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Pope John XXIII


Title: Catholic Social Teaching A Key to Catholic Identity Author: Ron Krietemeyer Last modified by: ITADMIN Created Date: 12/23/1998 3:19:35 PM Document presentation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pope John XXIII

Pope John XXIII
  • A Significant
  • Person in the
  • Christian tradition
  • (1881-1963)
  • For Students

Life of Pope John XXIII in a nutshell
  • 1881, 25 Nov born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli
  • Papal Predecessor Pius XII
  • 1958 elected John XXIII 262nd Pope of Roman
    Catholic Church aged 76 pontificate lasts 5
  • 1963, June 3 dies aged 81
  • Papal Successor Paul VI
  • 2000, Sept 3 declared Blessed by Pope John
    Paul II (see sermon in Notes)

John XXIII Coats of Arms
  • Coat of arms for Angelo Roncalli as Patriarch of
    Venice (1953-1958). Motto of Obedientia et Pax
    (Obedience and Peace)
  • Papal coat of arms for Pope John XXIII
    (1958-1963) NB Venetian lion derived from St
    Marks Gospel in both coats of arms

Significant dates in the life of Pope John XXIII
  • 1881, 25 Nov born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, in
    Sotto il Monte, Italy, the 4th in a family of 13
  • 1896 admitted to secular Franciscan Order by
    spiritual director in Bergamo seminary
  • 1901-1905 student at Pontifical Roman Seminary
    all early appointments by Pius XII
  • 1904, 10 Aug ordained a priest in Rome
  • 1905 Bishop of Bergamo appoints Roncalli as his
  • 1914-1919 WWI Roncalli drafted into Royal
    Italian Army as a sergeant he serves in medical
    core as chaplain. Opens a Student House after
    War to help their spiritual needs
  • 1921 appointed by new Pope Benedict XV as
    Italian president of Society for the Propagation
    of the Faith

Fr. Angelo Roncalli (centre) in seminary or as
Bishops secretary, 1905-1909??
Significant dates - Pope John XXIII (2)
  • 1925 appointed by Pope Pius XI as Apostolic
    Visitor to Bulgaria then consecrated as titular
    bishop of Areopolis. Chooses as his episcopal
    motto Obedientia et Pax (Obedience Peace),
    which became his lifelong motto
  • 1935 appointed Apostolic Delegate to Turkey and
    Greece. Helped Jewish underground to save
    thousands of refugees in Europe afterwards
    considered a Righteous Gentile
  • 1944 Pope Pius XII named him Apostolic Nuncio
    to Paris, France

DYK - After he was elected, John XXIII spent much
time at night visiting prisoners and the poor
Significant dates - Pope John XXIII (3)
  • 1944-1953 worked on UN Declaration of Human
    Rights whilst in Paris, France
  • 1953 named Patriarch of Venice and therefore
    raised to rank of Cardinal
  • 1958, 28 Oct Papal conclave elects him as Pope
    John XXIII. Had arrived at Vatican with a return
    ticket to Venice. Because of long pontificate of
    Pope Pius XII, cardinals choose older man as
    stop gap pope. He is 77 years old at election.
    Cardinal Montini (future Paul VI) is expected to
    be elected, but he was not yet a cardinal. Is
    last to insist on full 5 hr papal ceremony

Significant dates - Pope John XXIII (4)
  • 1960, Dec 2 meets Archbishop of Canterbury,
    Most Rev Geoffrey Francis Fisher
  • 1961 issues Mater et Magistra
  • 1962, Jan 3 excommunicates Fidel Castro, being
    a Catholic linked to a communist government
  • 1962, Sept 23 John XXIII first diagnosed with
    stomach cancer (a fact kept from the public for
    some 8 years)
  • 1962-1965 less than 90 years after Vatican I,
    he convenes the ecumenical Vatican II Council
  • 1963 issues Pacem in Terris
  • 1963, April gives hint of his illness when he
    says That which happens to all men sic
    perhaps will happen soon to the Pope who speaks
    to you today
  • 1963, May 11 awarded Balzan Prize for his
    engagement for peace. This was his last public

