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The Genetic Code, Mutations, and Translation


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Title: The Genetic Code, Mutations, and Translation

The Genetic Code, Mutations, and Translation
  • The second stage in gene expression is
    translating the nucleotide sequence of a
    messenger RNA molecule into the amino acid
    sequence of a protein.
  • The genetic code is defined as the relationship
    between the sequence of nucleotides in DNA (or
    its RNA transcripts) and the sequence of amino
    acids in a protein.
  • Each amino acid is specified by one or more
    nucleotide triplets (codons) in the DNA.
  • During translation, mRNA acts as a working copy
    of the gene in which the codons for each amino
    acid in the protein have been transcribed from
    DNA to mRNA.

  • tRNAs serve as adapter molecules that couple the
    codons in mRNA with the amino acids they each
    specify, thus aligning them in the appropriate
    sequence before peptide bond formation.
  • Translation takes place on ribosomes, complexes
    of protein and rRNA that serve as the molecular
    machines coordinating the interactions between
    mRNA, tRNA, the enzymes, and the protein factors
    required for protein synthesis.
  • Many proteins undergo posttranslational
    modifications as they prepare to assume their
    ultimate roles in the cell.

  • Most genetic code tables designate the codons for
    amino acids as mRNA sequences. Important features
    of the genetic code include
  • Each codon consists of three bases (triplet).
    There are 64 codons. They are all written in the
    5' to 3' direction.
  • 61 codons code for amino acids. The other three
    (UAA, UGA, UAG) are stop codons (or nonsense
    codons) that terminate translation.
  • There is one start codon (initiation codon), AUG,
    coding for methionine. Protein synthesis begins
    with methionine (Met) in eukaryotes, and
    formylmethionine (fmet) in prokaryotes.
  • The code is unambiguous. Each codon specifies no
    more than one amino acid.

  • The code is degenerate. More than one codon can
    specify a single amino acid.
  • All amino acids, except Met and tryptophan
    (Trp), have more than one codon.
  • For those amino acids having more than one codon,
    the first two bases in the codon are usually the
    same. The base in the third position often
  • The code is almost universal (the same in all
    organisms). Some minor exceptions to this occur
    in mitochondria and some organisms.
  • The code is commaless (contiguous). There are no
    spacers or "commas" between codons on an mRNA.
  • Neighboring codons on a message are

The Genetic Code
Number of codons/amino acid
  • A mutation is any permanent, heritable change in
    the DNA base sequence of an organism. This
    altered DNA sequence can be reflected by changes
    in the base sequence of mRNA, and, sometimes, by
    changes in the amino acid sequence of a protein.
  • Mutations can cause genetic diseases. They can
    also cause changes in enzyme activity,
    nutritional requirements, antibiotic
    susceptibility, morphology, antigenicity, and
    many other properties of cells.

  • A very common type of mutation is a single base
    alteration or point mutation.
  • A transition is a point mutation that replaces a
    purine-pyrimidine base pair with a different
    purine-pyrimidine base pair. For example, an A-T
    base pair becomes a G-C base pair.
  • A transversion is a point mutation that replaces
    a purine-pyrimidine base pair with a
    pyrimidine-purine base pair. For example, an A-T
    base pair becomes a T-A or a C-G base pair.

  • Mutations are often classified according to the
    effect they have on the structure of the gene's
    protein product.
  • This change in protein structure can be predicted
    using the genetic code table in conjunction with
    the base sequence of DNA or mRNA.

Effect of Some Common Types of Mutations on
Protein Structure
Some Common Types of Mutations in DNA
Large Segment Deletions
  • Large segments of DNA can be deleted from a
    chromosome during an unequal crossover in
  • Crossover or recombination between homologous
    chromosomes is a normal part of meiosis I that
    generates genetic diversity in reproductive cells
    (egg and sperm), a largely beneficial result.
  • In a normal crossover event, the homologous
    maternal and paternal chromosomes exchange
    equivalent segments, and although the resultant
    chromosomes are mosaics of maternal and paternal
    alleles, no genetic information has been lost
    from either one.
  • On rare occasions, a crossover can be unequal,
    and one of the two homologs loses some of its
    genetic information.

  • a-Thalassemia is a well-known example of a
    genetic disease in which unequal crossover has
    deleted one or more a-globin genes from
    chromosome 16.
  • Cri-du-chat (mental retardation, microcephaly,
    wide-set eyes, and a characteristic kitten-like
    cry) results from a terminal deletion of the
    short arm of chromosome 5.

