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Title: Cleaning & Disinfection Principles Author: Anuradha Last modified by: Manju Created Date: 11/9/2012 9:00:24 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cleaning

Cleaning Disinfection Principles
Key Terms
Cleaning Removal of Visible physical dirt and stains. A clean surface is defined as being free from soil (e.g. food residues), free from bad odours, be non-greasy to the touch and have no visible oxidation (e.g. rust).
Disinfection Removal of harmful bacteria / microbes. A sanitized clean surface is defined as a clean surface that is substantially free from pathogenic microorganisms and undesirable numbers of spoilage microorganisms.
Sanitation Process in which most or nearly all micro organisms (whether or not pathogenic) killed through use of chemicals, heat, ultraviolet rays e.g. Milk is disinfected by heating up to 100degree C for atleast 10 sec. to kill most microbes (but not necessarily their spores) to make it more stable than pasteurized milk
Sterilization Total destruction of all microorganisms ( whether or not pathogenic) and their spores, usually through the use of drastic methods such as concentrated toxic/ non toxic chemicals (Chlorine, formaldehyde, glutar-aldehydes, etc.), very high temperatures, or intense radiation. A sterilized item cannot support life in any from.
Key Terms - Description
  • Cleaning The systematic application of energy
    to a surface or substance , with the intention
    of removing dirt. Cleaning does not kill
  • Energy can be Kinetic energy physical,
    mechanical or turbulence
  • Thermal energy hot water
  • Chemical energy detergents
  • Disinfection The process of killing pathogenic
    bacteria , but not spores and all viruses by
    99.999 during a time frame greater than 5 but
    less than 10 mins. Commonly brought about by heat
    or application of chemicals. Disinfectants have a
    higher level of germ kill capability for
    pathogenic bacteria as compared to sanitizers.
  • Sanitation The process of reducing microbes to
    safe levels ie a 99.999 of a specific bacterial
    test population within 30 secs. Done by heat or
    chemicals. A sanitizer may or may not necessarily
    destroy pathogenic organisms.
  • Sterilization The process of destroying all
    microbes including spore forms.

Levels of CLEAN
  • Cleaning Removal of Visible physical
    dirt and stains
  • Disinfection Removal of harmful bacteria /
  • Sanitation Process in which most or nearly all
    micro organisms (whether or not pathogenic)
  • Sterilization Total Germ Kill live (including

Why Clean and Sanitize?
  • Effective cleaning and sanitation programs are
    required to achieve the correct level of hygiene
    in food handling or production facilities. If
    these are not adhered to there is a greater risk
    of food becoming contaminated by pathogenic or
    spoilage microorganisms.
  • There is also a risk of biofilms forming on
    factory and food preparation surfaces if these
    programs are inadequate. Biofilms are complex
    aggregations of microorganisms and other
    materials which enhance survival and growth of
    microorganisms once formed they are very
    difficult to remove.
  • Cleaning and sanitation programs include the
    following steps
  • routine procedures performed throughout and at
    the completion of food processing or preparation
    on a daily basis
  • periodic procedures required less frequently
  • monitoring to ensure the procedures are performed
  • verification to check effectiveness of the
  • The safety of staff must be considered when
    developing these programs, including the safe use
    of chemicals and hot water, and reducing manual
  • Cleaning prior to sanitizing is recommended as it
  • the effectiveness of the sanitizing step.

  • What Should be Cleaned and Sanitized?
  • All surfaces that may contact the food product,
    such as utensils, knives, tables, cutting boards,
    conveyor belts, ice makers, ice storage bins,
    hands, gloves, and aprons. Surfaces that do not
    directly contact the product such as walls,
    ceilings, floors and drains have a profound
    effect on environment.
  • What Else Should be Cleaned and Sanitized?
  • Cleaning tools like brooms, mops, squeegees,
    buckets, sponges, scrapers, foaming equipment,
    water guns, etc., should be cleaned and
    sanitized. Cleaning tools can be a major source
    of microbial contamination if not cleaned.
    Cleaning tools should be washed and sanitized
    after every use. They should be stored clean,
    dried, and secured.