Significant dates in the life of Pope John XXIII
  • 1963, May 25 suffers another haemorrhage,
    requires blood transfusions, developed
    peritonitis (inflammation of sac that lines walls
    of abdominal cavity)
  • 1963, June 3 dies 7.49 pm, aged 81
  • 1963, June 6 is buried, ending a papal reign of
    4 years, 7 months, 6 days. He is the last pope to
    insist on a full papal funeral
  • 1963, Dec 6 U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson
    awards him the posthumous Presidential Medal of
    Freedom, the highest U.S. civilian award
  • 2000, Sept 3 John XXIII is declared Blessed
    by Pope John Paul II
  • (Principal source
    Wikipedia website)

John XXIIIs immediate, life-focused
contribution to Christianity (1)
  • explain the immediate contribution to the
    development and expression of Christianity of
    John XXIII
  • Explain relates cause and effect, the
    relationship between aspects of something, the
    why and how behind it

DID YOU KNOW? Pope John XXIII was TIME magazines
Man of the Year in their Jan 4, 1965 issue. He
had died in June 1963.
John XXIIIs contribution to Christianity? (2)
  • Summoned Second Vatican Council (1962-1965),
    enacted major revision of the Code of Canon Law
    transformed the structures of the Roman Catholic
  • Vatican II charged with the updating
    (aggiornamento) of the Church and seeking unity
    between Christians in the world (Hinnells, p.192)
  • Through his personality and teaching, and his
    initiatives with world leaders, he gave the
    papacy a new vision and set the Church towards a
    new mission in the world (both quotes from P.
    Hebblethwaite, 2000, John XXIII, back cover)

John XXIIIs contribution to Christianity? (3)
  • He changed the nature of modern Church Councils.
    He did not call a council to condemn errors or
    declare new infallible beliefs, as with previous
    councils his council was one of mercy and
    pastoral care, to express faith in a new
    language, and be ecumenical in nature
    (Hebblethwaite in McBrien, p.709)
  • Pastoral emphasis of his pontificate is
    emphasised by his visits to the Regina Coeli
    prison he talked with traditional enemies like
    the Communists he made grace accessible to
    ordinary people he was open to the Holy Spirit
    he was atune to the signs of the times cf.
    Gaudium et spes, n.1 (Ibid, p.709 cf 14 Works
    of Mercy, Slide 28 below)

John XXIIIs contribution to Christianity? (4)
  • He communicated using effective images. We are
    born not to be museum keepers, but to cultivate
    a flourishing garden of life. He referred to
    Vatican II as the new Pentecost. The prayer for
    the Council was Renew thy wonders in this day,
    as by a New Pentecost (Hebblethwaite in McBrien,
  • Transformation of the Churchs nature the
    Council would involve a change in mentalities,
    ways of thinking and prejudices its language
    would shed light on and remove
    misunderstandings, and it should dissipate error
    by the force of truth (Ibid, p.709)

John XXIIIs contribution to Christianity? (5)
  • His life mission was based on a personal
    spirituality of the Crucified and Risen Christ.
    The Council represented a way of self-renewal
    through an encounter with the Risen Jesuswhose
    light illumines the whole Church for the
    salvation, joy and glory of all peoples
    (Hebblethwaite in McBrien, p.710)
  • His key distinction between the Church ad intra
    and the Church ad extra that is internal
    questions (worship, ecumenism, etc) and external
    questions (war, peace, birth control, hunger,
    poverty, etc) (Ibid, p.710)

John XXIIIs contribution to Christianity? (6)
  • His scholarly contribution was to edit the
    writings of St Charles Borromeo (in 39 volumes).
    This took a lifetime with volumes appearing in
    1936, 1937, 1938, 1946 and 1957 (Hebblethwaite,
    p.30). He had academic specialisation in history,
    patrology, apologetics, and was a much sought
    after preacher/spiritual adviser (Vatican
    website, biography)
  • As John XXIII said at the opening of the Council
    (11 Oct 1962) History is the teacher of life
  • Among his first actions upon election as Pope was
    the creation of 23 new cardinals in Dec 1958 by
    1962 he had increased the number of new cardinals
    to 87.