Large Segment Deletion During Crossing-Over in
  • Mutations in Splice Sites
  • Mutations in splice sites affect the accuracy of
    intron removal from hnRNA during
    post-transcriptional processing, if a splice site
    is lost through mutation, spliceosomes may
  • Delete nucleotides from the adjacent exon.
  • Leave nucleotides of the intron in the processed
  • Use the next normal upstream or downstream splice
    site, deleting an exon from the processed mRNA.
  • Mutations in splice sites have now been
    documented in many different diseases including
    ß-thalassemia, Gaucher disease, and Tay-Sachs.

Inaccurate Splicing After Mutation in a Splice
  • Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion
  • The mutant alleles in certain diseases, such as
    Huntington disease, fragile X syndrome, and
    myotonic dystrophy, differ from their normal
    counterparts only in the number of tandem copies
    of a trinucleotide.
  • The expansion of the trinucleotide repeat in the
    mutant allele can be in a coding region
    (Huntington and spinobulbar muscular atrophy) or
    in an untranslated region of the gene (fragile X
    and myotonic dystrophy) or even in an intron
    (Friedrich ataxia).
  • In these diseases, the number of repeats often
    increases with successive generations and
    correlates with increasing severity and
    decreasing age of onset, a phenomenon called

  • In the normal Huntington allele, there are lt 35
    tandem repeats of CAG in the coding region.
  • Affected family members may have gt 39 of these
    CAG repeats.
  • The normal protein contains five adjacent
    glutamine residues, whereas the proteins encoded
    by the disease-associated alleles have 30 or more
    adjacent glutamines.
  • The long glutamine tract makes the abnormal
    proteins extremely unstable.

  • Clinical Correlate
  • Huntington's disease, an autosomal dominant
    disorder, has a mean age-of-onset of 43-48 years.
  • Symptoms appear gradually and worsen over a
    period of about 15 years until death occurs. Mood
    disturbance, impaired memory, and hyperreflexia
    are often the first signs, followed by abnormal
    gait, chorea (loss of motor control), dystonia,
    dementia, and dysphagia.
  • Cases of juvenile onset (lt10 years old) are more
    severe and most frequently occur when the
    defective allele is inherited paternally.
  • About 25 of cases have late onset, slower
    progression and milder symptoms.

  • Inasmuch as amino acids have no direct affinity
    for mRNA, an adapter molecule, which recognizes
    an amino acid on one end and its corresponding
    codon on the other, is required for translation.
    This adapter molecule is tRNA.
  • Amino Acid Activation
  • As tRNAs enter the cytoplasm, each combines with
    its cognate amino acid in a two-step process
    called amino acid activation.

  • Each type of amino acid is activated by a
    different amino acyl tRNA synthetase.
  • Two high-energy bonds from an ATP are required.
  • The aminoacyl tRNA synthetase transfers the
    activated amino acid to the 3' end of the correct
  • The amino acid is linked to its cognate tRNA with
    an energy-rich bond.
  • This bond will later supply energy to make a
    peptide bond linking the amino acid into a

Formation of Aminoacyl tRNA
  • Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases have self-checking
    functions to prevent incorrectly paired amino
    acyl tRNAs from forming.
  • If, however, an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase does
    release an incorrectly paired product
    (ala-tRNASer), there is no mechanism during
    translation to detect the error, and an incorrect
    amino acid will be introduced into some protein.

(No Transcript)
Codon Translation by Aminoacyl tRNAs
  • Each tRNA has an anticodon sequence that allows
    it to pair with the codon for its cognate amino
    acid in the mRNA.
  • Because base pairing is involved, the orientation
    of this interaction will be complementary and
  • The arg-tRNAarg has an anticodon sequence, UCG,
    allowing it to pair with the arginine codon CGA.
  • The anticodon sequence in tRNA is antiparallel
    and complementary to the codon translated in mRNA.

  • Wobble
  • Many amino acids are specified by more than one
    codon (redundancy). Frequently, a tRNA can
    translate more than one of these codons, sparing
    the cell from making multiple tRNAs to carry the
    same amino acid.
  • For instance, the arg-tRNAarg can translate both
    the CGA and the CGG codons that specify arginine.
    This phenomenon is known as "Wobble" and can be
    summarized as follows
  • Correct base pairing is required at the first
    position of the codon (third of anticodon) and
    the second position of the codon (second of
  • The third position of the codon does not always
    need to be paired with the anticodon (e.g., it is
    allowed to "wobble" in some cases).

