organizer for the National
    American Woman Suffrage Association, she became
    its president in 1900.
  • She led the campaign to win suffrage through an
    amendment to the U.S. Constitution

44
Activists Carry on the Struggle
  • Alice Paul formed National Womans Party (NWP)
  • Picketed and protested, leading to arrests
  • Nineteenth Amendment - right to vote shall not
    be denied or abridged on account of sex August,
    1920

45
Two Strategies for Suffrage
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association
    (NAWSA)
  • Campaigned for the right to vote
  • Used conventional means for achieving goal
  • Congressional Union (CU)
  • Led by Alice Paul
  • Used a more militant approach
  • Picketing, hunger strikes

46
Graph Passages of Womens Suffrage
Passages of Womens Suffrage
GRAPH
47
The 19th Amendment
  • Ratified August 24, 1920 when Tennessee became
    the 36th state to ratify the amendment.
  • What tactics did Progressive women use to win
    the right to vote?
  • Lobbied Congress to pass a constitutional
    amendment, held marches and hunger strikes, got
    some states to pass suffrage laws

Section 1 The right of citizens of the United
States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by
the United States or by any State on account of
sex.  Section 2 Congress shall have power to
enforce this article by appropriate legislation
48
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
NOTE TAKING
49
The Struggle Against DiscriminationSection 3
  • What steps did minorities take to combat social
    problems and discrimination?
  • Vocabulary
  • -Americanization NAACP
  • -Booker T. Washington Urban League
  • -W.E.B. Du Bois mutualistas
  • -Niagara Movement
  • -Anti-Defamation League

50
The Struggle Against Discrimination
Progressivism Presents Contradictions   Main
Idea Although many reforms occurred during the
Progressive Era, many non-whites and immigrants
also suffered as Protestants tried to force
Americanization on them. Racism was prevalent
even among Progressives, and segregation became
the norm in many areas of the country. African
Americans Demand Reforms Main Idea African
American leaders organized to gain reforms.
Their efforts led to the formation of the
National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People (NAACP) and the Urban League.
Reducing Prejudice and Protecting Rights Main
Idea Jews, Native Americans, Asian Americans,
and Mexican Americans formed groups to help fight
for their rights in the early 1900s.
51
What do we mean by Civil Rights"?
  • The term civil rights refers to rights, freedoms
    and liberties and that should be given to people
    no matter their race, ethnicity, lifestyles, or
    beliefs
  • They also can refer to the nonpolitical rights
    of a citizen or person

52
The 14th Amendment
  • Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the
    United States, and subject to the jurisdiction
    thereof, are citizens of the United States and of
    the state wherein they reside.
  • No state shall make or enforce any law which
    shall abridge the privileges or immunities of
    citizens of the United States nor shall any
    state deprive any person of life, liberty, or
    property, without due process of law nor deny to
    any person within its jurisdiction the equal
    protection of the laws.

53
The Birth of Jim Crow Laws
  • After the Civil War most states in the South
    passed anti-African American legislation.
  • These became known as Jim Crow laws.
  • This included laws that discriminated against
    African Americans with concern to attendance in
    public schools and the use of facilities such as
    restaurants, theaters, hotels, cinemas and public
    baths.
  • Trains and buses were also segregated and in many
    states marriage between whites and African
    American people.
  • What attitudes did most Progressives hold about
    minorities and immigrant groups?
  • Prejudiced against those who were nonwhite,
  • non-Protestant, and non-middle class worked
  • to Americanize immigrants

54
African Americans Demand Reform
  • Booker T. Washington told African Americans to
    move slowly toward racial progress
  • W.E.B. Du Bois urged African Americans to
    demand immediate rights
  • Niagara Movement denounced gradual progress in
    achieving rights
  • NAACP help African Americans use the courts to
    challenge unfair laws
  • Urban League helped poor in cities

55
Booker T. Washington
  • Former slave and founder of Tuskegee Institute
  • School for blacks that taught farming, carpentry,
    brick making, shoemaking, printing and
    cabinetmaking
  • Believed that blacks should first build economic
    power and then political power would follow
  • September, 1895, Washington became a national
    figure when one of his speeches was widely
    reported by the country's newspapers.
  • Washington's conservative views made him popular
    with white politicians
  • Other African-American leaders did not agree with
    his ideas and the movement split

56
Counter Movement to Tuskegee
  • WEB Du Bois
  • Led the Niagara Movement
  • Called for the end of racism NOW! (Think Niagara
    Falls!)
  • Did not agree with B.T. Washington and charged
    that the best and the brightest must lead the
    others towards equality now through politics and
    a quest for justice.
  • The Souls of Black Folks- most famous publication