John XXIIIs contribution to Christianity? (7)
  • Justice, peace and politics In 1909, Roncalli
    backs Bishop Tedeschi in Church support of a
    strike by 800 textile workers in a factory just
    outside Bergamo (Hebblethwaite, p.34)
  • The priest who lives in the light of the
    teachings of the Gospel cannot pass by on the
    other side of the road Christs preference goes
    to the disinherited, the weak and the oppressed
    (Roncallis article, cited in Hebblethwaite, p.34)

John XXIIIs contribution to Christianity? (8)
  • Ecumenism Cardinal Roncallis ongoing meetings
    with representatives of the Ecumenical Patriarch
    (e.g. 1938 after election of Pius XII) paved the
    way for the kiss of peace between Patriarch
    Athenagoras and Paul VI, in Jerusalem, in January
    1964 (Hebblethwaite, p.78)
  • 1960, Dec 2 meets Archbishop of Canterbury,
    Most Rev. Geoffrey Francis Fisher
  • 1962 fewer than 90 yrs after Vatican I, he
    convenes the ecumenical council Vatican II it
    reshapes liturgy, ecumenism, biblical
    scholarship, and the approach of the Church to
    the world

John XXIIIs contribution to Christianity? (9)
  • Called Church to be Prophetic within (not apart
    from) the Modern World John XXIII understood
    that the world was changing and that the Church
    needed to respond to the stirrings of the Holy
    Spirit by working through the signs of the
    times. In doing so, he was committed to
    Christian unity, social justice, human rights,
    and the cultivation of world peace (ND Vision
  • Influence on the Church Documents, especially
    through his opening address at Vatican II the
    Declaration on Religious Freedom and the
    Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern
    World (probably the most important of the Vatican
    II documents) (Medal of Freedom website)

The long term impact of John XXIII on
Christianity? (1)
  • analyse the impact of John XXIII on Christianity
  • Analyse identify components and the
    relationship between components draw out and
    relate implications
  • Looks at the relationship between John XXIII and
    Christianity, including his long term? impact
    on Christianity

The impact of John XXIII on Christianity? (2a)
    discipline at least 15 mins mental prayer per
    day read whole chapter of The Imitation of
    Christ examine conscience prepared meditation
    for next day visit to Blessed Sacrament 5 Hail
    Marys Our Fathers repeated between 6-9pm in
    honour of 5 wounds of Jesus on the Cross Weekly
    Confession Communion Daily Mass but weekly
    Communion (Jansenist legacy) fasted Fridays and
    Saturdays, performing penance Monthly meeting
    with his spiritual director set aside one day
    for more profound recollection person for
    advertisement of defects chose a special patron
    saint for each month (Hebblethwaite, p.11)

The impact of John XXIII on Christianity? (2b)
    Annually would make a yearly retreat in a
    seminary, choosing Carnivale time in order to be
    praying harder while others feasted and revelled
    Annual General Confession (Hebblethwaite, p.11)
  • Roncalli was always good at remembering
    anniversaries and feastdays, and performing small
    thoughtful kindnesses. Life, as the spiritual
    writers said, is made up of little things (Ibid,

The impact of John XXIII on Christianity? (3)
  • SPIRITUAL AUTOBIOGRAPHY Wrote Journal of a Soul
    (named by others) based on model of St Therese of
    Lisieuxs Story of a Soul. John described it as
    sixty years spent with a pen. He began it in
    1895, aged 14, until his death in 1963.
    (Hebblethwaite, p.ix)
  • LIFE CENTRED ON PRAYER His light went on at 4 am,
    sometimes 3 am. I always get up at four in the
    morning its my timeone prays so well at first
    light, when everything is silent (Ibid, p.ix)
  • SPIRITUAL MOTTOS Obedience and Peace
    (Patriarchate of Venice) Through Mary to Jesus
    (over the door of his chapel in Istanbul)

The impact of John XXIII on Christianity? (4)
    Imitation of Christ also inspired by Sts Peter
    Paul, St Joseph, and strong spirituality based on
    St Charles Borromeo and St Francis de Sales plus
    devotion to Sacred Heart. Also spirituality of St
    Bernard of Clairvaux and 14 Works of Mercy.
    (Ibid, pp.x, 7-8, 11, 13 refer to Slides 27
  • OPENNESS TO THE POOR John came from a poor
    childhood his mother would always welcome sit
    down a stranger at one of their meals. The
    Roncallis knew their Bible Do not neglect to
    show hospitality to strangers, for thereby some
    have entertained angels unawares (Heb 132)
    (Ibid, p.3)

