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Animals used in entertainment ?????

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Title: Animals used in entertainment ?????


1
Animals used in entertainment ?????
  • Module 25
  • ??25

2
This module will enable you to ????????
  • Describe some of the main uses of animals in
    entertainment
  • ??????????????
  • Identify welfare aspects of the different uses
    of animals in entertainment
  • ???????????????????
  • Describe the legislative protection for animals
    in entertainment
  • ?????????????????

3
Animals as entertainment??????????
  • Entertainment is ?????
  • Something diverting or engaging ???????
  • Not essential to human life, but may give added
    value to life ????????????,?????????????

4
Background??
  • Humans??
  • May wish to be entertained ?????
  • Do not need to be entertained by using animals
    ???????????
  • Animals have some basic needs ???????
  • Utilitarian principles ??????
  • Human wishes should not override the basic needs
    of the animals ???????????????????
  • Human benefit vs. cost to the animals
  • ??????? vs. ???????

5
Utilitarian ethics????????
  • Cost/benefit analysis ?/???
  • A set of standards by which a particular group
    or community decides to regulate its behaviour
    to distinguish what is legitimate or acceptable
    in pursuit of their aims from what is not
  • ????????????????,??????-??????????????,???????
    ?????????

6
Concept of stakeholders????????
  • All the parties who have an interest, even if a
    subtle one (such as that of the regulatory
    authority), are STAKEHOLDERS
  • ?????????,?????????(???????),?????????
  • The animals are stakeholders and, although they
    are not active in the debate, their STAKE should
    be assessed by the human participants
  • ?????????????,??????????,?????????????????????

7
Dancing bears in India?????
  • Sloth bear cubs are taken from the wild, their
    mothers are usually killed ?????????,?????????
  • The muzzle is pierced (without anaesthetic) and a
    tether inserted to allow the bear to be
    controlled ????????(???)??????????

8
Dancing bears Stakeholders (1)????????? (1)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Bear ? May have been caught from the wild ???????? Lifetime in restricted space, with limited scope to perform natural hunting, social and reproductive behaviours ?????????,???????????,???????? Painful tether used for control ????????
Owner ????? Economic incentives ???? Social standing ????
9
Dancing bears Stakeholders (2)????????? (2)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Public ???? Entertainment ?? Some educational value, but animals are seen as a spectacle, and are not viewed performing natural behaviours ????????,?????????????,??????????????
Regulatory authority ??? Does not wish to unduly limit economic activity ????????????? May wish to provide legal protection for the bear, but must police it for it to be effective ????????????,???????????????
10
Dolphinaria?????
  • Wild capture ????
  • Mortality, and
    shortened lifespan
    of
    animals after
    capture ???????,??????
  • Restriction of
    natural
    behaviour
    in confinement ?????????????

11
Stakeholders in dolphinaria (1)???????????(1)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Animals ?? Almost always caught from the wild ???????? Lifetime in restricted space, with limited scope to perform natural hunting, social and reproductive behaviours ?????????,?????????????????????
Owners of facility????? Economic incentives ???? Perceived public education ???? Perceived advancement of marine mammal science ???????????
12
Stakeholders in dolphinaria (2)???????????(2)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Public ???? Entertainment ?? Some educational value, but the animals are seen as a spectacle, and are not viewed performing a full spectrum of natural behaviours ????????,?????????????,??????????????
Regulatory authority ??? Does not wish to unduly limit economic activity ????????????? May provide legal protection for wild animals, captive mammals or prescribe minimum standards for space, etc. ?????????????????????,???????????
13
Bear-baiting??
  • Wild capture of bears ????
  • Mortality and injury to both bears and dogs
    ?????????/??
  • Restriction of natural
    behaviours in confinement?????????????
  • Pakistan only (50 bears in 2007)
    ????????(2007??50?)

14
Dog-fighting??
15
Stakeholders in bear-baiting, and dog-fighting
(1) ??(???)??????(1)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Bear and dogs ????? May have been caught from the wild (bear) ????????(??) Lifetime in restricted space, with limited scope to perform natural hunting, social reproductive behaviours (bear) ?????????,???????????,????????(??) Injury, pain, fear, distress (bear and dog) ?????????????(???)
Owners of facility ????? Economic incentives. Gambling. Social standing ?????????????
16
Stakeholders in bear-baiting, and dog-fighting
(2)??(???)??????(2)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Public ???? Entertainment, group spectacle ??????? Gambling ?? The performance reinforces the publics perception of the animals as aggressive as they are not viewed performing natural behaviours. ??????????????,???????????????????????
Regulatory authority ??? Does not wish to unduly limit economic activity ????????????? Prohibited under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (1890) (Pakistan), but lack of effective policing leads to its continuation. ???????(1890)(????)??????,????????????????
17
Bull-fighting??
  • Pain, and unnecessary distress ????????
  • The kill ??
  • Injuries to bulls in
    preparation ??????????
  • Repeated goading
    of the bull to
    maintain aggression ???????????????
  • Injuries to horses
    used in the bullfight bullfight ??????????