Factors influencing cleaning sanitation program
  • Type of soil organic , inorganic
  • Condition of soil old soils difficult to clean
  • Supplies of water - Water hardness difficult in
    hard water due to formation of scale
  • Water temperature higher temperatures are
  • Cleaning agent v/s surface being cleaned
  • Agitation or Pressure scouring helps remove
    outer layer helping deeper penetration of
    cleaning agent
  • Length of treatment longer exposure is
  • Concentration / composition of detergent.
  • supplies of energy
  • supplies of machines, equipment etc.
  • Cultural, religious and traditional values
  • Climate conditions
  • Infrastructure of the processing unit and
    Requirements for buildings
  • Awareness level of the staff

  • "Food" or Foods includes any article
    manufactured, sold or represented for use as food
    or drink (including water) for humans and any
    ingredient that may be mixed with food for any
    purpose whatsoever.
  • Food Transportation Unit This includes vehicles,
    aircraft, ships, containers, boxes, bulk tanks,
    trailers and any other transportation unit used
    to transport food.
  • "Perishable Food" means a food item or ingredient
    that is susceptible to deterioration or loss of
    quality due to the microbial or enzymatic actions
    when such foods or ingredients are subjected to
    temperature abuse.
  • "Potentially Hazardous Food" means any food in a
    form or state which is capable of supporting the
    growth of pathogenic microorganisms or the
    production of toxins. Example for such foods
    involve meat, poultry, seafood, milk and its
  • Cross Contamination it is the transfer of
    microbes or other food contaminant from one food
    to another.

Basic Principles of Cleaning
  • What is Clean Surface?
  • A clean surface is one that is,
  • Free from Residual film or soil
  • Should not contaminate food products
  • Free from micro-organisms.
  • What is Soil?
  • Undesirable foreign matter on surfaces.
  • A heterogeneous mixture of many substances
  • Physical properties
  • Chemical properties
  • Cleaning in Aqueous solutions gt complex process
    of interaction between
  • physical influences
  • chemical influences
  • Cleaning
  • the removal of poorly soluble residues by both
    water and aqueous surfactant solution (detergent)
  • dissolution of water-soluble residues

Factors affecting cleaning
Contact time
Mechanical action
Surface to clean
  • Cleaning Performance sensitive to factors like
  • Type of surface
  • Stainless Steel, Mild Steel, Aluminium, Brass,
    Glass Ceramic, Plastic, Wood etc.
  • Soil type
  • Water soluble material
  • Water insoluble material
  • Chemistry
  • Water quality
  • Cleaning technique
  • Manual or Mechanical.
  • Factors affecting Cleaning Sinners Circle

Mechanical action
Chemical action
Science behind cleaning
  • Different types of soil
  • Oily Fatty soils, Proteinaceous soils,
    Carbohydrate soils
  • Different types of surfaces
  • Fabric, Stone, Metal, Ceramic
  • Cost and Productivity
  • Cleaning within available time
  • Optimization of costs

Scientific processes are needed to effect
optimal clean
Current Pressures on Food Industries
  • Assure the safety of food products
  • Up-gradation to higher quality products
  • Reduction in Cost
  • FSSA had also put pressure on Industries to
    maintain and upgrade quality standard.
  • Factors affecting Quality of a Food Product
  • Input quality (Raw Material, Packaging Material
  • Manufacturing Practices
  • Personal Practices
  • Transportation Practices
  • Cleanliness and Hygiene Standards etc.
  • It is next to impossible to achieve quality and
    safe food without following Proper Cleaning
    Hygiene Systems.

Results of Improper Cleaning
  • Poor Quality Food
  • Food-Unsafe for Human Consumption
  • Increased Utility Consumption viz. Steam, Water,
    Refrigeration etc.
  • Wastages Reduced Safety
  • Increased level of chemical usage
  • Risk of Brand Damage
  • Continuous deposition of soil on surfaces, which
    may become difficult to remove even manually
  • Affects economy of production adversely

A well designed cleaning protocol shall result in
  • Improved productivity and organizational
  • Lesser time for cleaning, thus increased time for
  • Better operational efficiencies with savings in
    Water, Steam, and Electricity etc.
  • Peace of mind to management
  • Improved Employee Satisfaction and Efficiency
  • Better Safety etc.
  • An effective cleaning can be defined as cleaning
    to a satisfactory level with optimum costing.
  • Cleaning process comprises of various tools in
    use, cleaning process and process parameters and
    cleaning chemicals.
  • Effective cleaning is not achievable without
    putting a system in place and continuous

Cleaning and Sanitizing of Food contact Surfaces
  • Clean, sanitary food contact surfaces are
    fundamental to the control of pathogenic
    microorganisms. The contamination of food either
    through direct or indirect contact with
    insanitary surfaces potentially compromises the
    safety of the product for consumption.
  • The effectiveness of the cleaning and sanitation
    program relates to the implementation of the
    cleaning procedure, rather than the type of
    sanitizer used.
  • The selection of detergents and sanitizers, their
    concentrations and the method of application will
    depend on factors like
  • Nature of soil
  • Degree of cleaning and sanitation required
  • Type of surface to be cleaned and
  • Type of equipment used for cleaning and

