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An Introduction to Adult Attachment

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Title: An Introduction to Adult Attachment


1
An Introduction to Adult Attachment
  • Presented to the Child Development Initiative
  • By Sheila Hayes
  • Mar 31 2011

2
Sheila Hayes
  • Clinical Counsellor since 1996
  • Member IACP
  • Masters in Educational Guidance and Counselling
    from Trinity College
  • Masters Dissertation on Attachment Theory

3
Do These Personalities Types Sound familiar
  • Ursula
  • May have harsh unmodulated voice timbres, at
    variance with an imploring or pleading look in
    their eyes.
  • Beneath a self sufficiency is a desire to be
    looked after.
  • In essence all container and no feelings
  • Cliona
  • The tone of voice is often rambling and
    monotonous and find it hard to come to the point
    and to shape their story.
  • Conversation is an attempt to maintain contact
    rather than to create dialogue.
  • Beneath the clinging behaviour is rage and
    narcissism and a huge fear of losing the secure
    base.
  • In essence all feelings and no where to contain
    them.
  • Nick
  • Huge trust issues,
  • Extremely sensitive
  • Narcissistic needs,
  • Anxiety around rejection, control, ridicule and
    bullying

(All References Holmes, J., 2001)
4
Agenda
  • Review of Infant Attachment
  • John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
  • Elements of Attachment Relationships
  • Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
  • Development of the Adult Attachment Interview
  • Attachment Styles
  • Implications and uses of Adult Attachment
  • Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment
    Styles
  • Couple Love
  • Attachment Theory effect on Mental Health
  • Using Attachment Theory in Therapy
  • Resources References
  • Questions

5
The Mother Child Relationship
  • Has always been a key question in Psychoanalysis

6
1890s - Freud,
  • Developed the Oedipus Complex
  • Maintained Psychological problems arose as a
    result of lack of resolution of the Oedipus
    Complex.

7
1930s Klein
  • Mother Child bond arose due to feeding
  • Kleinian Dependency Theory
  • Psychological problems arose
  • Not from lack of resolution of the Oedipus
    Complex
  • But from the act of weaning
  • The Freud / Klein view of the Mother-Child
    relationship was predominant up to the 1960s

8
1935 - Ethology and Lorenz
  • Konrad Lorenz
  • Studied goslings and ducklings who fed themselves
  • Proposed that a bond could develop without the
    intermediary of food.
  • Developed the term Imprinting
  • Where a duckling or gosling can attach itself to
    almost anything (such as a Wellington boot)
  • Received a Nobel prize in 1973

9
Agenda John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
  • Review of Infant Attachment
  • John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
  • Elements of Attachment Relationships
  • Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
  • Development of the Adult Attachment Interview
  • Attachment Styles
  • Implications and uses of Adult Attachment
  • Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment
    Styles
  • Couple Love
  • Attachment Theory effect on Mental Health
  • Using Attachment Theory in Therapy
  • Resources References
  • Questions

10
1957 Paper Presented to the British
Psychoanalytical Society
  • The Nature of the Childs Tie to his Mother
  • A childs psychological wellbeing is heavily
    influenced by its relationship to its Mother and
    Wider Environment.
  • To address psychopathologies, these relationship
    have to be addressed
  • This paper is the foundation stone of what became
    attachment theory

11
Reaction from The Psychoanalytic Society
  • It was dominated by the Freud / Klein View
  • Uproar
  • Received very critically
  • He left the society
  • Was unable to effect change in how children were
    treated in hospitals due to opposition

12
Agenda Elements of Attachment Theory
  • Review of Infant Attachment
  • John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
  • Elements of Attachment Relationships
  • Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
  • Development of the Adult Attachment Interview
  • Attachment Styles
  • Implications and uses of Adult Attachment
  • Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment
    Styles
  • Couple Love
  • Attachment Theory effect on Mental Health
  • Using Attachment Theory in Therapy
  • Resources
  • Questions
  • References

13
Bowlbys Attachment Theory
  • Features of a healthy attachment relationship
  • Secure Base
  • Safe Haven
  • Proximity Maintenance
  • Separation Distress
  • See Circle of Security

14
Circle of Security
15
Attachment relationship formed between 6-8
months.
  • Bowlby stated that even if there is a long
    separation between the child and the mother after
    the bond has been formed, the bond will still be
    there and be recognisable in the childs
    behaviour towards the mother.