18
Stakeholders in bullfighting (1)????????(1)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Bulls horses ????? Repeated goading and the potential for serious injury during the bullfight (bull). ?????,????????????????(??)? The bull may injure the horses used in the ring. The kill is not reliable in comparison to best practice in commercial slaughter, and some animals are made to fight repeatedly. ??????????????????????????????????,????????????????
Owners of facility ????? Economic incentives. Social standing. ??????????
19
Stakeholders in bullfighting (2)????????(2)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ?????
Public ???? Entertainment , large group spectacle Gambling Socially, deeply rooted in Hispanic culture ???????????????????????? The performance reinforces the publics perception of the bull as aggressive as he is not viewed performing natural behaviours ??????????????,???????????????????????
Regulatory authority ??? Does not wish to unduly limit economic activity ????????????? Has to balance pressure from both pro- and anti-bullfighting organisations, with social norms ????????????????????????????????? In EU, legislation may provide for unified protection. ?????????????
20
Crocodile wrestling in Australia and
Thailand ??????????
  • Repeated aggressive interactions ????????
  • Reinforcement of publics view of these animals
    as aggressive hazards which must be controlled
    ??????????????????????

21
Stakeholders in crocodile fights?????????
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Crocodiles ?? Repeated goading and the potential for serious injury during the fight. ????????????????? Repeated disturbance of normal behaviours. ?????????? Captive conditions ????????
Owners of facility ????? Economic incentives ???? Social standing ????
Public ???? Entertainment, group spectacle. Gambling. ??????????? The performance reinforces the public perception of crocodiles as aggressive, and thus of reduced value, as the animals are not viewed performing natural behaviours ????????????????,?????????????????,????????????
Regulatory authority ??? Does not wish to unduly limit economic activity. ????????????? Must consider the local attitude towards reptiles when considering their status for protection ??????????????,?????????????????
22
Circus animals bears, big cats, elephants,
hoofed animals??????-?,????,??,????
  • May have been
    wild-caught ???????
  • Captive ??????
  • Life on the road
  • ?????
  • Reduced freedom
    to express natural
  • behaviour
  • ?????????????
  • Training methods ????

23
Stakeholders in circuses (1)?????????(1)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Animals (equidae, cats, reptiles, elephants etc.) ?????(??,??,???,???) May have been wild caught, with significant mortality and morbidity. ?????,???????????? Repeated disturbance of normal behaviours, cramped housing and lack of permanent facilities. ?????????,?????????????? Training techniques may rely on goads, aggression. ???????????????
Owners and trainers??????? Economic incentives. Social standing. ?????????? May develop strong emotional bonds with the animals.???????????? Quite significant risk of human injury especially by big cats and elephants. ?????????????????????
24
Stakeholders in circuses (2)?????????(2)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Public???? Entertainment, group spectacle. ??,???? The performances may reinforce the public perception of big cats as aggressive, elephants as servants to man, and hence reduce the perceived value of the animals, as they are not viewed performing natural behaviours. ?????????????????,?????????????????????,????? ?????,????????? ???
Regulatory authority??? Does not wish to unduly limit economic activity. Must consider the local social attitude toward performing animals when considering their status for protection.?????????????,?????????????,???????????????????
25
Fiestas and rodeos??????
  • Unnecessary distress??????
  • Goading of the animals to maintain their
    aggressive interactions with humans
    ?????????????????

