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Cultural Exchanges


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Title: Cultural Exchanges

Cultural Exchanges
  • OGT Benchmark Analyze the way that contacts
    between people of different cultures result in
    exchanges of cultural practices.
  • World History
  • Globalization
  • The Environment
  • Collective Security
  • Popular Culture
  • Political Systems
  • Religion
  • United States
  • Immigration After the Civil War

  • To meet the requirements of this benchmark, you
    must be able to analyze cultural exchanges.
    Cultural diffusion is the spread or sharing of
    ideas among cultures. Anytime someone comes in
    contact with another culture, the potential for
    cultural exchange exists. Since advances in
    communications or transportation increase contact
    among people of different cultures, they speed up
    cultural exchange.
  • Your daily life gives you many first-hand
    experiences of cultural diffusion. Mealtime is a
    good example of this. Think about your favorite
    food. Is it lasagna? Enchiladas? Stir fry? Or
    could it be sauerkraut with sausages? Many
    all-American foods, such as hotdogs, hamburgers,
    fries,and pizza, have been borrowed from
    foreign cuisines. You can probably think of
    other examples of cultural diffusion in your
    daily life.
  • You also need to understand globalization, a term
    that has been in use since around 1980.
    Different people have different meanings for the
    term, but in general, globalization refers to the
    growing interdependence of the world,
    economically, culturally, and politically.

I. Globalization
the growing interdependence of the world,
economically, culturally, and politically.
  • A. We live in a global society
  • 1. Business not contained to own country
  • 2. Examples
  • Company HQ in Cleveland has a factory in Mexico
    and an office in Japan
  • Japanese auto company has assembly plants in Ohio
  • Call for customer service for an American company
    and someone in India takes the call.
  • American fast-food companies can be found in
    Paris, Moscow, etc.
  • Business decision made in London can affect wages
    and prices here in Ohio.

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What kind of cars are currently in your garage?
If you could have any car you want, what would it
List your 3 favorite foods
Get with someone who sits close to you. Look at
the tags on their shirts and shoes. Where were
these items made?
Others 2009 Swine Flu 2010 Unrest in Libya
  • Look at tags
  • Made in China, Mexico, or Sri Lanka
  • How is globalization possible?
  • better communications
  • -Computers
  • -Internet
  • -FAX
  • -telephones/cell phones
  • better transportation
  • -airplanes
  • better banking systems
  • -electronic banking

B. Cooperation and Conflict
  • Globalization can be positive or negative
  • Positive opportunities for peace and
  • Negative can lead to conflict

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1. Globalization as a Negative Force
  • gap between rich and poor widening
  • poor areas Africa, Asia, and Latin America
  • --poverty
  • --undeveloped
  • --not enough food, shelter, etc.
  • developed countries
  • --Europe, N. America
  • --plenty of food, shelter, etc.

2. Outsourcing
  • a. U.S. workers hurt by this
  • b. jobs go to other countries
  • c. lower wages
  • d. loss of jobs for Americans
  • e. Ex an English-speaking and well-educated
    person from India can talk on the phone and solve
    problems as well as someone from the U.S., but
    will be paid much less

3. Threat to National Cultures
  • a. Reasons
  • satellite TV
  • international media networks
  • international travel
  • b. U.S. and Western Europe culture tends to take

4. Threat to Environment
  • a. multinational companies disregard environment
    to make a profit
  • b. these companies set up in countries with lax
    environmental laws
  • c. this all leads to increased pollution and
    perhaps global warming

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Global Warming 417
5. Globalization as a Positive Force
  • a. it has raised the standard of living
  • b. better medical care
  • c. higher life expectancy
  • d. better access to education
  • e. leads to economic growth
  • f. social stability

II. The Environment
  • globalization can damage the environment
  • smoke from factories pollution
  • pollution damage to ecosystems

Humans and the Environment 547
A. Invasive Species
  • 1. invasive species move from one country to
  • 2. they crowd out and destroy native species
  • 3. move across national boundaries w/out
  • 4. customs agents try to prevent--not always