Wobble and Protein Synthesis
(No Transcript)
Pattern of base recognition
Modifications in the anticodon affect the pattern
ofwobble pairing and therefore are important
indetermining tRNA specificity
  • When bases in the anticodon are modified, further
    pairing patterns become possible in addition to
    those predicted by the regular and wobble pairing
    involving A, C, U, and G

  • Protein synthesis occurs by peptide bond
    formation between successive amino acids whose
    order is specified by a gene and thus by an mRNA.

Peptide Bond Formation
  • During translation, the amino acids are attached
    to the 3' ends of their respective tRNAs.
  • The aminoacyl-tRNAs are situated in the P and A
    sites of the ribosome.
  • The peptide bond forms between the carboxyl group
    of the amino acid (or growing peptide) in the P
    site and the amino group of the next amino acid
    in the A site.
  • Proteins are synthesized from the amino to the
    carboxyl terminus.

Formation of a Peptide Bond by a Ribosome During
(No Transcript)
  • Steps of Translation
  • Translation occurs in the cytoplasm of both
    prokaryotic (Pr) and eukaryotic (Eu) cells.
  • In prokaryotes, ribosomes can begin translating
    the mRNA even before RNA polymerase completes its
  • In eukaryotes, translation and transcription are
    completely separated in time and space with
    transcription in the nucleus and translation in
    the cytoplasm.
  • The process of protein synthesis occurs in three
    stages initiation, elongation, and termination.
  • Special protein factors for initiation (IF),
    elongation (EF), and termination (release
    factors), as well as GTP, are required for each
    of these stages.

  • Initiation
  • The small ribosomal subunit binds to the mRNA. In
    prokaryotes, the 16S rRNA of the small subunit
    binds to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence in the 5'
    untranslated region of the mRNA.
  • In eukaryotes, the small subunit binds to the 5'
    cap structure and slides down the message to the
    first AUG.
  • The charged initiator tRNA becomes bound to the
    AUG start codon on the message through base
    pairing with its anticodon.
  • The initiator tRNA in prokaryotes carries fmet,
    whereas the initiator tRNA in eukaryotes carries

(No Transcript)
  • The large subunit binds to the small subunit,
    forming the completed initiation complex.
  • There are two important binding sites on the
    ribosome called the P site and the A site, a
    third (E site) has been proposed.
  • The peptidyl site (P site) is the site on the
    ribosome where (f)met-tRNAi initially binds.
    After formation of the first peptide bond, the P
    site is a binding site for the growing peptide
  • The aminoacyl site (A site) binds each new
    incoming tRNA molecule carrying an activated
    amino acid.

  • Elongation
  • Elongation is a three-step cycle that is repeated
    for each amino acid added to the protein after
    the initiator methionine. Each cycle uses four
    high-energy bonds (two from the ATP used in amino
    acid activation to charge the tRNA, and two from
    GTP). During elongation, the ribosome moves in
    the 5' to 3' direction along the mRNA,
    synthesizing the protein from amino to carboxyl
    terminus. The three steps are

  • A charged tRNA binds in the A site. The
    particular aminoacyl-tRNA is determined by the
    mRNA codon aligned with the A site.
  • Peptidyl transferase, an enzyme that is part of
    the large subunit, forms the peptide bond between
    the new amino acid and the carboxyl end of the
    growing polypeptide chain. The bond linking the
    growing peptide to the tRNA in the P site is
    broken, and the growing peptide attaches to the
    tRNA located in the A site.
  • In the translocation step, the ribosome moves
    exactly three nucleotides (one codon) along the
    message. This moves the growing peptidyl-tRNA
    into the P site and aligns the next codon to be
    translated with the empty A site.
  • In eukaryotic cells, elongation factor-2 (eEF-2)
    used in translocation is inactivated through
    ADP-ribosylation by Pseudomonas and Diphtheria

Steps in Translation
  • Termination
  • When any of the three stop (termination or
    nonsense) codons moves into the A site, peptidyl
    transferase (with the help of release factor)
    hydrolyzes the completed protein from the final
    tRNA in the P site. The mRNA, ribosome, tRNA, and
    factors can all be reused for additional protein

  • Messenger RNA molecules are very long compared
    with the size of a ribosome, allowing room for
    several ribosomes to translate a message at the
    same time.
  • Because ribosomes translate mRNA in the 5' to 3'
    direction, the ribosome closest to the 3' end has
    the longest nascent peptide. Polysomes are found
    free in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough
    endoplasmic reticulum (RER), depending on the
    protein being translated.

