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Medieval China

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Title: Medieval China Author: The Cones Last modified by: Administrator Created Date: 6/3/2005 1:55:04 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Medieval China


1
Medieval China
  • The Rise and Fall of the Sui, Tang, and Song
    Dynasties

2
Before the Medieval Period
  • Han Dynasty (202 BCE220 CE) growth and
    expansion
  • Mandate of Heaven
  • Medieval Chinas three dynasties
  • Sui Dynasty (580618)
  • Tang Dynasty (618906)
  • Song Dynasty (9601127)
  • Recovery and a time of great glory and development

Zhang Qian, explorer during the Han dynasty,
travels west
3
The Collapse of the Han Dynasty
  • The Han dynasty ended in 220 CE
  • Strong regional states replaced the Han dynasty
  • Period of the Three Kingdoms

Map of the Three Kingdoms
4
Power Struggles Between the Han and the Sui
  • People longed for centralized government
  • Daoism
  • Political instability did not result in a loss of
    culture

Daoist and Alchemist Tao Hengjing
5
The Sui Dynasty
  • After the fall of the Han, warlords ruled China
  • In 581, Yang Jian seized power and changed name
    to Emperor Wendi
  • Reunited north and south to restore the empire
  • Reestablished Confucianism

Emperor Wendi
6
Emperor Wendis Reforms
  • Land reforms improved position of the peasants
  • Higher status for the militia
  • Improved currency system
  • Unification facilitated trade
  • Strengthened governmental centralization

Portrait of Emperor Wendi
7
Yang Dis Construction Projects
  • Repair projects
  • The Grand Canal
  • Large labor force
  • Costs finances and human lives

8
The Collapse of the Sui
  • Peasant rebellions
  • Failed military campaigns
  • Financial problems

Yang Di, the last major Sui emperor
9
The Tang Dynasty618-907 C.E.
  • Li Yuan
  • Emperor Tang Taizong
  • Policies

Tang Taizong
Li Yuan
10
Gaozong Domestic PoliciesEmperor After Taizong
  • Restored the feudal order
  • Land reform for peasants
  • State involvement in economic production
  • Other economic endeavors
  • Education and governing officials
  • Growth of towns and cities

11
GaozongForeign Interaction
  • Expansion Korea, North Vietnam, southern
    Manchuria and Tibet
  • Trade with central and western Asia
  • Spread of Chinese culture
  • Religious missionaries

Buddhist statue
12
Wu Zhao
  • Concubine of Gaozong
  • Emperor of a new dynasty
  • Backlash against women

13
Class Struggle During the Tang Dynasty
  • Class distinctions
  • Disagreements within the ruling class

14
An Lushan Rebellion
Xuanzong fleeing to Suchuan
Lady Yang, the Princess Consort
  • Rebel leader An Lushan
  • Xuanzong fled capital
  • Tang dynasty prevails
  • Lady Yang
  • Economic and political implications

15
Tang Government After the Rebellion
  • Power of regional administrators
  • Power of court eunuchs
  • New legal code and administrative procedures
  • Backlash against some foreign ideas

A Tang-era Emperor
16
The Bureaucracy of Merit
  • Competitive exams
  • Altered the class of people receiving
    governmental positions
  • Conflicts between the new and established
    officials
  • Rule of Avoidance

Taking exams in the presence of the emperor
17
Role of Buddhism
  • Material and spiritual influence
  • Backlash during the Tang Dynasty
  • Government moved against the Buddhists

Buddhist Statue from Yungang Rock Temple
18
Changans Splendor
  • Cosmopolitan city
  • City design demonstrated planning and grandeur
  • The market
  • Culture and pastimes
  • Architecture

Polo, a game from Persia, was a favorite sport in
Changan
19
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20
Tang Innovations
  • Printing
  • Papermaking
  • Shipbuilding
  • A variety of other Chinese inventions

Papermaking
21
Foreign Interaction
  • Reestablishment of tributary relationships
  • Contact with southwest Asia
  • Changes in clothing
  • New pastimes
  • Diffusion of crops and foodstuffs
  • Increasing trade, including silk

Woodcut of a woman winding silk
22
Tang Art
A Tang period stone sculpture of the Buddha
Ceramic rider-woman
23
Tang Literature
  • Poetry
  • Han Yu and plain style
  • Woodblock printing

Calligraphy
24
Poetry Li Bo
I drink alone with no one to share. Raising up
my cup, I welcome the moon We frolic in revels
suited to Spring Li Bo
  • Wrote over 20,000 poems
  • Legend of his death

25
Other Poets
  • Du Fu
  • Bai Juyi

Du Fu
26
The Great Peasant Uprising
  • Land scramble
  • Displaced many peasants
  • Taxes on peasants
  • Peasant revolts in 860 and 874
  • Capital of Changan held for two years!!!
  • Government forces of the Tang finally drive out
    rebels

Depiction of a Chinese peasant revolt
27
Growing Weakness in the Tang
  • Moved south
  • Weakened imperial economy
  • Weakened bureaucracy
  • Decreased position of peasants
  • Careless and casual leadership
  • Equal-field system deteriorated
  • Regional military commanders gained power and
    were beyond the control of the emperor

Weakened agriculture in the north forced many
people to emigrate south
28
Collapse of the Tang Dynasty
  • An Lushan Rebellion
  • Ineffective control over military and court
    officials
  • Series of rebellions
  • Usurpation of Tang power in 907
  • The Ten Kingdoms
  • Small provinces and regional control

Mounted Khitan noble dressed in Chinese silk
29
TODAY
  • DO NOW Which primary source did you find most
    insightful to understanding Medieval China? What
    about the source gave you a window on this era?
  • REMINDER Maps are due today! Chart Monday..
  • IN CLASS We will.
  • Conclude discussion of the Song Dynasty.