Cleaning and Sanitation program
  • The cleaning and sanitation program of food
    contact surfaces typically involves five steps
  • STEP 1 - Dry clean
  • STEP 2 - Pre-rinse (brief)
  • STEP 3 - Detergent application ( may include
  • STEP 4 - Post rinse and
  • STEP 5 - Application of a sanitizer

STEP 1 - Dry cleaning
  • Dry cleaning is simply using a brush or squeegee
    to remove the food particles and soil from
  • Different equipments like brooms, cleaners, water
    sprays may be used to push the particles form
    effected surfaces to the drains.
  • This process may result in significantly removal
    of unwanted surface matter and thus reducing the
    load of contamination.
  • However, it not planned properly may create
    problems associated with clogged drains, handling
    of wet waste solids. Its also tends to disperse
    dirt and bacteria to other areas of plant and may
    lead to cross contamination to other areas of
    plant. ( i.e. walls, equipment and tables)

STEP -2 - Pre- rinsing
  • Use of water or any other agent to remove small
    particles missed in the dry cleaning step and
    prepares (wet) surfaces for cleaning application.
  • However, scrupulous removal of particulates is
    not necessary prior to detergent.

STEP 3 - Cleaning Process
Effectiveness of cleaning process will depend on
Type of Soil and Soil Load Product
processed Point in processing environment Interi
or or exterior of equipment Residence
time Temperature What is soil? Soil is any
unwanted matter on the surface of an object that
one desires to be clean. It is undesirable
foreign matter on surfaces. In general a
heterogeneous mixture of many substances. Special
care must be taken to ensure that all soil is
removed and that it is not redeposited on the
substrate. - Physical properties -
Chemical properties
  • Characteristics of Food Soils
  • Soil may be classified as visible and invisible,
    the latter category being primarily
    microorganisms, such as bacteria, yeasts, and
  • Some food soils can be dissolved in water such as
    simple carbohydrates (sugars), some simple
    mineral salts (NaCl), and some starches. There
    are also food soils that dissolve in alkali, like
    proteins, starches associated with proteins or
    fats, and bacterial films (biofilms). There are
    food soils that dissolve in acid, like hard water
    hardness salts (calcium and magnesium salts), and
    more complex mineral films, including iron and
    manganese deposits. Some also that dissolve with
    surfactants, which include fats, oils and
    greases, many food residues, inert soils such as
    sand, clay, or fine metals, and some biofilms
  • Types of soils - Soils may be either Organic in
    nature of Inorganic in nature
  • Organic soils like from Carbohydrates,
    Proteins, Fats etc.
  • Such as those found in animal fats - vegetable
    oils, blood, protein, starch and sugars.
  • tannin, which is commonly found in tea - coffee
    and wine.
  • Inorganic soils Salts, Minerals, like Water
    hardness salts etc.
  • Such as scale in kettle oxidized metal such as
    rust mineral deposits from food / drink (
    phosphates oxalates )
  • calcium salts such as milk stones

  • Cleaning Process
  • Primary step
  • removal of soil from substrates
  • Secondary step
  • stabilisation of dispersed or dissolved soil in
    the wash liquor to prevent re-deposition (long
    term effect)
  • Detergents react with soils to change their
    chemistry so they will dissolve into the water
    and be carried away.
  • Detergents modify the nature of water so that it
    may efficiently penetrate, dislodge, disperse and
    carry away surface soils.

Types of cleaning agents
  • Four categories of cleaning agents
  • Detergents
  • Solvent cleaners
  • Abrasive cleaners
  • Acid cleaners

Cleaning Agents - Detergents
  • Detergents - A detergent is a surfactant or a
    mixture of surfactants with "cleaning properties
    in dilute solutions." These substances are
    usually alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of
    compounds that are similar to soap but are more
    soluble in hard water.
  • Detergents contain surfactants ( surface acting
    agents ) that reduce surface tension between soil
    and surface so that soil can be penetrated and
    removed. Types of detergents
  • General Purpose (GP)
  • Alkaline
  • Chlorinated ( Chlorinated alkaline)
  • Acid
  • Enzymes
  • General purpose detergents are mildly alkaline
    and used to clean up fresh soil from floors ,
    walls , ceilings, equipment, utensils, etc .
  • Alkaline or Chlorinated Alkaline detergents are
    recommended for most processing plant
    applications and are effective then GPs.
    Alkaline detergents range from moderately
    alkaline (Caustic). Smoke houses, cooker surfaces
    may require highly caustic cleaning chemicals and
    application methods.