57
Excerpt from The Souls of Black Folks
  • Herein lie buried many things which if read with
    patience may show the strange meaning of being
    black here in the dawning of the Twentieth
    Century. This meaning is not without interest to
    you, Gentle Reader for the problem of the
    Twentieth Century is the problem of the
    color-line.
  • W.E.B.Du Bois

58
The National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People
  • The NAACP was organized in 1909
  • Concern over race riots and Jim Crow
  • Many Niagara Movement leaders joined and combined
    forces with whites to overcome inequalities and
    violence
  • WEB Du Bois charged that Booker T. Washington was
    not helping the cause by remaining quiet
  • The NAACP grew rapidly into a national group
  • Is still important today in civil rights causes

59
The Urban League
  • Civil Rights group formed in 1911
  • Focused on poor, working class blacks in the
    cities
  • Helped with jobs and education
  • Ida B. Wells
  • Worked for reform for black women
  • Formed the National Association of Colored Women
    (NACW)
  • Helped bring about social change
  • Why did African Americans and others decide it
    was time to organize against discrimination?
  • Because of widespread segregation and growing
    problem with African American men being denied
    the right to vote in the South

60
Plessey v Ferguson
  • 1896 Supreme Court case concerning the legality
    of having separate railroad cars for white
  • Did this violate the equal protection clause of
    the 14th Amendment??
  • The Supreme Court said, NO, citing the idea of
    separate but equal
  • Set back equality for blacks almost 70 years

61
Reducing Prejudice
  • Anti-Defamation League aided Jews
  • Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM) aided Mexicans
    in Arizona
  • Mutualistas made loans and provided legal
    assistance to Mexicans
  • Society of American Indians protest federal
    Indian policy
  • Asian Americans keep land by putting it in
    childrens names

62
The Anti- Defamation League
  • Civil Rights group formed in 1913
  • Focused on defending Jews and others who were
    being verbally abused or attacked
  • Focused on securing justice and fair treatment
    to all citizens alike

63
Louis D. Brandeis
  • In 1916, Brandeis was appointed to the Supreme
    Court
  • First Jewish justice on the Supreme Court
  • Known as the peoples lawyer

64
Unsuccessful ProgressiveReforms for Other Ethnic
Groups
  • Mexican Americans
  • Formed the Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM) to
    fight against discrimination
  • Native Americans
  • Their removal to reservations AND the Dawes Act
    had destroyed their way of life and culture
  • Carlos Montezuma campaigned for equal rights but
    they were not granted citizenship until the
    1920s
  • Asian Americans
  • Fought unfair laws concerning property laws
    unsuccessfully
  • Were not allowed to become citizens
  • What strategies did other minority groups use to
    defend their rights?
  • Self-help agencies and social justice
    organizations plus some took legal action

65
Note Taking Reading Skill Main Idea and Details
Reading Skill Main Idea and Details
NOTE TAKING
66
Compare Viewpoints How should we respond to
discrimination?
How should we respond to discrimination?
COMPARING VIEWPOINTS
67
Transparency Organizing for Civil Rights
Organizing for Civil Rights
TRANSPARENCY
68
Roosevelts Square DealSection 4
  • What did Roosevelt think government should do
    for citizens?
  • Vocabulary
  • -Theodore Roosevelt Gifford Pinchot
  • -Square Deal Hepburn Act
  • -Meat Inspection Act New Nationalism
  • -Pure Food and Drug Act John Muir
  • -Progressive Party
  • -National Reclamation Act

69
Theodore Roosevelt
70
Sec 4 Roosevelts Square Deal
Roosevelts Square Deal
Roosevelt Shapes the Modern Presidency Main
Idea When Theodore Roosevelt became President in
1901, he expanded the powers of the President and
shaped the modern presidency. He fought for
reform proposals that would keep the wealthy and
powerful from taking advantage of the poor.
Trustbusting and Regulating Industry Main
Idea During Roosevelts presidency, the
government enacted many reforms involving labor
unions, control of shipping costs, antitrusts,
and the food and drug industries. The
Government Manages the Environment Main Idea
Following the advice of naturalists, Roosevelt
closed off land and pushed for laws that would
conserve water. Roosevelt and Taft Differ
Main Idea When Taft was elected President, he
changed many of Roosevelts policies, including
relaxing control of trusts. His policies
encouraged Roosevelt to seek another term in
office. Continued
71
Roosevelt Shapes the Modern Presidency
  • Assistant Secretary of the Navy
  • Spanish-American War formed the Rough Riders
  • Governor of New York
  • McKinleys Vice President in 1900
  • McKinley assassinated
  • Expanded the power of the Presidency
  • Program called the Square Deal goal to keep
    wealthy from taking advantage of small business
    owners and poor
  • What did Roosevelt want his Square Deal program
    to achieve?
  • A fair, honest, and just society in which
    everyone had an equal chance to succeed