The impact of John XXIII on Christianity? (5)
  • THE WILL OF GOD AS CENTRAL Let your will be
    mine, and let my will ever respond to yours, in
    perfect harmony. Let me desire what you desire
    and hate what you hate, and let me desire and
    hate nothing but what you desire and hate
    (Journal, p.11, cited in Hebblethwaite, p.12)
  • SPIRITUALITY OF PEACE You are the true peace of
    the heart, you are its only resting placeIn this
    peace, in this very peace which is yourself the
    one, supreme, eternal God, I will sleep and rest
    (Journal, p.11, based on Imitation of Christ, Bk
    3, Ch 15, cited in Hebblethwaite, p.12)
    is so ugly, filthy and loathsome! In my year of
    military service I have learned all about it. The
    army is a running fountain of pollution, enough
    to submerge whole cities. Who can hope to escape
    from this flood of slime, unless God comes to his
    aid (Journal, pp.92-93, cited in Hebblethwaite,

The impact of John XXIII on Christianity? (6)
  • IMPACT OF WORKER-PRIESTS Many priests from prison
    camps or resistance movements looking for a new
    form of ministry immersed in lives of normal
    people e.g. around 1947 (Hebblethwaite, p.105)
    PEACE Choose always to have less rather than
    more. Seek always the lowest place and to be
    beneath everyone. Seek always and pray that the
    will of God may be wholly fulfilled in
    you. Behold, such a man sic enters within the
    borders of peace and rest (Imitation of Christ,
    Bk III, Ch 23, cited in Hebblethwaite, p.115)

Spirituality of St Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153
contemporary of Hildegard)
  • Peace within the cell fierce warfare
    without, Hear all believe a few honour all. Do
    not believe everything you hear Do not judge
    everything you see Do not do everything you
    can Do not give everything you have Do not say
    everything you know. Pray, read, withdraw, be
    silent, be at peace. (Journal , p.40, cited in
    Hebblethwaite, pp.7-8)

Spirituality based on 14 works of mercy Based on
Mt 2534-40 Isa 586-10
  • 7 Corporal works of mercy
  • Feed the hungry
  • Give drink to the thirsty
  • Clothe the naked
  • Visit the imprisoned
  • Shelter the homeless
  • Visit the sick
  • Bury the dead
  • 7 Spiritual works of mercy
  • Admonish the sinner
  • Instruct the ignorant
  • Counsel the doubtful
  • Comfort the sorrowful
  • Bear wrongs patiently
  • Forgive all injuries
  • Pray for the living and the dead (Journal , 26
    Dec 1958, cited in Hebblethwaite, p.154 cf.
    McBrien, pp.854-55)

Some key passages from the writings of John XXIII
  • We are not on earth to guard a museum but to
    cultivate a flourishing garden of life (Source
    Lettere, p.481 cited in Hebblethwaite, p.131
    for icon see Robert Lenz website at
    www.bridgebuildingicons.com )

Some key passages from the writings of John XXIII
  • What counts most in this life is blessed Jesus
    Christ, his holy Church, his Gospel, truth and
    goodness (University of Notre Dame, ND Vision
  • You could not come to me, so I came to
    you (Words to Prisoners whom he visited after
    becoming Pope)

Key passages - John XXIII (3)
  • The faithful saw in him a reflection of the
    goodness of God, and called him the good pope
    (Vatican site)
  • Anybody can be Pope the proof of this is that I
    have become one
  • Born poor, but of honoured and humble people, I
    am proud to die poor
  • Consult not your fears but your hopes and your
    dreams Concern yourself not with what you tried
    and failed at, but what it is still possible for
    you to do
  • I have looked into your eyes with my eyes. I
    have drawn near to your heart