  • Chlorinated products are usually more aggressive
    in loosening protein based soils or for surfaces
    that are difficult to clean due to their shape
    or size, such as perforated storage crates and
    waste containers. They are also alkaline and many
    more corrosive. They should not be used on
    corrodible material such as Aluminium.
  • Acid detergents remove inorganic mineral deposits
    (scale) and stains such as those associated with
    hard water.
  • Emzymes are specific to a given soil type. These
    detergents are tailored for protein, oil or
    carbohydrate based oils. Carbohydrate soils
    mostly occur where breading, batters or starches
    are used.
  • In situations where exposure to excess alkaline
    or acid conditions are a problem, such as with
    waste water discharge restriction or equipment
    susceptible to corrosion enzyme detergents may be
    an acceptable alternative.

Cleaning Agents Solvents, Acid cleaners,
Abrasive cleaners
  • Solvent Cleaners Often called degreasers
  • Alkaline detergents containing grease dissolving
  • Useful for grill back splashes, oven doors, range
    hoods, etc
  • Effective usually at full strength
  • Acid cleaners
  • Used on mineral deposits eg. Scale
  • Used in ware-washing machines , steam tables,
  • Used for rust stains and tarnish on copper and
  • Abrasive cleaners
  • Contain a scouring agent like silica that help to
    remove hard to remove soil.
  • Often used on floors or to remove baked on food
    in pots and pans.

Effectiveness of detergents depends upon
  • For an effective detergent and soil cleaning
    effectiveness will depend upon several basic
  • Contact time
  • Temperature
  • Physical disruption ( scrubbing) and
  • Water chemistry
  • Contact time - Detergents do not work instantly
    but require time to penetrate the soil and
    release it from the surface. Setting up soak
    tanks is method to increase the contact time.
    When working with alkaline and chlorinated
    detergents, employees should wear appropriate
    clothing such goggles, tall boots or fully
    protective suits.

  • Temperature - Most chemical activities increase
    with increasing temperature. This generally holds
    true with detergent efficiency, but with some
    more exceptions. Many styles of steam cleaners
    are available are available which allow better
    penetration of detergents and help in removal of
    soil. In some case water is used for initially
    wetting and detergent cleaning and then rinse at
    140 160 degree F, this improves effectiveness
    with less risk of food soil left over.
  • For certain applications such as smoke houses,
    highly caustic detergent or alkali (Caustic soda)
    is heated to 180degree F or hotter. The
    conditions chemically alter and disperse soils
    such that denatured food residues are not likely
    to develop.
  • Disruption (Scrubbing) Appropriate methods
    include brushes, pads and pressure spray
    depending on the application. The selection of
    proper detergent methods will minimize the need
    for manual scrubbing.
  • Water Chemistry Final rinsing with water to
    drain the soil, nature, source and type of water
    used effects the method of cleaning and

STEP 4 Post Rinse
  • During post rinse water is used to remove
    detergent and loosen soil from food contact
  • This process perpares the cleaned surfaces for
  • All the detergents must be removed in order for
    the sanitizing agent to be effective.

STEP 5 - Application of a sanitizer
  • After the food contact surfaces are cleaned, they
    must be sanitized to eliminate or atleast
    suppress potentially harmful bacteria. Many type
    of chemical sanitizers are available. They may or
    may not require rising before the start of
    processing, depending upon sanitizer
    concentration. All sanitizers must be legally
    approved and used only as per the MSDS (Material
    safety Data Sheet) provided by the chemical
  • Application method
  • While using sanitizer a recommended dosage and
    application method of proportioners and
    applicators must be used. These proportioners and
    applicators can be installed in-line, on-line or
    at a separate stations.
  • A range of procedures can be used from manual
    mixing to fully automated system may be applied.
  • Some sanitizers such as quaternary ammonium
    compounds (quats or QACs_ may eb applied as foam
    with same equipment used for detergent foam

Effectiveness of sanitation process depends upon
  • Sufficient contact time and
  • Coverage of the sanitizer
  • Dosage of sanitizer
  • Types of microbes and load of microbes.
  • Temperature
  • Sufficient contact time and coverage is sometimes
    best assured by the use of sanitizers dip tanks
    for utensils and equipment parts.
  • Sinks and cleaning sanitations can be applied
    with protioning devices that mix and deliver
    sanitizers in the prescribed concentration
  • Bulk containers or reservoir fitted with auto
    dosers which minimize maintenance, control of
    chemicals usage and may reduce monitoring.
  • For control of common soil microorganisms, such
    as Listeria and E.coli footbaths are frequently
    used as a part of plant sanitation program.