Examples of Invasive Species
  • Example 1 The case of the Powderpost Beetles
  • Bob Miller recently retired. As a retirement
    gift, he received a clock as a gift. That clock
    was made in China. Little did he know of what
    else was in the clock----powederpost beetles!
    They chew wood (like termites). Adult beetles
    had made small holes in the wood (before it
    became a clock) and laid eggs. When they hatch,
    they begin to eat the wood and can be very

Powderpost Beetle
Example 2 The case of the Emerald Ash Borer
  • Found in Ohio from May to July, they can travel
    up to one-half mile. It drills into the wood of
    the ash, leaving tunnels under the bark and small
    D-shaped exit holes. The top 1/3 of the tree
    begins to die back, and the bark begins to split
    vertically. Finally, the entire tree dies. The
    Emerald Ash Borer came from Asia, probably in
    infested wood crates.
  • One of the tourist attractions in some parts of
    Ohio are the beautiful ash trees in the fall.
    So, this borer is a major threat to tourism.
  • Nearly impossible to keep the borer from coming
    into the U.S.

Invasive Species 2013
Invasion of the Asian Carp
Asian Carp video part 2 (6 min)
Asian Carp vidio Part 1 (7 min)
Short Answer
  • How are invasive foreign plants and insects
    connected to globalization?

III. Collective Security
  • collective security many governments join
    together to enforce mutually accepted rules for
    international behavior
  • major goal peace

  • 1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • a. formed in 1949
  • b. multinational power structure
  • c. has permanent headquarters
  • d. has established military chain of command
  • e. peacekeeping and security
  • f. Examples
  • 1992 put sanctions on Yugoslavia to stop gov.
    supported ethnic fighting
  • created no fly zone over Bosnia in 1990s
  • ordered air strikes on Bosnian cities
  • these police powers proved to be successful!

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  • 1. Commonwealth of Independent States
  • a. less successful
  • b. created in 1991-92
  • c. 12 former SU
  • Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia,
    Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia,
    Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan
  • d. peacekeeping troops almost all Russian
  • e. Russia likes being big brother.
  • f. CIS will never have collective security until
    Russia stops thinking this way

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  • 1. United Nations
  • a. created after WWII
  • b. UN troops have had success
  • c. UN has not been able to help everywhere
  • d. world peace still not achieved

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Short Answer
  • How does the United Nations illustrate the
    concept of collective security?

IV. Popular Culture
  • Popular culture refers to aspects driven by
    mass media
  • Examples TV, movies, books
  • Globalization potential for cultural exchange
    or borrowing
  • Example Internet

IV. Popular Culture
  • Popular culture refers to aspects driven by
    mass media
  • Examples TV, movies, books
  • Globalization potential for cultural exchange
    or borrowing
  • Example Internet

Pop Culture
  • Michael Jackson in Japan (417)
  • McDonald's commercial in India (35)
  • Nintendo commercials (450)
  • Wheel of Fortune in Australia
  • (815)
  • Foreign NBA Players (131)
  • Yu Gi Oh The Movie Part 1 (957)
  • 1960s and 1970s Pop Culture
  • Pop Culture of the 1980's

A. Cultural Exchange in the Past
  • 1. sharing ideas--been going on forever
  • 2. Examples
  • weapons, ideas about gov, languages, food, forms
    of entertainment
  • 3. traders and soldiers traveling to other lands
    culture exchanges

Example Columbian Exchange
  • 1. 16th century food exchange
  • 2. Christopher Columbus and other explorers
  • 3. foods brought to US from Europe, Asia, and
    Africa bananas, grapes, citrus, peaches, pears,
    coffee, wheat, rice, cattle, pigs, and onions
  • 4. foods that went from US to other parts of
    world turkey, corn, tomatoes, beans, squash,
    potatoes, sweet potatoes, peanuts, cocoa,
    vanilla, avocados, and chili peppers

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B. Cultural Exchange Today
  • 1. today, more rapid exchanges
  • 2. Internet, cable TV, ease of travel
  • 3. Examples
  • a. person in Canton calls someone in India for
    computer help
  • b. people in Ohio turn on TV and watch a soccer
    game being played in Mexico
  • c. go to Belden Village area and see all of the
    ethnic restaurants Chinese, Italian, etc.