26
Stakeholders in fiestas and rodeos (1)
????????????(1)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Bulls horses ????? Repeated goading and the potential for serious injury during the fiesta or rodeo. ???????????????????? The bull may injure the horses used. ????????? Use of hooters, explosions and fireworks to enrage and confuse the animals. ?????????????????????????
Owners / civic authority ???/????? Economic incentives, tourism. ??????? Social standing / civic historical associations. ????/???????
27
Stakeholders in fiestas and rodeos
(2)????????????(2)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Public ???? Entertainment, large group spectacle. Socially, deeply rooted in many cultures. The performance reinforces the publics perception of the bull or steer as aggressive, as they are not viewed performing natural behaviours. ??,??????????????????????,?????????????????,??????????????????
Regulatory authority ??? Does not wish to unduly limit economic activity. ?????????????? Has to balance pressure from both pro- and anti-rodeo and fiesta organisations. EU legislation may provide for unified protection. ??????????????????????????????????(????)?
28
Horse racing, dog racing, camel racing ??,??,???
29
Stakeholders in racing (1)??????????????(1)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Horses, dogs, camels ??,?,?? Young animals may be subject to rigorous training when immature (horses, dogs). ??????(????)??????? Goading, use of whips and spurs, injuries during training and racing ????????????????????? Failed animals may have little or no value (horses, dogs). ??????????????(????) Bait animals (hares, rabbits, birds) may be used as targets for racing and coursing (dogs). ?????????????????(????????)??????
Owners of animals / facility ??/????? Economic incentives. Social standing. ????????? May develop strong emotional bonds with the animals. ???????????????
30
Stakeholders in racing (2)??????????????(2)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Public ???? Entertainment, large group spectacle. Gambling. ?????????? Deeply rooted in many cultures. ????????????
Regulatory authority ??? Does not wish to unduly limit economic activity. ????????????? Local regulations (often self-regulation within racing authorities) may attempt to control the severity of jumps, courses, and the age of animals which may be raced. ????(???????????)????????????????
31
Zoos and animal parks????????
Japanese bear park ??????
32
Stakeholders in zoos (1)?????????(1)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Animals from every taxonomic group ??????????? Mortality and morbidity associated with wild capture.?????????????????? Wild population conservation issues. Confinement. Reduced or modified expression of natural behaviours. ?????????,??????????????????? Reduced lifespan and reproductive success in some species. Very few captive breeding programmes are effective.????????????????,?????????????
Owners of animals/facility ??/????? Economic incentives. Some enrichment programmes in place. ????,???/???????????,???????????????
33
Stakeholders in zoos (2)?????????(2)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Public ???? Entertainment. May provide educational exposure to animals, but rarely can zoos provide facilities which allow the FULL range of natural behaviours. ????????????????,???????????????????????? Display of animals in zoos deeply rooted in many cultures. ??????????????????????
Regulatory authority ??? Does not wish to unduly limit economic activity. ????????????? Local legislation may be in place to protect public (Dangerous Animals Acts), or to prescribe minimum standards for care of zoo species. Lack of policing resources reduces effectiveness.????(??????)???????,?????????????,?????????????????
34
Photographic models????
  • Immature animals used ???????
  • Life on the road ?????
  • Normal behaviours suppressed
  • Confinement ????????

35
Stakeholders in tourist photography
(1)??????????(1)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Primates and other animals ???????? Mortality and morbidity associated with wild capture. ?????????????????? Confinement. Seasonality of tourist trade. ??,??????????? Reduced or modified expression of natural behaviours.????????????? Immature animals are often used, sometimes sedatives are used. Older, aggressive or unattractive animals may be abandoned or neglected. ?????????,???????,??,???????????,?????????? High risk of disease due to improper care . ?????????????
Owners ????? Economic incentives. May develop strong emotional bonds with the animals. ????,???/????????????
36
Stakeholders in tourist photography
(2)??????????(2)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Public ???? Entertainment. A photo-opportunity to illustrate how exotic the tourist experience was. ???????????????????
Regulatory authority??? Does not wish to unduly limit economic activity. ?????????????? Local legislation may be in place to protect the public (Dangerous Animals Acts), or to prescribe minimum standards for care of these species. Lack of resources for policing may prevent legislation from being effective. ????(??????)????,?????????????,??????????????????
37
Tourist entertainment ????
  • Weight-bearing (donkeys) ????(?)
  • Seasonality ???
  • Animals perceived as evidence of exotic fun
    ???????????

38
Stakeholders in tourist rides (1)??????????(1)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Horses, camels, donkeys, goats ?,??,?,?? Confinement. Seasonality of tourist trade, animals often contracted to work. ?????????,???????????? Reduced or modified expression of natural behaviours.????????????? Long hours of repetitive activity. ????????? Weight bearing, saddle sores, lameness. ????,????,???
Owners of animals ????? Economic incentives, maximise profit through intensive use. ????,?????????????? May develop strong emotional bonds with the animals.???/????????????
39
Stakeholders in tourist rides (2)??????????(2)
Stakeholder ????? Stake ????
Public ???? Entertainment. A photo-opportunity which can illustrate how exotic the tourist experience was.??,???????????????????????????
Regulatory authority??? Does not wish to unduly limit economic activity.????????????? Local legislation may be in place to protect the public or to prescribe minimum standards for care of these species. Lack of policing resources may prevent legislation from being effective. ????(??????)???????,?????????????,??????????????????
40
Examples of legislation animals in
entertainment????-?????
  • Zoo Licensing Act, 1981, UK
  • ??????,1981,??
  • Licensing of premises where wild animals may be
    kept (public and animal protection)
    ????????????????(???????)
  • Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1890,
    Pakistan
  • ???????1890,????
  • In principle, prohibits bear baiting ?????????