An Ideal Sanitizer
  • Acceptable toxicity
  • Wide, non-selective spectrum
  • Rapid action
  • Reasonably soil tolerant
  • Non corrosive
  • Compatible with cleaning materials
  • Useable in ambient conditions
  • Easily measured and monitored
  • Free rinsing
  • Non-toxic to the environment
  • Cost effective safe to handle.

Sanitizers concentration commonly used in Food
Sanitizer Food contact surface Non food contact surface Plant water
Chlorine 100-200 ppm 400ppm 3-10 ppm
Iodine 25 ppm 25ppm
Quats 200ppmppm 400-800ppm
Chlorine dioxide 100-200 ppm 100-200 ppm 1-3ppm
Peroxyacetic acid 200-315ppm 200-315ppm
The higher end of the listed range indicates
the maximum concentration permitted without a
required rinse ( surface must drain) Includes
mix of oxychloro compounds Source 21 CFR 187.1010
Types of Sanitizers
(No Transcript)
Chlorine Sanitizers
  • Unfortunately no deal sanitizer exists for every
  • Chlorine sanitizers
  • Chlorine and products that produce chlorine
    comprise the largest and most common group of
    food plant sanitizing agents. Chlorine sanitizers
    are effective against a wide range of bacteria
    and molds. They work well at cool temperatures
    and tolerate hard water. They are also relatively
    inexpensive. Household bleach is a solution of
    sodium hypochlorite, a common form of chlorine.
  • Chlorine exists in more that one chemical state
    when dissolved in water. The effectiveness of
    chlorine sanitizers is proportional to the
    hypochlorous acid in solution the most effective
    chemical form of chlorine.
  • The percentage of hypochlorous acid increases as
    alkalinity (pH) is decreased. The pH of some
    water supplies is artificially elevated, which
    reduces the effectiveness of chlorine. The
    Chlorine is very unstable at low pH and may
    dissipate prematurely without killing bacteria.
  • Also, NEVER mix Chlorine and Ammonia

  • Hypochlorite's - These are the most common
    chlorine sanitizers. They are available as liquid
    concentrates on in dry granular form. The
    granular chlorine products are sometimes reffered
    to as bleaching powders.
  • Chlorine dioxide - Chlorine di-oxide does not
    form hypochlorous acid but dissolves in water to
    produce a solution possessing strong oxidizing
    properties, It can be more effective that
    chlorine in terms of ability to kill or reduce
    bacteria and retains some anti microbial function
    in the presence of organic soils. It is
    particularly useful for destroying bacteria
    bio-films. It is also less corrosive to stainless
    steel and less pH sensitive than chlorine.
  • Chlorine di-oxide is unstable and must be
    generated on site. It is potentially explosive
    and very toxic if improperly controlled
    important consideration when selecting this
  • Disadvantages of chlorine sanitizers
  • They can be corrosive to equipment and may form
    organochlorine by product of environmental
    concern effluent. Chlorine is inherently
    unstable solution, requiring frequent monitoring
    and replenishing to maintaining adequate
  • A common misconception is that the chlorine
    content of a sanitizer can be confirmed by odour.
    A used solution that still smells like chlorine
    may have little or no active chlorine available
    for killing microbes.

Quaternary Ammonium compounds as Sanitizers
  • Quaternary Ammonium compounds, or more commonly
    know as quats or QACs. These relatively need a
    longer exposure time to achieve significant
    kills. These are very stable and continue to kill
    bacteria long after most sanitizers lose their
    effectiveness. They have a stronger residual
    effect, even in the presence of some soil, they
    are often selected for footbaths, floors and
    cooler surfaces. These are effective against
    Listeria Monocytogenes and are commonly used in
    facilities that produce ready to eat products.
  • Limitations
  • Quats exhibit selective to different types of
    microorganisms they kill.
  • On shifting from other sanitizers to Quats,
    there may be chance incident of establishment of
    coliform or spoilage organisms in the
    environment, which may then transfer to the
  • These may exhibit effective results when altered
    with other sanitizers one or two times a week.
  • If detergents are not thoroughly rinsed from
    surfaces prior to applying quats or the sanitizer
    will be chemically neutralized.