4. Spread of American Culture
  1. some worry US culture is taking over the world
  2. English--language of Internet and business
  3. American movies, music, fashions, sports and food
    are dominant
  4. McDonaldism

  • e. will this lead to a one culture world?
  • f. probably not
  • --US influenced by world
  • --Latin American music
  • --German autos

Short Answer
  • What does McDonalds have to do with

V. Political Systems
  • Past each nation chose political system
  • Today econ. and social globalization result in
    globalization of politics

Voluntary Political-Integration Organizations
  • A. European Union
  • 1. 1950s Netherlands, Belgium, Germany,
    Finland, France, Italy, Luxembourg
  • 2. 1973-1995 Austria, Denmark, Greece,
    Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the UK
  • 3. By 2004, called the EU
  • 4. 2004 10 more nations joined
  • 5. Concerns
  • a. trade with each other
  • b. jobs
  • c. environment
  • d. security
  • e. human rights

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  • Success
  • new monetary unit (Euro)
  • few barriers to trade
  • standard of living increase
  • political positions of Europe strengthened

B. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
  • 1. 1967 Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines,
    Singapore, and Thailand
  • 2. promote econ. growth, social progress,
    political stability, and peace
  • 3. Later Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and
  • 4. 500 million live in ASEAN nations
  • 5. US trades 700 billion

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C. African Union
  • 1. Est. in 1999
  • 2. promote social and economic growth
  • 3. not as much success as the EU
  • 4. it will continue to grow in size and strength

D. Trade Organizations in the Western Hemisphere
  • 1. NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)
  • a. US, Canada, and Mexico
  • b. no econ barriers
  • c. inc. trade
  • 2. CAFTA (Central American Free Trade Agreement)
  • a. Proposed!
  • b. Costa Rica, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras,
    Nicaragua, maybe Dominican Republic
  • 3. Mercosur (Southern Common Market)
  • a. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay
    (associate members Bolivia and Chile)
  • b. similar to NAFTA and CAFTA

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Intergovernmental Organizations
  • 3 with great financial and political power
  • they are not governments
  • they influence gov. decisions

  • A. World Bank (located in Washington, D.C.)
  • 1. gives loans to governments
  • 2. Ex country that wants to build a dam gets
    loan from World Bank
  • 3. Strings attached!!!
  • a. gov. may have to change a policy
  • b. Ex above, country would have to privatize
    distribution of water once the dam is built

B. International Monetary Fund
  • 1. located in Washington, D.C.
  • 2. makes loans to governments
  • 3. purpose is different
  • a. stabilize currency (money systems)
  • b. maintains world markets

C. World Trade Organization (WTO)
  • 1. 145 nations belong
  • 2. meetings every 2 years
  • 3. Purpose
  • a. lower tariffs
  • b. eliminated barriers to free trade
  • 4. Critics rich nations favored

Group of Eleven (G11)
  • 1. 11 richest nations meet 1/year
  • 2. Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain,
    Italy, Japan, and the US
  • 3. 1994 Russia enters
  • 4. no set agenda
  • 5. discuss anything important
  • 6. decisions made impact the world

Nongovernmental Organizations
  • international interest groups
  • most are nonprofit, voluntary, and private
  • Examples
  • Greenpeace
  • International Committee for the Red Cross
  • deal with quality-of-life issues
  • health
  • hunger
  • poverty
  • the environment
  • human rights

Short Answer
  • What does the World Trade Organization have to do
    with globalization?

VI. Religion
  • Missionaries spread religion
  • teach religion globally

A. Spread of Religion Through International Trade
  • 1. traders have spread religion
  • 2. Historical Example Silk Road
  • a. silk trade developed between China and the
    Roman Empire
  • b. Indians, Persians, Greeks, and nomads of
    Central Asia also used this trade route
  • c. religions of all these people were spread

3. Spread of Religion in Modern Times
  • a. modern tech helps spread of religions
  • Internet
  • transportation (jets, etc.)
  • radio and TV

Short Answer
  • How has the Internet helped globalize religion.