16
Bowlby and Working Models
  • A child has two unconscious working models (or
    mental maps). They govern
  • How the child views himself
  • How he views the world
  • Development of the working models is determined
    by the attachment relationship with his primary
    carer
  • Models can be
  • Positive
  • Negative
  • Multiple / Conflicting

17
Impact of Conflicting Working Models
  • Bowlby maintained these were at the roof of
    Psychopathologies.
  • e.g. Im afraid Dad will leave and I hope Dad
    will leave
  • Bowlby posited that conflicting working models
    were at the root of intergenerational
    Transmission of Neurosis.

18
Agenda Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
  • Review of Infant Attachment
  • John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
  • Elements of Attachment Relationships
  • Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
  • Development of the Adult Attachment Interview
  • Attachment Styles
  • Implications and uses of Adult Attachment
  • Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment
    Styles
  • Couple Love
  • Attachment Theory effect on Mental Health
  • Using Attachment Theory in Therapy
  • Resources References
  • Questions

19
Strange Situation
20
Experiment Details
  • Originally conducted in 1968 in Baltimore USA
  • 100 Middle class children
  • Defined protocol

21
Strange Situation Video
22
Results
  • Identified Attachment styles
  • One Secure
  • Two Insecure
  • One Uncategorised (13)
  • Results have been replicated in dozens of studies
    around the world since

23
Agenda Development of the Adult Attachment
Interview
  • Review of Infant Attachment
  • John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
  • Elements of Attachment Relationships
  • Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
  • Development of the Adult Attachment Interview
  • Attachment Styles
  • Implications and uses of Adult Attachment
  • Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment
    Styles
  • Couple Love
  • Attachment Theory effect on Mental Health
  • Using Attachment Theory in Therapy
  • Resources References
  • Questions

24
Interest in adult attachment since the 70s
  • Little known about it or whether attachment
    existed into adulthood
  • Adult attachment seen as more complex and
    difficult to measure
  • Thinking was that couples had to be studied
  • Realised that much of adult relationships exist
    in the mind
  • In how they think and feel about relationships
  • A lot of their relationships are invisible to an
    outsider

25
1985 Mary Main the Adult Attachment Interview
  • Follow up longitudinal study in from 1979 to 1985
    Berkeley to see the effect that parents had on
    the Strange Situation
  • Mary Main believed that earlier experiences do
    not just shape later behaviours they also shape a
    persons beliefs and expectations about
    relationships
  • Developed the Adult Attachment Interview protocol
  • Identified four attachment styles
  • One secure
  • Three Insecure
  • The adult styles were similar to the child styles.

26
The AAI Actual Protocol Itself Example Question 2
  • I'd like you to try to describe your relationship
    with your parents as a young child if you could
    start from as far back as you can remember?
  • Encourage participants to try to begin by
    remembering very early. Many say they cannot
    remember early childhood,
  • but you should shape the questions such that they
    focus at first around age five or earlier, and
    gently remind
  • the research participant from time to time that
    if possible, you would like her to think back to
    this age period.
  • Admittedly, this is leaping right into it, and
    the participant may stumble. If necessary,
    indicate in some way that
  • experiencing some difficulty in initially
    attempting to respond to this question is
    natural, but indicate by some
  • silence that you would nonetheless like the
    participant to attempt a general description.

27
Example Question 3
  • Now I'd like to ask you to choose five adjectives
    or words that reflect your relationship with your
    mother starting from as far back as you can
    remember in early childhood--as early as you can
    go, but say, age 5 to 12 is fine. I know this may
    take a bit of time, so go ahead and think for a
    minute...then I'd like to ask you why you chose
    them. I'll write each one down as you give them
    to me.

28
Example Question 5
  • Did you ever feel rejected as a young child? Of
    course, looking back on it now, you may realise
    it wasn't really rejection, but what I'm trying
    to ask about here is whether you remember ever
    having being rejected in childhood

29
18 Questions in Total
  • AAI assesses a persons state of mind with
    respect to attachment and not whether a person
    is securely attached to a second person
  • The narrative is examined for material purposely
    expressed by the individual and for material the
    individual is unaware of
  • e.g., apparent incoherence and inconsistencies of
    discourse thereby aiming to assess elements of
    the attachment representation which are not
    conscious (working models are in the unconscious)
  • How the narrative is reported is as important as
    the narrative itself as it reflects the state of
    mind with respect to attachment( the AAI picks up
    on how we perceive relationships based on own
    attachment experience)
  • The AAI is scored based on
  • Descriptions of childhood experiences
  • Language used in the interview
  • The ability to give an integrated, believable
    account of experience and their meaning

30
AAI contd.
  • Adults assessed via the AAI are not considered
    securely versus insecurely attached, but rather
    as being in a secure state of mind with respect
    to attachment
  • One person conducts and transcribes
  • Second person scores based purely on the written
    transcript.