Iodine based sanitizers
  • Iodoine based sanitizers, know as Iodophors are
    formulated with other compounds to enhance their
    effectiveness They offer desirable features in a
    sanitizer. They kill most types of micro
    organisms including yeast and molds even at low
  • They tolerate moderate contamination with organic
    soils and less corrosive and pH sensitive than
    chlorine and are more stable during storage and
    use. They are less irritating to skin than
    chlorine and often selected for hand dips.
  • Iodophors have an amber to light brown colour
    when properly diluted which can be useful for
    monitoring since colour indicates the presence of
    active iodine. Test strips are available for more
    precise monitoring.
  • Disadvantages of Iodophors as sanitizers
  • The principal disadvantage of iodophors is
    staining, especially on plastics
  • These sanitizers take a longer time to kill
    microorgansms at low temperatures than does the
    chlorine and is rapidly vaporized and inactivated
    above 120degree F. Iodophors must be specially
    formulated for use with hard water.

Acid sanitizers
  • These include acid anionic and carboxylic and
    peroxyacetic acid types. The advantage in
    application of these sanitizers is that these are
    stable at high temperatures or in presence of
    organic matter. Being acids, they remove
    inorganic solid, such as hard water mineral
    scale, while sanitizing. These are commonly used
    in CIP or mechanical cleaning systems.
  • The Carboxylic acid sanitizers, commonly known as
    fatty acid sanitizers, these are generally more
    effective than acid anoinic against a range of
    microorganisms types.
  • Peroxyacetic acid are produced by combining
    hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid. This
    sanitizers is highly effective against most
    microorganisms of concern, especially in biofilms
    which would otherwise protect bacteria. They are
    fast acting even at low temperatures, tolerate
    some organic soil and degrade to form
    environmentally safe products.
  • Disadvantages of acid sanitizers Water
    chemistry is important since these sanitizers are
    inactivated by certain metal ions, such as iron,
    and become quite corrosive when mixed with water
    containing high chloride levels e.g. wells with
    high salinity levels.

Other Sanitizing Agents
  • Other sanitizing agents include ozone,
    ultraviolet light and hot water. Ozone is an
    unstable oxidizing gas that must be generated
    on-site, contributing to its relatively high
    cost. It is a more aggressive sanitizer than
    chlorine but requires careful monitoring to
    prevent the release of excessive levels of the
    toxic gas.
  • Ozone, like chlorine, is dissipated when in
    contact with organic soils. It can be injected
    into water system, as an alternative to chlorine
    gas, to make it safe for processing.
  • Ultraviolet ( UV ) irradiation is sometime used
    for treating water, air or surface that can be
    positioned in close proximity to UV generating
    lamps. Ultraviolet does not penetrate cloudy
    liquids or below to surfaces of films or solids.
  • It has no residual activity and cannot be pumped
    or applied onto equipment like most chemical

Sanitizers - sanitizing methods
Spray Sanitizing Use of spray to sanitize equipment surfaces
CIP Sanitizing Sanitizing by circulation of the chemical agent inside pipeline and equipment.
Immersion / COP Sanitizing Sanitizing equipment by immersion in a tank of sanitizing solution
Fogging Fogging the chemical agent to sanitize the air and surfaces in a room.
Chlorine All food contact surfaces, sprays, CIP, fogging
Mixed Halogens All food contact surfaces, CIP, spray sanitizing
Iodine All food contact surfaces, spray, CIP, approved as hand dips.
Peracetic Acid All food contact surfaces, CIP, especially cold temperatures and Carbon di oxides environments.
Acid Anionics All food contact surfaces, CIP, spray, combined with sanitize and acid rinse step into one.
QUATS All food contact surfaces, mostly used for environmental control walls, drain and tiles
Cleaning methods in Food industry
  • Manual Mechanical
  • Wet Dry
  • Immersion cleaning
  • COP
  • CIP
  • High Pressure sprays

  • Manual and Mechanical - Wet Cleaning Methods
  • Manual - Wet mopping
  • One/two bucket systems, apply detergent solution
    to emulsify/absorb dissolved dirt. Longer dry
  • Manual Scrubbing -
  • Single disc w/water tank e.g. Stripping coated
  • Automatic Scrubbing
  • Machine scrub/dry floor in one operation.
    Cleaning of medium to large areas.
  • Wet vaccum cleaning
  • Pick-up residual liquids /water, drying floor

  • Manual cleaning Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Manual Cleaning Advantages
  • Parts can be cleaned without complete immersion
    in the cleaning solution.
  • Additional cleaning equipment, such as wash and
    rinse tanks, is not necessary.
  • Waste disposal requirements are kept to a
  • Manual Cleaning Disadvantages
  • It is a labor-intensive process,
  • require additional time to complete.
  • Cleaning efficacy ??
  • Cleaning Solution consumption is higher,
  • Limitation on use of aggressive chemical.
  • There is no reclaim of cleaning solution.