A Polyribosome
  • Some well-known inhibitors of prokaryotic
    translation include streptomycin, erythromycin,
    tetracycline, and chloramphenicol. Inhibitors of
    eukaryotic translation include cycloheximide,
    Diphtheria and Pseudomonas toxins.
  • Puromycin inhibits both prokaryotic and
    eukaryotic translation by binding to the A site.
    Peptidyl transferase attaches the peptide to
    puromycin, and the peptide with puromycin
    attached at the C-terminus is released,
    prematurely terminating chain growth.
  • Certain antibiotics (for example,
    chloramphenicol) inhibit mitochondrial protein
    synthesis, but not cytoplasmic protein synthesis,
    because mitochondrial ribosomes are similar to
    prokaryotic ribosomes.

  • As proteins emerge from ribosomes, they fold into
    three-dimensional conformations that are
    essential for their subsequent biologic activity.
    Generally, four levels of protein shape are
  • Primary-sequence of amino acids specified in the
  • Secondary-folding of the amino acid chain into an
    energetically stable structure. Two common
    examples are the a-helix and the ß-pleated sheet.
    These shapes are reinforced by hydrogen bonds. An
    individual protein may contain both types of
    secondary structures. Some proteins, like
    collagen, contain neither but have their own more
    characteristic secondary structures.

  • Tertiary-positioning of the secondary structures
    in relation to each other to generate
    higher-order three-dimensional shapes (the
    domains of the IgG molecule are examples).
  • Tertiary, structure also includes the shape of
    the protein as a whole (globular, fibrous).
    Tertiary structures are stabilized by weak bonds
    (hydrogen, hydrophobic, ionic) and, in some
    proteins, strong, covalent disulfide bonds.
  • Agents such as heat or urea disrupt tertiary
    structure to denature proteins, causing loss of
  • Quaternary-in proteins such as hemoglobin that
    have multiple subunits, quaternary structure
    describes the interactions among subunits.

  • Clinical Correlate
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • The majority of cases of cystic fibrosis result
    from deletion of phenylalanine at position 508
    (?F508), which interferes with proper protein
    folding and the posttranslational processing of
    oligosaccharide side chains.
  • The abnormal chloride channel protein (CFTR) is
    degraded by the cytosolic proteasome complex
    rather than being translocated to the cell
    membrane. Other functional defects in CFTR
    protein that reaches the cell membrane may also
    contribute to the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis.

  • The three DNA base pairs A-T-C at position 507
    code for ile, T-T-T at the adjacent position 508
    code for phe. The ?F508 mutation is a deletion of
    the C pair from position 507 along with two T-T
    pairs from position 508, leaving the DNA sequence
    A-T-T. Since ATT also codes for ile, position
    507's amino acid is unchanged, and the mutation's
    net effect is equivalent to a deletion ("?") of
    the sequence resulting in the codon for phe ("F")
    at position 508.

  • Although all translation of eukaryotic nuclear
    genes begins on ribosomes free in the cytoplasm,
    the proteins being translated may belong to other
    locations. For example, certain proteins are
    translated on ribosomes associated with the rough
    endoplasmic reticulum (RER), including
  • Secreted proteins
  • Proteins inserted into the cell membrane
  • Lysosomal enzymes
  • Proteins translated on free cytoplasmic ribosomes
  • Cytoplasmic proteins
  • Mitochondrial proteins (encoded by nuclear genes)

  • Molecular Chaperones
  • Proteins translated on the RER generally fold and
    assemble into subunits in the ER before being
    transferred to the Golgi apparatus. Other
    proteins fold in the cytoplasm.
  • Molecular chaperones (proteins such as calnexin
    and BiP) assist in this process of protein
  • Proteins that are misfolded are targeted for
    destruction by ubiquitin and digested in
    cytoplasmic protein-digesting complexes called

  • Mitochondrial proteins encoded by nuclear genes
    are translated by ribosomes free in the
    cytoplasm, then folded and transferred into the
    mitochondria by different molecular chaperones.
  • Many proteins require signals to ensure delivery
    to the appropriate organelles. Especially
    important among these signals are
  • The N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence used
    to ensure translation on the RER.
  • Phosphorylation of mannose residues important for
    directing an enzyme to a lysosome.