31
Agenda Attachment Styles
  • Review of Infant Attachment
  • John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
  • Elements of Attachment Relationships
  • Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
  • Development of the Adult Attachment Interview
  • Attachment Styles
  • Implications and uses of Adult Attachment
  • Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment
    Styles
  • Couple Love
  • Attachment Theory effect on Mental Health
  • Using Attachment Theory in Therapy
  • Resources References
  • Questions

32
Adult Infant Attachment Styles Secure /
Autonomous - Secure
Adult State of Mind With Respect To Attachment Infant Strange Situation Behaviour
Secure/Autonomous Coherent collaborative discourse. Valuing of attachment, but seems objective regarding any particular event or relationship. Description and evaluation of attachment-related experience is consistent, whether experiences are favourable or unfavourable. Secure Explores room and toys with interest in preseparation episodes. Show signs of missing parent during separation, often crying by second separation. Obvious preference for parent over stranger. Greets parent actively, usually initiating physical contact.
33
Adult Infant Attachment Styles Dismissing -
Avoidant
Adult State of Mind With Respect To Attachment Infant Strange Situation Behaviour
Dismissing Not coherent. Dismissing of attachment related experiences and relationships. Normalising (excellent, very normal mother), with generalised representations of history unsupported or actively contradicted by episodes recounted. Transcripts also tend to be excessively brief. Avoidant Fails to cry on separation from parent. Actively avoids and ignores parent on reunion (i.e. by moving away, turning away, or leaning our arms when picked up). Little or no proximity seeking, no distress and no anger. Response to parent seems unemotional. Focuses on toys or environment throughout the process.
34
Adult Infant Attachment Styles Preoccupied -
Resistant / Ambivalent
Adult State of Mind With Respect To Attachment Infant Strange Situation Behaviour
Preoccupied Not coherent. Preoccupied by past attachment relationships/experiences, speaker appears angry, passive or fearful. Sentences often long, grammatically entangled or filled with vague usages (dada, and that). Transcripts often excessively long. Resistant or ambivalent May be wary or distressed prior to separation, with little exploration. Preoccupied with parent throughout procedure may seem angry or passive. Fails to settle and take comfort in parent on reunion, and usually continues to focus on parent and cry. Fails to return to exploration after reunion.
35
Adult Infant Attachment Styles Unresolved /
Disorganised Disorganised / Disorientated
Adult State of Mind With Respect To Attachment Infant Strange Situation Behaviour
Unresolved/disorganised During discussions of loss or abuse, individuals show striking lapse in the monitoring or reasoning or discourse. For example, individual may briefly indicate a belief that a dead person is still alive in the physical sense, or that this person was killed by a childhood thought. Individual may lapse into prolonged silence or eulogistic speech. Disorganised/disorientated The infant displays disorganised and/or disoriented behaviours in the parents presence, suggesting a temporary collapse of behavioural strategy. For example, the infant may freeze with a trance-like expression, hands in air may rise at parents entrance, then fall prone and huddled on the floor or may cling while crying and leaning away with gaze averted.
  • This work classified the third insecure style for
    children as verbal responses of parents matched
    the behavioural responses of the children in the
    unclassified 13

36
Key finding
  • Secure people are able to talk coherently about
    their earlier experience even though that
    experience was negative, they have integrated the
    events with the feelings of that period have
    insight and ability to reflect (the main aim of
    therapy is to help a person get insight to their
    experience so integration can occur)
  • Ability to engage in meta cognition or to see
    ones situation objectively distinguishes secure
    from insecure attachment experiences

37
Agenda Intergenerational Transmission of
Attachment Styles
  • Review of Infant Attachment
  • John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
  • Elements of Attachment Relationships
  • Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
  • Development of the Adult Attachment Interview
  • Attachment Styles
  • Implications and uses of Adult Attachment
  • Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment
    Styles
  • Couple Love
  • Attachment Theory effect on Mental Health
  • Using Attachment Theory in Therapy
  • Resources References
  • Questions