72
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
NOTE TAKING
73
TRs Antitrust Activism
  • TR used the Sherman Antitrust Act 1890
  • Had never been vigorously enforced
  • Government sued Northern Securities Company
    (holding company that controlled railroads in the
    Northwest)
  • U.S. won the case in the Supreme Court
  • 42 other antitrust actions under Roosevelt
  • Successful in controlling business yet still
    believed in supporting business
  • President Wilson created the Federal Trade
    Commission in 1914
  • Monitored businesses for unfair practices
  • Continued TRs trust-busting

74
Types of Monopolies/Trusts
  • Horizontal Integration ? John D.
    Rockefeller
  • Vertical Integration
  • Gustavus Swift ? Meat-packing
  • Andrew Carnegie ? U. S. Steel

75
Trustbusting and Regulating Industry
  • Mine Strike, 1902
  • Hepburn Act 1906 gave Interstate Commerce
    Commission enforcement powers
  • Sherman Antitrust Act Supreme Court ruled
    Northern Securities Company was illegal trust
  • Meat Inspection Act federal agents to inspect
    any meat sold across state lines
  • Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 controls on other
    foods and on medicines controls labeling, and
    tests drugs
  • What impact did Roosevelts actions have on the
    governments role in the economy?
  • Increased the role of the government in
    regulating the economy and labor issues

76
The Labor Movement
  • Main goal of labor movement was to reduce hours
    and gain better wages and working conditions
  • Faced stiff opposition from employers who used
    injunctions to stop workers from going on strike

77
Government Manages the Environment
  • John Muir Yosemite National Park, 1890
  • Set aside 100 million acres of forestland
  • Gifford Pinchot rational use of forests

78
TRs Environmental Reform
  • National Reclamation Act
  • Set aside money from the sale of public lands to
    fund the construction of irrigation systems in
    arid states
  • Set aside 200 million acres for national forests
    and parks

John Muir and Theodore Roosevelt in Yosemite
taken from Glacier Point during their 1903
camping trip.
79
  • "There can be nothing in the world more beautiful
    than the Yosemite, the groves of the giant
    sequoias and redwoods, the Canyon of the
    Colorado, the Canyon of the Yellowstone, the
    Three Tetons and our people should see to it
    that they are preserved for their children and
    their children's children forever, with their
    majestic beauty all unmarred.
  • -Theodore Roosevelt

80
John Muir and Gifford Pinchot
  • John Muir
  • California naturalist
  • Instrumental in creation of first national park,
    Yellowstone
  • Gifford Pinchot
  • Appointed as first head of the Division of
    Forestry by TR
  • Recommended that publicly-owned forests be
    preserved for public use

81
Roosevelts Water Policy
  • Arguments over water in the arid West
  • National Reclamation Act gave government power to
    decide how water to be distributed
  • Government built dams and reservoirs
  • How did Roosevelts policies affect the
    environment?
  • National wild lands would now be managed for
    their natural resources, and water reclamation
    projects would irrigate much desert land in the
    Southwest. Preserved 100 million acres of wild
    lands

82
Roosevelt and Taft Differ
  • Tafts Justice Department brought twice as many
    lawsuits against large companies
  • Taft fired Gifford Pinchot for criticizing
    Secretary of Interior Richard Ballinger for
    selling federal land with coal deposits in Alaska
  • New Nationalism Roosevelts program to restore
    trustbusting power
  • Progressive Party Roosevelt ran in 1912
  • Taft ran for Republican Party in 1912

83
William Howard Tafts Presidency
  • Elected in 1908 with the support of Roosevelt
  • Had been Roosevelts Secretary of War
  • Pursued 90 antitrust cases
  • Progressives wanted tariffs reduced but Taft did
    not support a reduction, angering some members of
    his party (including TR!!)
  • How did Tafts policies compare with
    Roosevelts?
  • Taft took a stronger stance against trusts,
    supported government control over certain
    industries, encouraged a federal income tax, and
    did not lower tariffs as much as Roosevelt wished.