  • Note
  • Proteasomes
  • Proteasomes are large cytoplasmic complexes that
    have multiple protease activities capable of
    sequentially digesting damaged proteins.
  • Many proteins are marked for digestion by
    addition of several molecules of ubiquitin
  • Proteasome may also play a role in producing
    antigenic peptides for presentation by class-I
    MHC molecule.

Synthesis of Secretory, Membrane, and Lysosomal
  • N-Terminal Hydrophobic Signal Sequence
  • This sequence is found on proteins destined to be
    secreted (insulin), placed in the cell membrane
    (Na-K ATPase), or ultimately directed to the
    lysosome (sphingomyelinase).
  • These proteins all require N-terminal hydrophobic
    signal sequences as part of their primary
  • Translation begins on free cytoplasmic ribosomes,
    but after translation of the signal sequence, the
    ribosome is positioned on the ER (now RER) with
    the help of a signal recognition particle.

  • During translation, the nascent protein is fed
    through the membrane of the RER and captured in
    the lumen. The signal sequence is cleaved off in
    the ER, and then the protein passes into the
    Golgi for further modification and sorting.
  • In transit through the ER and Golgi, the proteins
    acquire oligosaccharide side chains attached
    commonly at serine or threonine residues
    (O-linked) or at asparagine residues (N-linked).
    N-linked glycosylation requires participation of
    a special lipid called dolichol phosphate.

  • Lysosomal Enzymes and Phosphorylation of Mannose
  • Lysosomal enzymes are glycosylated and modified
    in a characteristic way. Most importantly, when
    they arrive in the Golgi apparatus, specific
    mannose residues in their oligosaccharide chains
    are phosphorylated.
  • This phosphorylation is the critical event that
    removes them from the secretion pathway and
    directs them to lysosomes.
  • Genetic defects affecting this phosphorylation
    produce I-cell disease in which lysosomal enzymes
    are released into the extracellular space, and
    inclusion bodies accumulate in the cell,
    compromising its function.

  • Major Symptoms of I-Cell Disease
  • Coarse facial features, gingival hyperplasia,
  • Craniofacial abnormalities, joint immobility,
    club-foot, claw-hand, scoliosis
  • Psychomotor retardation, growth retardation
  • Cardiorespiratory failure, death in first decade

  • Note
  • Lysosomes are organelles whose major function is
    to digest materials that the cell has ingested by
  • Lysosomes contain multiple enzymes that,
    collectively, digest carbohydrates (glycosylases)
    lipids (lipases), and proteins (proteases).
  • Although these organelles are especially
    prominent in cells such as neutrophils and
    macrophages they serve this essential role in
    almost all cells.
  • When a lysosomal enzyme is missing (for instance
    in a genetic disease like Tay-Sachs) the
    undigested substrate accumulates in the cell,
    often leading to serious consequences.

RNA editing
  • The term RNA editing describes those molecular
    processes in which the information content in an
    RNA molecule is altered through a chemical change
    in the base makeup.
  • RNA editing occurs in the cell nucleus, cytosol,
    as well as in mitochondria.
  • The diversity of RNA editing mechanisms includes
    nucleoside modifications such as C to U and A to
    I deaminations, as well as non-templated
    nucleotide additions and insertions.
  • RNA editing in mRNAs effectively alters the amino
    acid sequence of the encoded protein so that it
    differs from that predicted by the genomic DNA

C U RNA Editing APOB
  • The original and most fully detailed example of
    C?U RNA editing is mammalian apoB mRNA, in which
    a site-specific cytidine deamination introduces a
    UAA stop codon into the translational reading
    frame, resulting in synthesis of a truncated
    protein, apoB48.
  • C?U RNA editing of apoB occurs within
    enterocytes of the mammalian small intestine.
  • Under physiological circumstances, C?U editing
    of apoB mRNA targets a single cytidine out of
    more than 14,000 nucleotides, a process
    constrained by stringency in the cis-acting
    elements and by the protein factors responsible
    for targeted deamination.

  • APOB is a component of the plasma lipoproteins
    and is crucial for the transport of cholesterol
    and of triglycerides in the plasma.
  • There are two forms of APOB
  • APOB100 and the shorter APOB48 isoform, which
    results from the DEAMINATION of C ? U at
    nucleotide position 6666 (C6666) in the APOB
    mRNA, which causes the change of a glutamine to a
    translational stop codon..