38
Studies on the Transmission Of Attachment Style
  • The AAI is the only measure which has been used
    to examine intergenerational transmission of
    attachment and the relations between adult
    attachment status, parenting behaviour and child
    outcome
  • Investigations of parental attachment
    classification and infant Strange Situation find
    80 correspondence
  • Parent child studies in infancy comparison of
    kibbutz reared infants who slept at home with
    their parents, and those who slept communally
    found 76 correspondence between maternal AAI and
    child Strange Situation for the home based dyads
    versus 40 for communal dyads
  • (Sagi, Aviezer et al., 1992)
  • Parent child studies at school age Mothers
    classified as secure were warmer, more
    supportive, and smoother in transitioning between
    activities than insecure mothers. Mothers
    classified as dismissing were more abrupt in
    transitioning between activities than preoccupied
    mothers. Observed child behaviour did not differ
    with respect to maternal classification. However,
    ratings of behaviour and affective symptoms by
    parents, teachers and the children revealed
    children of dismissing mothers had the highest
    levels of pathology.
  • (Crowell, O Connor, Wollmers, Sprafkin, Rao,
    1991)

39
Studies on Transmission Of Styles Contd.
  • Parental security of attachment was associated
    with parents providing structure during the tasks
  • Secure fathers were warmer towards their
    preschoolers
  • (Cohn, Cowan, Cowan, Pearson, 1992a)
  • Couples concordance for AAI and parenting style
    was also examined insecure women married to
    insecure men were not as warm with their children
    as insecure women married to secure men. There
    was no difference between secure and insecure
    mothers who were married to secure men.
  • Spousal support may be helpful to insecure
    mothers in interactions with their children.

40
Agenda Couple Love
  • Review of Infant Attachment
  • John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
  • Elements of Attachment Relationships
  • Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
  • Development of the Adult Attachment Interview
  • Attachment Styles
  • Implications and uses of Adult Attachment
  • Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment
    Styles
  • Couple Love
  • Attachment Theory effect on Mental Health
  • Using Attachment Theory in Therapy
  • Resources References
  • Questions

41
Romantic Relationships
  • In 1987 Hazen Shaver produced a seminal study
    on romantic love
  • Pair - bond /romantic relationships assume the
    role of attachment figures in adult life where
    the partner becomes the secure base
  • There are four defining features of attachment
    bonds proximity maintenance, separation
    distress, safe haven and secure base
  • Attachment in early life is asymmetrical -
    infants seek and derive security from care givers
    but do not give it in return, in pair bonds the
    care giving is reciprocal

42
Physical Contact in Pair bonds
  • Striking similarities in the physical intimacy
    and prolonged face to face contact between infant
    and caregiver and in adult romantic partners
  • In almost every culture these intimate
    interpersonal exchanges are limited to parent
    infant and pair bond relationships
  • (Eibl Eibesfeld, 1975).

43
Separation and Loss in Pair bonds
  • Bowlby noticed that separated children who were
    well cared for physically, showed striking
    similarities in how they responded to separation
  • There was a universal pattern of behaviour which
    he referred to as the protest-despair-detachment
    sequence
  • The same sequence of events can be seen in adults
    grieving for the loss of a spouse (including
    relationship breakups)
  • Initial anxiety and panic, followed by lethargy
    and depression and eventually by recovery through
    emotional detachment
  • (Hazen Shaver, 1992 Parkes Weiss, 1983
    Weiss, 1975)
  • The loss is integrated in the inner world of the
    bereaved
  • Couples grieving for the loss of a child
    inevitably cannot provide a secure base for the
    other as each are overcome with grief.
  • This is one reason why divorce rates are so high
    after such a tragedy
  • (Holmes, J., 2001)

44
Interactions in Romantic Couples
  • Secure men engage in more positive and supportive
    interactions with their spouses than do insecure
    men
  • (Cohn, Cowan, Cowan, Pearson, 1992b Ewing
    Pratt, 1995 Kobak Hazen, 1992).
  • Secure college females in a stressful situation
    sought and accepted more physical and emotional
    support from their partners than insecure women
  • (Simpson, Rholes, and Nelligan (1992)
  • Perhaps because secure men are disproportionately
    likely to be partners of secure women
  • (van Ijzendoorn Bakermans Kranenburg, 1996)
  • Secure men are more likely to be concerned for
    their partners well being and to provide more
    emotional support then insecure men