84
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
  • Secretary of Interior Ballinger allowed
    businessmen to obtain several million acres of
    Alaskan land, containing coal deposits.
  • Pinchot of the Forest Service protested and was
    fired by Taft.
  • Ballinger was investigated and resigned
  • He joined Republican party
  • Other Progressives also dropped out of the party

85
Note Taking Reading Skill Compare and Contrast
Reading Skill Compare and Contrast
NOTE TAKING
86
Transparency Analyzing Political Cartoons Taft
in the White House
Analyzing Political Cartoons Taft in the White
House
TRANSPARENCY
87
Wilsons New FreedomSection 5
  • What steps did Wilson take to increase the
    governments role in the economy?
  • Vocabulary
  • -Woodrow Wilson FTC
  • -Federal Reserve Act New Freedom
  • -Sixteenth Amendment
  • -Clayton Antitrust Act

88
Wilsons New Freedom
Wilson and the Democrats Prevail Main Idea In
the 1912 presidential election, the Republican
Party was divided between Taft and Roosevelt,
leading the way for Woodrow Wilson to be elected.
Once in office, Wilson developed a Progressive
plan that placed strong government control on
corporations. Wilson Regulates the Economy
Main Idea Wilson worked to give the government
more control of the economy. Some of the laws
passed during his term included lowering tariffs,
reforming the banking system, strengthening
antitrust regulation, and supporting labor unions
and workers rights. Progressivism Leaves a
Lasting Legacy Main Idea Changes in the
American economy and the governments role in
managing natural resources still have an impact
on society today. Continued...
89
Wilson Wins Election of 1912
  • Democrats Woodrow Wilson
  • Progressives Theodore Roosevelt
  • Republicans William Howard Taft
  • Republicans split the vote, allowing Wilson to
    win
  • New Freedom Wilsons program to give more
    freedom to small businesses
  • How did Republican divisions help Wilson win the
    presidency?
  • Nomination of TR by the Progressive Party split
    the Republican vote, helping Wilson to win

90
The Election of 1912
TRANSPARENCY
91
Chart Presidential Election of 1912
Presidential Election of 1912
CHART
92
President Wilsons Reform Policies
  • Moral/Missionary Diplomacy
  • Wilson denounced the dollar diplomacy of Taft,
    emphasizing his idealistic views.
  • The New Freedom Policy promised to enforce
    antitrust laws without threatening economic
    competition
  • Was against big business and big government

93
Wilson Regulates the Economy
  • Lowered tariffs to reduce price of consumer goods
  • Sixteenth Amendment - income tax to make up for
    lost revenue

94
Federal Reserve Act
  • Reform the banking system
  • National banks under the control of the Federal
    Reserve Board
  • Regional banks established to hold reserve funds
    from commercial banks
  • Sets interest rate that banks pay to borrow money
    from other banks

95
Wilson Strengthens Antitrust Regulation
  • Federal Trade Commission (FTC) created to monitor
    businesses practices that might lead to monopoly,
    stop false advertising or dishonest labeling
  • Clayton Antitrust Act strengthened antitrust
    laws protected labor unions from being attacked
    as trusts
  • Workingmans Compensation Act gave wages to
    temporarily disabled civil service employees

96
Clayton Antitrust Act 1914
  • Companies could not use contracts to keep buyers
    from purchasing from competitors
  • Could not say unions violated antitrust laws
  • Made strikes, picketing, and boycotts legal
  • No court injunctions unless injury to property
  • What policies did Wilson pursue in support of his
    New Freedom program?
  • Pushed for laws that would give the federal
    government more power over tariffs, banks, and
    trusts

97
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
NOTE TAKING
98
Progressivisms Legacy
  • Political reforms
  • Nineteenth Amendment
  • Federal government offered more protection to
    Americans
  • American economy based on Antitrust laws, Federal
    Reserve Board and other federal agencies
  • Environmental progress
  • Problems remain

99
Chart Progressive Era Legislation and
Constitutional Amendments
Progressive Era Legislation and Constitutional
Amendments
CHART
100
  • Accomplishments of Progressivism
  • Redefined the role of government in business and
    politics
  • Labor reform, especially for women and children
  • Amendments to the Constitution
  • Help for urban Americans
  • Limits of
  • Progressivism
  • Focused on cities, ignoring tenant and migrant
    farmers
  • Supported imperialism
  • Ignored African Americans, worsening race
    relations
  • World War I ended Progressive Era

101
Three Other Progressive Amendments
  • 16th Income Tax
  • Was a progressive income tax
  • The more money earned, the more money paid
  • 17th Popular election of senators
  • Formerly selected by state legislators
  • 18th Prohibition
  • What was the long-term impact of the Progressive
    Era on American life?
  • Established the idea that government can take
    action to help solve problems in society and the
    economy
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