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14.3 Studying the Human Genome

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14.3 Studying the Human Genome Copying DNA What if you need to make copies of DNA? Forensic science often needs to copy DNA because they only find a little at a crime ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 14.3 Studying the Human Genome


1
  • 14.3 Studying the Human Genome

2
THINK ABOUT IT
  • Just a few decades ago, computers were gigantic
    machines found only in laboratories and
    universities. Today, many of us carry small,
    powerful computers to school and work every day.
  • Decades ago, the human genome was unknown.
    Today, we can see our entire genome on the
    Internet.
  • How long will it be before having a copy of your
    own genome is as ordinary as carrying a cellphone
    in your pocket?

3
Manipulating DNA
  • What techniques are used to study human DNA?
  • Sometimes we need to make copies of or amplify
    DNA
  • Sometimes we need to cut, separate, and then
    replicate DNA base by base
  • Scientists can now read the base sequences in DNA
    from any cell.

4
Copying DNA
  • What if you need to make copies of DNA?
  • Forensic science often needs to copy DNA because
    they only find a little at a crime scene.
  • If there is a particular gene needed for study by
    a research lab they may need to copy its DNA as
    well

5
Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Once biologists find a gene, a technique known
    as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows them to
    make many copies of it.
  • 1. A piece of DNA is heated, which separates its
    two strands.

6
Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • 2. At each end of the original piece of DNA, a
    biologist adds a short piece of DNA that
    complements a portion of the sequence.
  • These short pieces are known as primers because
    they prepare, or prime, a place for DNA
    polymerase to start working.

7
Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • 3. DNA polymerase copies the region between the
    primers. These copies then serve as templates to
    make more copies.
  • 4. In this way, just a few dozen cycles of
    replication can produce billions of copies of the
    DNA between the primers.

8
Cutting DNA
  • Nucleic acids are chemically different from
    other macromolecules such as proteins and
    carbohydrates. This difference makes DNA
    relatively easy to extract from cells and
    tissues.
  • DNA molecules from most organisms are much too
    large to be analyzed, so they must first be cut
    into smaller pieces.
  • Many bacteria produce restriction enzymes that
    cut DNA molecules into precise pieces, called
    restriction fragments that are several hundred
    bases in length.
  • Of the hundreds of known restriction enzymes,
    each cuts DNA at a different sequence of
    nucleotides.

9
Cutting DNA
  • For example, the EcoRI restriction enzyme
    recognizes the base sequence GAATTC.
  • It cuts each strand between the G and A bases,
    leaving single-stranded overhangs, called sticky
    ends, with the sequence AATT.
  • The sticky ends can bond, or stick, to a DNA
    fragment with the complementary base sequence.

10
Separating DNA
  • Once DNA has been cut by restriction enzymes,
    scientists can use a technique known as gel
    electrophoresis to separate and analyze the
    differently sized fragments.

11
Separating DNA
  • A mixture of DNA fragments is placed at one end
    of a porous gel.
  • When an electric voltage is applied to the gel,
    DNA moleculeswhich are negatively chargedmove
    toward the positive end of the gel.
  • The smaller the DNA fragment, the faster and
    farther it moves.

12
Separating DNA
  • The result is a pattern of bands based on
    fragment size.
  • Specific stains that bind to DNA make these
    bands visible.
  • Researchers can remove individual restriction
    fragments from the gel and study them further.

13
Extracting DNA using Gel Electrophoresis
14
Reading DNA
  • After the DNA fragments have been separated,
    researchers can read, or sequence, it.
  • Single-stranded DNA is placed in a test tube
    containing DNA polymerasethe enzyme that copies
    DNAalong with the four nucleotide bases, A, T,
    G, and C. (This is what is done in Polymerase
    Chain Reaction or PCR)
  • The DNA polymerase uses the unknown strand as a
    template to make one new DNA strand after
    another.

15
Reading DNA
  • Researchers also add a small number of bases
    that have a chemical dye attached. Each time a
    dye-labeled base is added to a new DNA strand,
    the synthesis of that strand stops.
  • When DNA synthesis is completed, the result is a
    series of color-coded DNA fragments of different
    lengths.

16
Reading DNA
  • Researchers then separate these fragments, often
    by gel electrophoresis.
  • The order of colored bands on the gel tells the
    exact sequence of bases in the DNA.

17
The Human Genome Project
  • In 1990, the United States, along with several
    other countries, launched the Human Genome
    Project.
  • The main goals of the project were to sequence
    all 3 billion base pairs of human DNA and
    identify all human genes.
  • Other important goals included sequencing the
    genomes of model organisms to interpret human
    DNA, developing technology to support the
    research, exploring gene functions, studying
    human variation, and training future scientists.

18
What We Have Learned
  • The Human Genome Project pinpointed genes and
    associated particular sequences in those genes
    with numerous diseases and disorders.
  • It also identified about three million locations
    where single-base DNA differences occur in
    humans, which may help us find DNA sequences
    associated with diabetes, cancer, and other
    health problems.
  • The Human Genome Project also transferred
    important new technologies to the private sector,
    including agriculture and medicine.
  • The project catalyzed the U.S. biotechnology
    industry and fostered the development of new
    medical applications.

19
What We Have Learned
  • As much as half of our genome is made up of DNA
    sequences from viruses and other genetic elements
    within human chromosomes.
  • This chart compares the human genome with other
    organisms.

20
What We Have Learned
  • More than 40 of our proteins are similar to
    proteins in organisms such as fruit flies, worms,
    and yeast.
  • This chart compares the human genome with other
    organisms.

21
New Questions
  • The Human Genome Project worked to identify and
    address ethical, legal, and social issues
    surrounding the availability of human genome data
    and its powerful new technologies.
  • For example, who owns and controls genetic
    information? Is genetic privacy different from
    medical privacy? Who should have access to
    personal genetic information, and how will it be
    used?
  • In May 2008, President George W. Bush signed
    into law the Genetic Information
    Nondiscrimination Act, which prohibits U.S.
    insurance companies and employers from
    discriminating on the basis of information
    derived from genetic tests. Other protective laws
    may soon follow.

22
  • The 1000 Genomes Project, launched in 2008, will
    study the genomes of 1000 people in an effort to
    produce a detailed catalogue of human variation.
  • Data from the project will be used in future
    studies of development and disease, and may lead
    to successful research on new drugs and therapies
    to save human lives and preserve health.
  • Many more sequencing projects are under way and
    an ever-growing database of information from
    microbial, animal, and plant genomes is expected.
  • Perhaps the most important challenge that lies
    ahead is to understand how all the parts of
    cellsgenes, proteins, and many other
    moleculeswork together to create complex living
    organisms.
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