(No Transcript)
A ? I RNA editing The conversion of A ?I, which
is read by the translation machinery as if it
were guanosine, is the most widespread type of
RNA editing in higher eukaryotes. The enzymes
that deaminate adenosine to inosine are members
of a family of Adenosine Deaminases that Act on
Inosine has base-pairing properties like those of
guanosine. A I (G)
  • The first example of A to I editing in an mRNA
    was found in the mammalian brain, in transcripts
    of the gene encoding the ionotropic glutamate
    receptor subunit, GluR-B. (Q ? R)
  • Other examples have appeared in numerous
    signaling components of the nervous systems of
    vertebrates and invertebrates.

Recoding mechanisms in mammals include
  • Ribosomal frameshifting
  • 1 frameshifting
  • Incorporation of unusual amino acids at stop
  • selenocysteine

Cellular Polyamine Levels Control Antizyme 1
  • Polyamines like spermine and spermidine are found
    in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, where they
    stabilize membranes, ribosomes, DNA, etc.
  • Cellular polyamine levels are regulated by ODC
    antizyme 1 in eukaryotes.
  • High polyamine levels stimulate the synthesis of
    ODC antizyme 1.
  • Antizyme 1 then binds to ornithine decarboxylase
    (ODC) and triggers its degradation.

  • Since ODC catalyzes the 1st step in polyamine
    synthesis, its degradation leads to reduced
    polyamine synthesis.
  • Reduced polyamine levels then reduce antizyme 1
  • Antizyme expression is controlled by 1
    frameshifting mechanism induced by high polyamine

(No Transcript)
1 Frameshifting in Antizyme Synthesis
  • The coding sequence for mammalian ornithine
    decarboxylase antizyme is in two different
    partially overlapping reading frames with no
    independent ribosome entry to the second ORF
  • Immediately before the stop codon of the first
    ORF, a proportion of ribosomes undergo a
    quadruplet translocation event to shift to the 1
    reading frame of the second and main ORF..

1 frameshifting
  • The proportion that frameshifts is dependent on
    the polyamine level and, because the product
    antizyme is a negative regulator of intracellular
    polyamine levels, the frameshifting acts to
    complete an autoregulatory circuit by sensing
    polyamine levels.
  • Required elements include polyamines, a shifty
    stop slippery sequence (5-UCC UGA U-3) at the
    frameshift site, and a pseudoknot just 3 of the
    slippery sequence.

1 Frameshifting in Antizyme Synthesis
Pseudoknot Structure
poorly defined 5 stimulatory sequence
shifty stop slippery sequence (5-UCC UGA-3)
Namy et al., Mol Cell 13 157-1698 (2004)
Incorporation of selenocysteine, the 21st amino
acid, occurs at in-frame UGA codons
  • Whenever a stop codon enters the ribosomal A
    site, a competition occurs between the release
    factor(s) and near-cognate tRNAs (that can base
    pair at 2 of the 3 nucleotides of the stop
  • The release factor normally wins this competition
    99.9 of the time, but this efficiency can be
    reduced by the sequence context around the stop
    codon, the relative level of the release factor,
    and the presence of downstream elements that can
    stimulate suppression.

  • Selenocysteine incorporation requires a
    selenocysteine insertion element (SECIS).
  • In eukaryotes, the SECIS is located in the 3-UTR
    of the mRNA. Association of mSelB (also known as
    eEFsec) to the SECIS element requires the adaptor
    protein SBP2.
  • Many selenoproteins are found in animal cells.
    Consistent with their frequent occurrence,
    selenoproteins are essential for mammalian
    development, since a tRNA(ser)sec knockout mouse
    is embryonic lethal.

Mechanism of selenocysteine incorporation in
prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  • The translation elongation factor SelB (or mSelB)
    that delivers tRNAsecUCA to the A site is
    functionally analogous eEF1A (but no known
    GTPase activity).
  • One or two SECIS elements in the 3-UTR of a
    eukaryotic mRNA can mediate selenocysteine
    incorporation at many UGA codons in the mRNA.
  • For example, expression of selenoprotein P in
    zebrafish requires the reassignment of 17 UGA
    codons (!). This suggests that selenocysteine
    incorporation can be very efficient.