1. Multiple Choice
  • (Blue Book) The rapidly growing interdependence
    of the worlds economies is known as
  • A. diffusion
  • B. McDonaldilization
  • C. globalization
  • D. integration

2. Multiple Choice
  • (Blue Book) Which one of the following nations
    is not a member of the G7/G8?
  • A. Spain
  • B. France
  • C. Japan
  • D. Italy

3. Multiple Choice
  • (Blue Book) What organization makes loans to
    support development projects in various countries
    of the world?
  • A. World Trade Organization (WTO)
  • B. World Bank
  • C. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • D. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

4. Multiple Choice
  • (Blue Book) NAFTA is a trade agreement the
    United States made with
  • A. Canada and Mexico
  • B. Western European nations
  • C. Latin America
  • D. India and China

5. Multiple Choice
  • (Blue Book) The term outsourcing refers to
  • A. U.S. efforts to create more jobs than our
  • B. exploiting natural resources for industry
  • C. cooperative global efforts to preserve the
  • D. the practice of exporting jobs from developed
    countries to less-developed countries usually
    done in order to save money

6. Multiple Choice
  • (Blue Book) The process of globalization is more
    rapid when
  • A. transportation and communication systems are
  • B. governments pass tariffs
  • C. the number of NGOs stay steady
  • D. governments tighten security

7. Multiple Choice
  • (Blue Book) What effect have some foreign
    insects and animals like the emerald leaf borer
    and the zebra mollusk had on new countries in
    which they settled?
  • A. They increased the new countries standard of
  • B. They improved air and water quality.
  • C. They caused damage to their new environment.
  • D. They had no effect.

8. Multiple Choice
  • (Blue Book) The Columbian Exchange refers to
  • A. a program of the World Bank
  • B. efforts by the International monetary fund to
    strengthen the economies of poor nations
  • C. the trading of foods, plants, and animals
    between the Old and New worlds in the century
    after the explorations of Christopher Columbus
  • D. environmental hazards resulting from heavy
    industries in Europe and North America

9. Multiple Choice
  • (Blue Book) If you were shopping in an EU
    country, what would be the best money to have in
    your pocket?
  • A. the German mark
  • B. the French franc
  • C. the euro
  • D. the dollar

10. Multiple Choice
  • (2005 OGT Test) The European Unions objectives
    include reducing tariffs, promoting a single
    market, and creating a common currency. Based on
    these objectives, what type of world region does
    the European Union primarily represent?
  • A. cultural
  • B. physical
  • C. political
  • D. economic

11. Multiple Choice
  • (2006 OGT Test) Some Internet search engines
    offer the ability to automatically translate Web
    pages that are written in languages other than
    English. One effect of this feature is to
  • A. reduce the desire for international trade.
  • B. reduce the need for modern computer
  • C. increase the need for instruction in foreign
  • D. increase opportunities for exchanges of
    cultural practices.

12. Multiple Choice
  • (2007 OGT Test) The North American Free Trade
    Agreement (NAFTA) is a treaty designed to remove
    tariffs and other trade barriers between Canada,
    Mexico and the United States. This helped
    establish an economic region among those nations
  • A. participants enlarged their dependence on
    domestic markets.
  • B. participants terminated trade relationships
    with other regions.
  • C. participants imposed tariffs on goods
    imported from other countries.
  • D. trade among participants increased, making
    their economies more interdependent.

13. Multiple Choice
  • (Orange Book) Which of the following is NOT an
    example of international efforts to achieve
    collective security?
  • A. United Nations
  • B. Ohio National Guard
  • C. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
  • D. League of Nations

14. Multiple Choice
  • (Orange Book) Which of the following is an
    example of an exchange of cultural practices?
  • A. Americans eating hamburgers in fast food
  • B. The popularity of jazz music in the United
    States during the 20th century.
  • C. Chinese acupuncture becoming popular in the
    United States
  • D. Americans playing board games such as Monopoly

Short Answer
  • (2005 OGT Test) Satellite-based communication
    systems allow people to communicate more easily.
    This increases the interdependence of nations
    around the world. Describe how another advance
    in global communications or transportation
    contributes to the exchange of cultural
    practices. (2 points)

Extended Response
  • (Orange Book) Analyze two different examples of
    cultural exchanges. Describe the nature of the
    exchange and how cultural practices were
    assimilated by the other culture.