This is how Foam is Generated
Mechanical Cleaning and Sanitation
  • Wet Cleaning - Foam / Gel Technology
  • Use of high foaming solution to increase the
    retention time on the vertical surfaces
  • Gels are used to further increase over foam the
    retention time on the vertical surface

Air 40 - 60 psi
H20 30 - 50 psi
  • Advantages of Foam Cleaning Process
  • Mechanized Cleaning Process
  • Applied at Low pressures
  • High chemical / soiling contact time
  • Safe for operators as little aerosol is formed
  • Hence more aggressive chemicals can be used
  • Uses significantly less water than pressure
  • Reduces cleaning time
  • Minimizes risk of cross contamination
  • Improved Cleaning efficiency
  • Better cleaning economy
  • Improved working environment
  • Satisfied cleaning personnel
  • Better environmental accountability

  • Centralised Foam Cleaning systems
  • No concentrated chemicals in production area.
  • Less handling of chemicals. One setting of
  • De centralized Foam Cleaning System
  • Al operators can select rinse, foam or
  • Detergent at each cleaning point

Mechanical Dry Cleaning
  • Manual or Automated
  • Use of Brooms/ Shovels
  • Use of automated Vaccum cleaners
  • Process used where wet cleaning is not possible
  • Areas manufacturing water sensitive products

Immersion Cleaning
  • This is the type of cleaning in which the parts
    to be cleaned are placed in the cleaning
    solutions to come in contact with the entire
    surface of the parts.
  • Immersion cleaning is preferred for parts that
    must be placed in baskets and for processes
    requiring a long soaking time because of the type
    of contamination to be removed or the shape of
    the parts to be cleaned.
  • It is the most effective method, even if not the
    fastest one, and can be used with any type of
    cleaner for any process, heated or at room
    temperature. Immersion washers can be portable or
    stationary single or multi-compartment and are
    available with a variety of options, controls and
    valve configurations including CIP capability.
    The important aspects during design of immersion
    washer should be
  • To minimize cycle time
  • Lower chemical usage
  • Reduce water and utility costs
  • Performance for immersion cleaning can be
    improved by moving the parts within the liquid or
    with agitation of the liquid, mechanically or
    with the addition of ultrasonic energy.

Mechanical COP (Cleaning Out Of Place)
  • Cleaning Out of Place is defined as a method of
    cleaning equipment items by removing them from
    their operational area and taking them to a
    designated cleaning station for cleaning. It
    requires dismantling an apparatus, washing it in
    a central washing area using an automated system,
    and checking it at reassembly.
  • Automated Parts Washer
  • Automated controls
  • - Contact Time
  • - Temperature

COP Mechanical Action (agitation)

Push - Pull Action
Side Jet Action
Mechanical cleaning - CIP
  • Cleaning in place can be described as the
    cleaning of equipment and vessels at the same
    place without movement of them to a different
    place. The cleaning agents can be transferred to
    the vessel or equipment types either thorough
    fixed piping or flexible hoses. The CIP process
    can consist of the following elements
  • Supply pump
  • Return pump
  • Heat exchanger with Black/Plant steam supply
  • Chemical tanks i.e Acid, Alkali tanks
  • Supply Pressure gauge or transmitter
  • Supply temperature sensors
  • Conductivity meter with sensor

C.I.P. Basic Requirements
Mechanical cleaning High Pressure cleaning
  • Use of High pressure spray device assists in the
    removal of soil
  • High Pressure Advantages
  • Good for Removal of Difficult or burnt soil
  • Lowest Water Usage
  • Works Against Broad Range of Soils

Cleaning Standards
  • Cleaning standards can be determined through
  • Visual test
  • General appearance
  • Microbiological test
  • contact agar method
  • swab/rinse method
  • rapid hygiene test.

Verification of cleaning and sanitation methods
  • Monitoring to assure a clean and sanitary
    processing environment processing is required
    regulation. Various methods are used by different
    organizations to verify effectiveness of cleaning
    and sanitation programms.
  • Commonly used methods include
  • Test strips Strips are simply are soaked
    directly in the solution to be tested, a change
    in colour indicates the presence of the
    sanitizers, the shade or intensity of which
    relating to the concentration of the chemical.
    These are very rapid, low cost, do not require
    any laboratory equipments or chemicals, can be
    performed on site, and require very little
    training. E.g. Chlorine indicator test strips.
  • Contact plate Contact plates contain agar which
    has a convex surface. These plates are pressed
    against the surface of equipment then incubated.
    Examination of the plate will give an organism
    count and individual colonies can be lifted from
    the plate and identified.
  • The surface of the equipment touched by the
    contact plate must be cleaned of any agar
    residue. This method is used for verifying
    periodic effectiveness of cleaning and
    sanitizing plant surfaces. The test procedure is
    very simple and requires no additional special
    equipment and little training. Most contact
    plates are simply touched to the surfaces to be
    tested then covered with a protective cap.