John XXIII signing Pacem in Terris in 1963 NB
thin sick due to cancer
Key passages - John XXIII (4)
  • It often happens that I wake up at night and
    begin to worry about a serious problem and decide
    I must tell the Pope about it. Then I wake up
    completely and remember that I am the Pope
  • Italians come to ruin most generally in three
    ways women, gambling and farming. My family
    chose the slowest and most boring of the three
  • See everything, overlook a great deal, correct a
    little, show compassion in all things

John XXIII - Did you know? (1)
  • There was no Pope John XX due to confusion among
    the papal historians and following a number of
  • (NB Do not confuse the modern John XXIII
    (1881-1963) with John XXIII, antipope from

John XXIII - Did you know? (2)
  • John XXIII began Vatican II in 1962
  • Paul VI finished Vatican II in 1965

John XXIII - Did you know? (3)
  • After he was elected pope, aged 76, John XXIII
    immediately made Giovanni Montini a cardinal
    (future Paul VI)
  • He then went to the Holy Office (in charge of
    guarding against heresy) and looked up his own
    file. A note was attached suspected of
    Modernism. This was one reason why his career
    had been ruined or delayed thirty years
    beforehand. (mcs.drexel site)

John XXIII - Did you know? (4)
  • The Pope as Angelo Roncalli entered salvation
    history in 1881. Also born in that same year
  • Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Jesuit
    paleontologist, mystic
  • Alcide De Gaspen, future leader of the Christian
  • Augustin Bea, became founder-president of
    Secretariat for Christian Unity (all from
    Hebblethwaite, p.xi)

John XXIII - Did you know? (5)
  • John XXIII composed the equivalent of his last
    will and testament with the encyclical Pacem in
    Terris on universal peace this was his final
    mandate for the Council which he had begun
    (Hebblethwaite in McBrien, p.710)
  • Realising that he would soon die, he said to a
    friend At least I have launched this big ship
    the Council others will have to bring it into
    port (Ibid, p.710)

Summary of Major Documents John XXIII
  • Mater et Magistra Mother and Teacher (1961)
  • Identifies the widening gap between the rich and
    poor nations as a global concern of justice
  • Raises concerns about the arms race
  • Calls upon Christians to work for a more just
  • Pacem in Terris Peace on Earth (1963)
  • Focus on human rights as the basis for peace
  • Calls for disarmament
  • Stating the need for a world-wide institution to
    promote and safeguard the universal common good
  • (Source http//sao.clriq.org.au/cst/cst_intro.htm

Bibliography References (1) NB All websites
retrieved Nov 2006
  • Hebblethwaite, Peter. (2000). John XXIII, Pope of
    the century. Revised Margaret Hebblethwaite
    London Continuum.
  • Hinnells, John R. (ed.). (1991). Whos Who of
    Religions. London Penguin. John XXIII, p.192.
  • Mc Bride, Alfred. (1996). A Retreat with Pope
    John XXIII Opening Windows to Wisdom. St.
    Anthony Messenger Press.
  • McBrien, Richard P. (Gen. Ed.). (1995). The
    HarperCollins Encyclopedia of Catholicism. New
    York HarperCollinsPublishers. John XXIII by
    Peter Hebblethwaite, pp.709-710. NB Probably the
    best single source brief summary of John XXIIIs
    life and contributions to the Council and the
    Church in general.
  • Morrissey, J., Mudge, P., Taylor, A., et al.
    (2005). Living Religion, 3rd Edition. Melbourne
    Pearson Longman, pp.306-310.
  • Pope John Paul XXIII (28 Oct 1958 3 June, 1963)
    Online Papal document for his papacy
  • Summary of Main Encyclicals and Documents
    Social Justice http//sao.clriq.org.au/cst/cst_int

Bibliography References (3) NB All websites
retrieved Nov 2006
  • Almost a Saint Pope John XXIII St Anthony
    Messenger www.americancatholic.org/Messenger/Nov19
  • Homily by John Paul II, Beatification of John
    XXIII took place 3 September 2000
  • Overview of Churchs thinking on Human Rights
    (search site under Australian Catholic Bishops
    Conference, author Sandi Cornish)
  • Pope John XXIII a brief biography, Notre Dame
    Vision www.nd.edu/ndvi/pages/inspiration/models/0
  • Pope John XXIII Illuminating Lives
  • Pope John XXIII Wikipedia http//en.wikipedia.or
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