Namy et al., Mol Cell 13 157-1698 (2004)
Similar SECIS elements mediate selenocysteine
incorporation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but
their location differ
Hatfield Gladyshev, Mol Cell Biol 22 3565-3576
(2002) Namy et al., Mol Cell 13 157-1698 (2004)
The Sec tRNA Biosynthetic Pathway in Archaea and
  • Sec is synthesized on tRNAsec in three steps.
  • The unacylated tRNAsec is charged by Ser tRNA
    synthetase with serine.
  • The resulting Ser-tRNAsec is phosphorylated by
    phosphoseryl tRNA kinase (PSTK) forming
    O-phosphoseryl-tRNAsec (Sep-tRNAsec).
  • The phosphorylated intermediate is converted to
    the final product Sec-tRNAsec by Sep-tRNASec
    tRNA synthase (SepSecS).

Yuan et al., FEBS Letters 584 342-349 (2010)
Examples of selenocysteine-containing proteins in
Many selenoproteins are found in animal cells.
Consistent with their frequent occurrence,
selenoproteins are essential for mammalian
development, since a tRNA(ser)sec knockout mouse
is embryonic lethal.
Hatfield Gladyshev, Mol Cell Biol 22 3565-3576
  • In addition to disulfide bond formation while
    proteins are folding, other covalent
    modifications include
  • Glycosylation addition of oligosaccharide as
    proteins pass through the ER and Golgi-apparatus
  • Proteolysis cleavage of peptide bonds to remodel
    proteins and activate them (proinsulin,
    trypsinogen, prothrombin)
  • Phosphorylation addition of phosphate by protein
  • ?-Carboxylation produces Ca2 binding sites
  • Prenylation addition of farnesyl or
    geranylgeranyl lipid groups to certain membrane
    associated proteins

  • Collagen is an example of a protein that
    undergoes several important co- and
    posttranslational modifications. It has a
    somewhat unique primary structure in that much of
    its length is composed of a repeating tripeptide
  • Hydroxyproline is an amino acid unique to
    collagen. The hydroxyproline is produced by
    hydroxylation of prolyl residues at the Y
    positions in pro-collagen chains as they pass
    through the RER.
  • 1. Pre-pro-a chains containing a hydrophobic
    signal sequence are synthesized by ribosomes
    attached to the RER.
  • 2. The hydrophobic signal sequence is removed by
    signal peptidase in the RER to form pro-a chains.
  • 3. Selected prolines and lysines are hydroxylated
    by prolyl and lysyl hydroxylases. These enzymes,
    located in the RER, require ascorbate (vitamin
    C), deficiency of which produces scurvy.

  • 4. Selected hydroxylysines are glycosylated.
  • 5. Three pro-a chains assemble to form a triple
    helical structure (pro collagen), which can now
    be transferred to the Golgi. Modification of
    oligosaccharide continues in the Golgi.
  • 6. Procollagen is secreted from the cell.
  • 7. The propeptides are cleaved from the ends of
    procollagen by proteases to form collagen
    molecules (also called tropocollagen).
  • 8. Collagen molecules assemble into fibrils.
    Cross-linking involves lysyl oxidase, an enzyme
    that requires O2 and copper.
  • 9. Fibrils aggregate and cross-link to form
    collagen fibers.

Synthesis of Collagen
Several important diseases associated with
defective collagen production Table 1-4-2.
Disorders of Collagen Biosynthesis
  • Clinical Correlate
  • Ehlers-Danlos (ED) Type-IV represents a
    collection of defects in the normal synthesis and
    processing of collagen. Like osteogenesis
    imperfecta, these syndromes are a result of locus
    heterogeneity in which defects in several
    different genes (loci) can result in similar
  • ED Type-IV, the vascular type, is an autosomal
    dominant disease caused by mutation in the gene
    for type-3 pro-collagen. Characteristics features
    include thin translucent skin, arterial,
    intestinal, or uterine rupture, and easy bruising

  • Clinical Correlate
  • Menkes disease, an X-linked recessive condition,
    is caused by mutations in the gene encoding a
    Cu2 efflux protein.
  • Cells from an affected individual accumulate high
    concentrations of Cu2 that cannot be released
    from the cell.
  • The symptoms result from functional Cu2
    deficiency inasmuch as Cu2 absorbed from the
    intestine becomes trapped in the intestinal
    epithelial cells and delivery to other tissues is

  • One-year-old boy with Menkes Disease, a rare
    X-linked genetic disorder that prohibits the body
    from transporting copper. The boy receives daily
    copper histidine injections.