41
The effectiveness of local animal welfare
legislation 1???????????1
  • May be ineffective due to poor enforcement
    because of?????????????
  • Limited resources ????
  • Variable enforcement ????????
  • The enforcement body sharing interests with those
    policed ????????????
  • The authority having only limited power to
    access, stop and search, seize and detain
    ???????????????????

42
The effectiveness of local animal welfare
legislation 2???????????2
  • The impact of legislation aimed at protecting
    animals in entertainment may also be reduced due
    to ??????????????,??????????????
  • Responsibility for enforcement being spread
    between government departments, so reducing
    co-ordination ???????????????,???????
  • Poorly designed legislation which is difficult
    for courts to interpret ??????????????

43
Influences on legislation and enforcement
(1)????????(1)
  • Domestic, economic and political pressures
    ?????????
  • Animal entertainment is seen as a means of
    creating income -??????????????????
  • Social norms and expectations ????????
  • For example, animals as entertainment deeply
    rooted in many cultures
  • ????,????????-?????????

44
Influences on legislation and enforcement
(2)????????(2)
  • International agreements on capture of wild
    animals
  • One country may prevent the capture of a wild
    species, but a neighbouring country may permit
    it??????????????????????????????,???????????????
  • Pressure from non-governmental organisations
  • For example, animal welfare and conservation
    groups???????????????????????

45
Influence of NGOs on welfare of animals in
entertainment ????????????????
  • Support or start boycotts of circuses or zoos
    (often ineffective) ????????????????(????)
  • Campaign and lobby to raise public and political
    awareness of issues ????????????????????????
  • Education allow people to make informed
    judgements on issues, and relate their local
    experience to global standards?????????????????,?
    ??????????????
  • Promote the allocation of resources to maintain
    effective policing of existing legislation, and
    creation of new law ??????????????????,??????

46
Summary??
  • Humans use animals for entertainment
  • ???????????
  • Can lead to denial of the basic needs of these
    animals
  • ???????????????????
  • The entertainment industry ????
  • Small shows to large established operations
  • ????????,????????
  • Adverse effects on ?????
  • Welfare of the individual animal
  • ???????
  • Conservation of the species
  • ???????

47
Further Reading????
  • CLUBB R. MASON G. 2003. Captivity effects on
    wide-ranging carnivores. Nature 425 (Oct.
    2)473-474
  • EUROPEAN UNION Council Directive 1999/22/EC of 29
    March 1999 on the keeping of wild animals in
    zoos. Available from http//europa.eu/scadplus/le
    g/en/lvb/l28069.htm
  • HEDIGER, H., 1969 Psychology and Behaviour of
    Animals in Zoos and Circuses. Dover Publications
  • KILEY WORTHINGTON, M., 1995 Animals in Circuses
    and Zoos Chiron's World? Aardvark Publishing
  • LUOMA, J. R., 1987 A Crowded Ark The Role of
    Zoos in Wildlife Conservation. Houghton Mifflin
    Co.
  • MARKOWITZ, H. 1982 Behavioural enrichment in the
    zoo. Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY.
  • MCKENNA, V., TRAVERS, W.A. WRAY, J., 1987
    Beyond the Bars the Zoo Dilemma. Thorsons,
    Wellingborough, UK

48
Further Reading????
  • RSPCA, UK. Animals in circuses / Performing
    animals. www.rspca.org.uk
  • ROLLIN, B., 1989 The Unheeded Cry Animal
    consciousness, animal pain and scientific change.
    Oxford University Press.
  • WSPA Caged Cruelty (Indonesian Zoos) 2002 / Bear
    Baiting in Pakistan 1997 / Japanese Bear Parks
    1998 / The Dancing Bears of India 1997

49
Websites????
  • League Against Cruel Sports http//www.league.org
    .uk/
  • Captive Animals Protection Society
    http//www.captiveanimals.org/
  • Born Free http//www.bornfree.org.uk/
  • Anti-circus campaign http//www.circuses.com/
  • PETA http//www.peta.org.uk/cmp/ent.asp
  • ADDA (Asociacion Defensa Derechos Animal)
    http//www.addaong.org/
  • Zoocheck Canada http//www.zoocheck.com/
  • Dolphins in danger http//www.idw.org/html/dolphi
    ns_in_danger.html
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