Cultural Exchanges--United States
  • OGT Benchmark Analyze the way that contacts
    between people of different cultures result in
    exchanges of cultural practices.

  • This benchmark focuses on the effects of
    immigration in the United States, and
    specifically on housing patterns, politics, the
    educations system, and language. Questions on
    the OGT related to this benchmark will address
    only the effects of immigration, not the causes
    or patterns of immigration to the United States.
    The effects will be restricted to the areas
    listed above.

I. Immigration after the Civil War
  • immigrants looking for work in factories
  • prior to Civil War Western and Northern Europe
    (England, Ireland, Germany)
  • after Civil War Southern and Eastern Europe
    (Italy, Poland, Russia, Greece)
  • early 1900s increase from China and Japan
  • 1880-1900 9 million immigrants
  • 1900-1914 14 million immigrants

A. Difficulties Encountered by New Immigrants
  • 1. New immigrants
  • a. religious differences (Roman Catholic or
  • b. language differences
  • c. lived in same neighborhoods

Short Answer
  • What was new about immigration in the late
    1800s and early 1900s?

  • 2. Problems in Cities
  • a. overcrowding
  • b. housing and sanitation
  • c. tenements
  • d. no sewers or garbage pickup
  • e. disease spread
  • f. high crime
  • g. did not speak English
  • h. lived in same neighborhoods
  • kept old customs
  • celebrated old holidays

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Getting out of the Slums 339
  • 3. Backlash Against Immigrants
  • a. fear and prejudice
  • b. competition for jobs
  • c. willing to work for less
  • d. religious prejudice

Short Answer
  • What kinds of problems did the new immigrants
    face upon arrival in the United States?

B. The Effect of Immigration on Politics
  • 1. city gov. had to increase
  • a. take care of new problems housing,
    sanitation, education, health, and transportation
  • 2. political machines grew
  • a. organization that controls an urban political
  • b. immigrants seen as source for votes
  • c. gave jobs in exchange for votes
  • d. usually corrupt

Short Answer
  • How did urban political machines take advantage
    of immigrants?

C. Effect of Immigration on Education
  • 1965 more immigrants allowed
  • 70s, 80s, and 90s Soviet Union, China, Cuba,
    and Southeast Asians enter US

  • Education of Immigrants
  • a. enrollments increased, esp. in cities
  • b. overcrowding
  • c. language different
  • d. spent for teachers who speak their

Short Answer
  • How has immigration put strains on the
    educational system of the United States?

D. Effect of Immigration on Language
  • many words come from other languages
  • 2000 47 million speak something other than
  • half Spanish
  • others Chinese, Korean, French, German,
    Italian, Russian, and Vietnamese
  • all add to vocabulary

  • 1. Faster Assimilation
  • a. 1800s immigrants never became good at
  • b. today, learning quicker
  • language programs
  • television
  • Internet

  • 2. Loan Words
  • a. English has borrowed many words
  • c. Spanish alligator, bronco, cafeteria,
    cigar, cigarette, guerrilla, mustang, patio,
  • d. Native American bayou, chipmunk, hickory,
    hominy, igloo, kayak, moccasin, moose, opossum,
    pecan, squash, tepee, toboggan, tomahawk

Short Answer
  • What is an example of cultural exchange in the
    use of language in the United States?

Immigration Summary
  • US shaped by cultural exchange from beginning
  • began with settlers and Native American contact
  • US always been a country of immigrants
  • American culture enriched by all the dif. groups

1. OGT Multiple Choice
  • _____ (OGT Test, 2005) Consider the following
    changes that occurred in the United States in the
    late 19th century
  • improvements in agricultural production
  • increases in immigration from Europe
  • advancements in networks of railroad and
    streetcar lines
  • These changes led to the
  • A. rapid growth of urban areas.
  • B. acquisition of overseas territories.
  • C. elimination of large suburbs around many
  • D. movement of people from the urban to the rural

2. OGT Multiple Choice
  • _____ (OGT Test, 2005) Use the following cartoon
    to answer question 41. The above cartoon appeared
    in Indian Country Today, a Native American
    newspaper. This cartoon reflects the perspective
    that Native American cultures existed in North
    America before the arrival of Europeans. This
    perspective has inspired Native American groups
  • A. abandon native languages.
  • B. celebrate Native American culture.
  • C. abandon traditional fishing and hunting
  • D. avoid serving in the armed forces of the
    United States.