  • Review Questions
  • Select the ONE best answer.
  • 1. In the genetic code of human nuclear DNA, one
    of the codons specifying the amino acid tyrosine
    is UAC. Another codon specifying this same amino
    acid is
  • A. AAC
  • B. UAG
  • C. UCC
  • D. AUG
  • E. UAU

  • Items 2 and 3
  • The options above represent mutations in the DNA
    with base changes indicated in boldface type. For
    each mutation described in the questions below,
    choose the most closely related sequence change
    in the options above.
  • 2. Nonsense mutation
  • 3. Mutation decreasing the initiation of

  • 4. During ß-globin synthesis in normal
    reticulocytes the sequence his-arg-pro occurs at
    position 165-167. How many high-energy phosphate
    bonds are required to insert these 3 amino acids
    into the ß-globin polypeptide during translation?
  • A. 15
  • B. 12
  • C. 9
  • D. 6
  • E. 3

  • 5. Accumulation of heme in reticulocytes can
    regulate globin synthesis by indirectly
    inactivating eIF-2. Which of the following steps
    is most directly affected by this mechanism?
  • A. Attachment of spliceosomes to pre-mRNA
  • B. Attachment of the ribosome to the endoplasmic
  • C. Met-tRNAmet binding to the P-site
  • D. Translocation of ribosome on the mRNA
  • E. Attachment of RNA polymerase II to the promoter

  • 6. A nasopharyngeal swab obtained from a
    4-month-old infant with rhinitis and paroxysmal
    coughing tested positive upon culture for
    Bordetella pertussis. He was admitted to the
    hospital for therapy with an antibiotic that
    inhibits the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA on
    70S ribosomes. This patient was most likely
    treated with
  • A. erythromycin
  • B. tetracycline
  • C. chloramphenicol
  • D. rifamycin
  • E. actinomycin D

  • 7. A 25-month-old white girl has coarse facial
    features and gingival hyperplasia and at 2 months
    of age began developing multiple, progressive
    symptoms of mental retardation, joint
    contractures, hepatomegaly, and cardiomegaly.
    Levels of lysosomal enzymes are elevated in her
    serum, and fibroblasts show phase-dense
    inclusions in the cytoplasm. Which of the
    following enzyme deficiencies is most consistent
    with these observations?
  • A. Golgi-associated phosphotransferase
  • B. Lysosomal a-1,4-glucosidase
  • C. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated signal
  • D. Cytoplasmic a-1,4-phosphorylase
  • E. Lysosomal hexosaminidase A

  • 8. Parahemophilia is an autosomal recessive
    bleeding disorder characterized by a reduced
    plasma concentration of the Factor V blood
    coagulation protein. Deficiency arises from a 12
    base-pair deletion in the Factor V gene that
    impairs the secretion of Factor V by hepatocytes
    and results in an abnormal accumulation of
    immunoreactive Factor V antigen in the cytoplasm.
    In which region of the Factor V gene would this
    mutation most likely be located?
  • A. 5' untranslated region
  • B. First exon
  • C. Middle intron
  • D. Last exon
  • E. 3' untranslated region

  • 9. Collagen, the most abundant protein in the
    human body, is present in varying amounts in many
    tissues. If one wished to compare the collagen
    content of several tissues, one could measure
    their content of
  • A. glycine
  • B. proline
  • C. hydroxyproline
  • D. cysteine
  • E. lysine

  • 10. A 6-month-old infant is seen in the emergency
    room with a fractured rib and subdural hematoma.
    The child's hair is thin, colorless, and tangled.
    His serum copper level is 5.5 nM (normal for age,
    11-12 nM). Developmental delay is prominent. A
    deficiency of which enzyme activity most closely
    relates to these symptoms?
  • A. Lysyl oxidase
  • B. Prolyl hydroxylase
  • C. y-Glutamyl carboxylase
  • D. Phosphotransferase in Golgi
  • E. a-I, 4-glucosidase

  • 11. Respiratory tract infections caused by
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa are associated with the
    secretion of exotoxin A by this organism. What
    effect will this toxin most likely have on
    eukaryotic cells?
  • A. Stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis
  • B. ADP-ribosylation of a Gs protein
  • C. ADP-ribosylation of eEF-2
  • D. ADP-ribosylation of a Gi protein
  • E. Stimulation of histamine release
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