  • 3. Swabbing - A sterile cotton or calcium
    alginate swab is wetted in sterile buffer, saline
    solution, or broth and rubbed over a measured
    portion of the surface of the sanitized
    equipment. The swab is then either streaked
    across an agar plate or placed into a sterile
    broth tube.
  • The plate or tube is incubated for the
    appropriate length of time. Examination of the
    plate will give an organism count and the
    individual colonies can be lifted from the plate
    and identified. Tubes are examined for turbidity.
    This is a pass / fail test. Swabbing is very
    useful for irregular surfaces or curved equipment
  • Limitation to microbiological testing methods
  • These are slow and do not reveal problem in time
    to correct them prio to processing.
  • Manual errors may lead to variation of results.
  • Test Protocols and test method are easily
    available. However, results may not often be
    conclusive due to lack of reference data.

  • 4. Luminometry (bioluminesence) is based on the
    enzymatic reaction responsible for firelflys
    light. In this testing method, the brightness of
    light is propotional to the amount of bacteria
    and food debris on the surface. In a typical
    test, a food contact surface is swabbed following
  • Material is swabbed and is placed inside an
    instrument that measures light production. The
    instrument generates a value related to the
    quantity of cellular material, such as bacteria.
    In some instances the residual food can provide
    high reading when the load on the surface is
    quite low. Microbiological techniques, are
    required for ore specific testing such as
    coliform bacteria count.
  • 5. Final Rinse Test Water of known
    microbiological quality and volume is rinsed
    through the equipment. The water is recovered and
    filtered via membrane filtration technique. The
    membrane is placed onto a plate and incubated.
    Examination of the plate will give an organism
    count and individual organisms can be identified.
    Note that rinse water analysis may not detect the
    presence of biofilm on equipment surfaces.

Cleaning Sanitation Microbiological Aspect
  • Microbes need Water and Food for growth.
  • Most of food products are high in water activity.
  • Food product contact surfaces may harbor microbes
    and provide the shield to exterior factors.
  • Bacteria take exponential route for the growth
    and one bacteria doubles in average 20 minutes.
  • A non-clean, improperly clean surface may create
    a risk to food product and its user.
  • Critical for surfaces, coming in direct contact
    with food.
  • A suitable disinfectant should have
  • Broad Spectrum for killing microbes (viz. all
    groups Bacteria, Yeasts, Molds, Viruses etc.,
    Gmve Gm-ve etc.)
  • Should be sporicidal if required
  • Rinse free or easy to rinse
  • Should not affect MOC
  • Safe and easy to use
  • Detergent-disinfectant can provide cleaning and
    sanitation simultaneously, thus saves water,
    energy, time and manpower

  • Monitoring steps in the cleaning program should
  • Visual inspection post cleaning to ensure any
    visible food residues have been removed
  • Temperature checks for water and chemical
    solutions (using a calibrated thermometer or
    temperature recorder) to ensure they are within
    the ranges specified in the Standard Operating
    Procedures (SOP)
  • Concentrations of detergents and sanitizers are
    within the ranges specified in the SOP
  • Timing devices used to ensure adequate contact
    times are operating correctly
  • Records are checked against procedures outlined
    in the SOP.
  • Verification of the effectiveness of the program
    is required on an ongoing basis and ranges from
    simple procedures that can be performed in-house
    to more complex testing that may need to be
  • looking, touching and smelling
  • Microbiological testing of equipment and surfaces
  • ATP (adenosinetriphosphate) fluorescence testing
    can be used to detect the presence of
    microorganisms and food residues
  • Equipment used for cleaning and sanitizing should
    be kept in good working order so it does not
    become a source of contamination itself.

Cleaning and sanitation schedules
  • Cleaning and sanitation program and its schedule
    should be based on the importance of the
    processes, its impact on food safety, the
    intensity and priority needed.
  • The schedules should define when and how
    different items and areas should be cleaned and
    who to do the cleaning.
  • What is to be cleaned
  • Who is to clean it
  • When it is to be cleaned
  • How it is to be cleaned
  • The time necessary to clean it
  • The chemicals used
  • Materials and equipment to be used
  • The cleaning standard required
  • The precaution to be taken
  • The protective clothing to be worn
  • Who is responsible for checking and recording
    that it has been cleaned.