30
The Song Dynasty
  • Song Taizu was the founder
  • Reigned 960-976 CE
  • 9601279 CE
  • Unification
  • MORE centralization
  • Prosperity
  • EARLY SONG A GOLDEN AGE

Emperor Taizu
31
Song Dynasty, Mid-11th Century
32
Reestablishment of Central Control under the Song
  • Economic recovery
  • Market economy emerges
  • Established capital at Kaifeng
  • Population increased
  • Cities recovered

Scene from the capital city of Kaifeng
33
Governmental Development of the Song
  • Recovery of power
  • Rebuilt the scholar-gentry
  • Emperor appointed new regional leaders

Scholar-philosopher Ouyang Xiu
34
Age of the Civil Government
  • The best and most educated
  • Levels of advancement in the exam system
  • Officials were regularly evaluated for
    performance
  • Good government and stability

Exam Hall at Nanjing
35
The Song and the Economy
  • Economic surge in China led to economic growth in
    the eastern hemisphere
  • Expansion
  • Control over revenues
  • Industry
  • Trade
  • Cosmopolitan cities
  • Financial instruments
  • flying cash
  • Paper money

A Chinese coin
36
Trade and the Song
  • Sea routes to southeast Asia and India
  • Ports
  • Navigational technology
  • Agriculture
  • Foreign and regional trade

Silk was a highly traded commodity in the
southern Song
37
Paper Money and Finance
  • Emperor Zhenzong
  • Promissory notes
  • Flying Cash
  • Taxation and expenditures

Earliest extant paper money printed on woodblock
38
The Economy and Foreign Contact
  • Korea as tributary state
  • Trade increased

Cultivation and processing of tea
39
Wang Anshis Reforms
  • Appointed Chief Councilor
  • Financial stability
  • Internal weakness and foreign threats

Wang Anshi
40
Military and Civil Reforms
  • Military
  • Provisions to organize the army
  • Quotas for military
  • Improved cavalry troops
  • Civil
  • Expanded the number of governmental schools
  • Advocated changes in the nature of the
    examinations

Wang Anshi
41
Fall of the Northern Song
  • Foreign appeasement and internal repression
  • Ongoing financial strain
  • Expensive bureaucracy
  • External pressures. Treaty with the Khitan in
    1004
  • Invasion of the Qiang

Annual tributes of silk and silver to the Khitan
drained Chinese finances
42
Establishment of the Southern Song
  • New government in 1127
  • Boundary with the Jin
  • The capital of Hangzhou

Map of the Southern Song
43
The Southern Song Economy
  • Urban centers
  • Government revenues
  • Salt
  • Tea
  • alcohol
  • Wealthier than north
  • Problems
  • Rich landlords slipped off tax rolls
  • Banditry
  • inflation

Marketplaces were popular in Hangzhou, the
southern Song capital
44
Neo-Confucianism
  • A revival of Confucianism
  • The five relationships
  • Morality and responsibility
  • New branches

Han Yu, a Neo-Confucianist
45
Social Structure
  • Merchants and artisans became a new class
  • Womens status worsened
  • Laws
  • Education

Women were considered a subordinate class in Song
society
46
Footbinding
  • Used in the Song Dynasty by the upper classes to
    indicate status
  • Not a widespread practice

An X-ray of feet exposed to massive footbinding
47
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48
Song Technological Innovations
  • Neo-Confucianism sparked an interest in science
  • Study what is practical
  • Agriculture, manufacturing, transportation
    advances
  • Mathematics and timekeeping
  • Fractions to study the phases of the moon

Zhu Xi, founder of Neo-Confucianism
49
Military Advances
  • Produced strong steel weapons
  • Use of iron
  • Created body armor
  • Began to use projectiles and gunpowder

The Chinese used projectiles to counter tribal
cavalries
50
Proliferation of Books
  • Pharmacopoeia
  • Treatise on Architectural Methods
  • A Collection of the Most Important Military
    Technology
  • The New History of the Five Dynasties and the
    Mirror of History

Woodcut from a book on Chinese Herbal Medicine,
compiled by Tang Shenwei of the Song dynasty
51
Song Era Poetry
A boat, light as a leaf, two oars squeaking
frighten wild geese Water reflects the clear sky,
the limpid waves are calm. Fish wiggle in the
weedy mirror, herons dot the misty
foreshores Across the sandy brook swift, the
frost brook cold, The moon brook bright.
The poet Su Shi
52
Song Era Painting
  • Landscapes
  • Chinese-style perspective
  • Fan Kuan
  • Black-and-white
  • Scroll painting

Classical Song landscape
53
Collapse of the Song
  • Mongols strong cavalry
  • Defeated the Jin in 1234
  • Defeated the Song and established the Yuan
    Dynasty in 1279

Mongol horsemen hunting with Kublai Khan
54
China, the Mongols, and Beyond
  • Medieval period ended with collapse of the Song
  • Ming restoration
  • Impact of developments in medieval China

Genghis Khan, Mongol leader and conqueror
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