3. OGT Multiple Choice
  • _____ (OGT Test, 2006) In the 19th century, many
    Americans considered Native Americans inferior to
    people of European ancestry. This resulted in
    discrimination and conflict between European
    settlers and Native Americans. One consequence
    of this discrimination was that many Native
    Americans were
  • A. displaced from their homelands.
  • B. forced to maintain their cultural heritage.
  • C. prevented from trading with European settlers.
  • D. persecuted for killing buffalo on the Great

4. OGT Multiple Choice
  • ______ (OGT Test, 2007) Religious diversity in
    the United States has increased in the last fifty
    years. One factor that has contributed to this
    increase has been an increase in
  • A. emigration to Africa.
  • B. immigration from Asia.
  • C. immigration from Australia.
  • D. emigration to South America.

5. OGT Multiple Choice
  • _____ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) The
    consequences of urbanization often include all of
    the following EXCEPT
  • A. increased pollution of air and water
  • B. more people living in crowded conditions
  • C. more jobs in factories and businesses
  • D. more people farming

6. OGT Multiple Choice
  • _____ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Which of the
    following statements best reflects housing
    patterns for immigrants long after their arrival
    to the United States?
  • A. They tended to return home to Europe
  • B. They tended to slowly assimilate
  • C. They tended to spread out quickly into many
    different communities
  • D. They tended to leave the United States soon
    after arriving

7. OGT Multiple Choice
  • _____ (2005 Practice Test) In the late 19th
    and early 20th centuries, many immigrants who
    came to the United States did not speak English
    as their native language. One way this resulted
    in the exchange of cultural practices was that
  • A. most people were able to speak several
    languages fluently
  • B. people from other countries tended to remain
    culturally isolated
  • C. people without knowledge of English were not
    allowed to immigrate
  • D. words from other languages entered into the
    mainstream vocabulary

8. OGT Multiple Choice
  • _____ (Orange Book, 2005) Which of the following
    best explains the impact immigration has had on
    the American diet?
  • A. Fast food restaurants have sprung up all over
    the United States
  • B. Americans eat the same food almost everyday
  • C. There are very few choices of different
    ethnic foods in restaurants
  • D. There is great variety of types of
    restaurants serving ethnic foods

9. OGT Multiple Choice
  • _____ (Orange Book, 2005) Immigration impacts
    language in the United States because it
  • A. causes the official language to change with
    each new immigrant culture
  • B. infuses new words into the language
  • C. results in English speaking people resisting
    new words
  • D. maintains the current language without change

10. OGT Multiple Choice
  • _____ (Orange Book) Which of the following best
    reflects housing patterns for immigrants soon
    after their arrival to the United States
  • A. They tended to assimilate quickly into the
    existing communities
  • B. They tended to congregate into their own
  • C. They tended to spread out quickly into many
    different communities
  • D. They tended to leave the United States soon
    after arriving

11. OGT Multiple Choice
  • _____ (Mastering the OGT Test) What evidence
    shows that a nations culture may extend far
    beyond its territorial boundaries?
  • A. The same language is often spoken in
    different countries.
  • B. Neighboring countries often have different
  • C. Independent nations often have their own
    currency (money system).
  • D. Countries near each other are often historic

OGT Short Answer (2 pts)
  • People from the countries of Scandinavia,
    Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden immigrated to
    the United States mainly between the Civil War
    and World War I. In general, they settled in the
    American Midwest. Their reasons for leaving their
    homelands included overpopulation, poor farm
    production and dissatisfaction with their
    governments. Based on your knowledge of
    immigration patterns to the United States,
    identify two factors that attracted immigrants
    such as these to the United States.(2 points)

  • This concludes our unit on Cultural Exchanges.
    Next, we will begin studying Geography,
    specifically Regions Over Time.