45
Interactions in Romantic Couples
  • Where both partners were insecure there was more
    conflict
  • (Cohn et al. 1992b)
  • Lower levels of conflict and mutually focussed
    strategies for managing conflict are found in
    secure individuals
  • (Pistole, 1989)
  • Security in the relationship sets the stage for
    the development of a mutually rewarding
    relationships as each partner can venture out
    from the relationship and return back to the safe
    haven

46
Influence of Relationship Experience on choice of
partner
  • Working Models affect romantic relationships in
    the following way
  • Individuals tend to select environments that fit
    their beliefs about self and others
  • e.g. A Preoccupied (Resistant or Ambivalent in
    infants) female and a Dismissing (Avoidant in
    infants) male are quite stable although not very
    happy.
  • The clingy anxious behaviour of the Preoccupied
    female confirms the Dismissing males belief that
    it is unwise to let others get too close,
  • The Dismissing male confirms the Preoccupied
    females belief that others are less concerned
    about love relationships than she is.

47
Agenda Attachment Theory effect on Mental Health
  • Review of Infant Attachment
  • John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
  • Elements of Attachment Relationships
  • Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
  • Development of the Adult Attachment Interview
  • Attachment Styles
  • Implications and uses of Adult Attachment
  • Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment
    Styles
  • Couple Love
  • Attachment Theory effect on Mental Health
  • Using Attachment Theory in Therapy
  • Resources References
  • Questions

48
Dealing with Negative Affect
  • Secure
  • People can draw on support from another person(s)
    via the secure base and talk coherently about the
    issue
  • Insecure - Dismissing (Avoidant in infants)
  • People will stay near to a protective one, but
    not too near for fear of rejection or aggression
  • Intimacy is sacrificed in order that the affect
    is deactivated
  • Insecure - Preoccupied (Resistant or Ambivalent
    in infants)
  • People have been subjected to inconsistent
    responses when distressed and so cling to the
    care-giver even when no danger is present
  • There is hyper activation of responses and
    exploration and autonomy are jettisoned in return
    for security
  • Insecure - Unresolved / Disorganised
    (Disorganised / Disoriented in infants)
  • Unresolved attachments have no coherent response
    for self protection
  • Resort to defensive methods such as splitting,
    dissociation, role reversal and excessive
    controllingness
  • Most patients with severe personality disorder
    show insecure patterns of attachment in the AAI
  • (J Holmes, 2001)

49
Self-esteem in adult attachment
  • Securely attached individuals can deal with
    negative affect
  • Insecure - Dismissing (Avoidant in infants)
  • In the Dismissing, self esteem is short-
    circuited within the self.
  • External validation has little impact,
  • Will do his best to be in control and to keep
    intimacy at bay as it threatens his self
    containing system of maintaining self-esteem
  • Insecure - Preoccupied (Resistant or Ambivalent
    in infants)
  • The Preoccupied depend on the proximity and the
    positive regard of the clung to figure, if they
    are critical or lost the Preoccupied will suffer
  • Insecure - Unresolved / Disorganised
    (Disorganised / Disoriented in infants)
  • The Unresolved will try to control the care
    giver
  • In the case of a couple who are both securely
    attached, this leads to the development of a
    third element which provides far greater
    security than each member of the couple can
    achieve on their own
  • This is the relationship itself and the pattern
    of mutual expectations that it implies

50
Agenda Using Attachment Theory in Therapy
  • Review of Infant Attachment
  • John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
  • Elements of Attachment Relationships
  • Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
  • Development of the Adult Attachment Interview
  • Attachment Styles
  • Implications and uses of Adult Attachment
  • Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment
    Styles
  • Couple Love
  • Attachment Theory effect on Mental Health
  • Using Attachment Theory in Therapy
  • Resources References
  • Questions

51
Freuds Rule
  • Freuds (1912) fundamental rule
  • Say what ever comes into your mind however
    impolite, irrelevant or embarrassing
  • if I could do that I wouldnt need to be here in
    the first place.

52
Adult Attachment and therapy
  • Previous Statement summarises the mutual
    incompatibility of insecurity and exploration
  • If some one is very insecure, they cannot examine
    their insecurities
  • The aim of Attachment informed psychotherapy is
    to assist a client feel secure enough so that
    they can begin to explore
  • Themselves
  • Their life experiences and
  • Their feelings especially negative ones.

53
Attachment Theory In the Counselling Room
  • The aim of attachment based therapy is to help
    bring a client into a balanced position with
    regard to themselves and the world
  • Clients seeking therapy fluctuate between the
    fear of aloneness and at the same time the terror
    of intimacy
  • The therapist becomes the secure base providing
    security, consistency, reliability,
    responsiveness, warmth and firm boundaries
  • It is hoped that through this environment the
    client can begin to trust and explore their
    relationships
  • The client can internalise this secure base and
    draw on it as a source of support after therapy

54
Characteristics of attachment styles in the
counselling room
  • Ursula Insecure Dismissing (Avoidant in
    infants)
  • May have harsh unmodulated voice timbres, at
    variance with an imploring or pleading look in
    their eyes.
  • Beneath a self sufficiency is a desire to be
    looked after.
  • In essence all container and no feelings
  • Cliona insecure Preoccupied (Resistant or
    Ambivalent in infants)
  • The tone of voice is often rambling and
    monotonous and find it hard to come to the point
    and to shape their story.
  • Conversation is an attempt to maintain contact
    rather than to create dialogue.
  • Beneath the clinging behaviour is rage and a huge
    fear of losing the secure base.
  • In essence all feelings and no where to contain
    them.
  • Nick Insecure Unresolved / Disorganised
    (Disorganised / Disoriented in infants)
  • Huge trust issues,
  • Extremely sensitive
  • Narcissistic defenses
  • Anxiety around rejection, control, ridicule and
    bullying

(All References Holmes, J., 2001)
55
The Objective of Therapy for Different Attachment
Styles
  • Insecure Dismissing (Avoidant in infants)
  • To provide the space which fosters attunement of
    feeling for
  • Insecure Preoccupied (Resistant or Ambivalent
    in infants)
  • To provide the space secure enough to cope with
    relevant protest and where new meanings and
    secure narratives can arise
  • Insecure Unresolved / Disorganised
    (Disorganised / Disoriented in infants)
  • To provide the safe space where emotions can be
    contained, beliefs challenged, and links made

56
Agenda Using Attachment Theory in Therapy
  • Review of Infant Attachment
  • John Bowlby and the 1957 Paper
  • Elements of Attachment Relationships
  • Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
  • Development of the Adult Attachment Interview
  • Attachment Styles
  • Implications and uses of Adult Attachment
  • Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment
    Styles
  • Couple Love
  • Attachment Theory effect on Mental Health
  • Using Attachment Theory in Therapy
  • Resources References
  • Questions

57
Resources
  • www.attachment.ie
  • My website
  • This presentation can be downloaded
  • Other resources and videos
  • www.johnbowbly.com
  • State University of New York at Stonybrook
  • www.circleofsecurity.org
  • Background and material on the Circle of Security

58
References
Hazen, C., Shaver, P. R. (1992). Broken attachments. In T. L. Orbuch (Ed.), Close relationship loss Theoretical approaches (pp. 90-108). Hillsdale, NJ Erlbaum.
Cassidy, J. Shaver, P. R. Handbook of Attachment Theory. Research and Clinical Applications. The Guildford Press. 1999. New York.
Cohn, D., Cowan, P., Cowan, C., Pearson, J. (1992a). Mothers and fathers working models of childhood attachment relationships, parenting style, and child behaviour. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 417-431.
Cohn, D., Cowan, P., Cowan, C., Pearson, J. (1992b). Working models of childhood attachment and couples relationships. Journal of Family Issues, 13, 432-449.
Crowell, J., O Connor, E., Wollmers, G., Sprafkin, J., Rao, U. (1991). Mothers conceptualisations of parent child relationships Relation to mother-child interaction and child behaviour problems. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 431-444
Ewing, K., Pratt, M. (1995, March). The role of adult romantic attachment in martial communication and parenting stress. Poster presented at teh biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Indianapolis, IN.
Feeney , J. A., Noller, P. (1991). Attachment style and verbal descriptions of romantic partners. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 8, 187-215.
Holmes, J, The Search for the Secure Base. Attachment Theory and Psychotherapy. Routledge 2001, East Sussex.
Holmes, J, Exploring in Security. Towards and Attachment Influenced Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. Routledge 2010, East Sussex.
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Pistole, M. (1989). Attachment in adult romantic relationships Styles of conflict resolution and relationship satisfaction. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 6, 505-510.
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Weiss, R. S. (1975). Martial separation. New York Basic Books.
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  • Bowlbys Three Books
  • 1969 Attachment,
  • (Updated 1982)
  • 1972 Separation Anxiety and Anger
  • 1980 Loss Sadness and Depression

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