Adult Learning and Motivation Theory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Adult Learning and Motivation Theory PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 5a0e05-ZGM3M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Adult Learning and Motivation Theory

Description:

Adult Learning and Motivation Theory EDER 619.33 L04 Professional Development Trends and Learning Kelli Boklaschuk, Jenny Kay Dupuis, and Stacey Lynn Klisowsky – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:715
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 52
Provided by: WangC9
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Adult Learning and Motivation Theory


1
Adult Learning and Motivation Theory
  • EDER 619.33 L04 Professional Development Trends
    and Learning
  • Kelli Boklaschuk, Jenny Kay Dupuis, and Stacey
    Lynn Klisowsky
  • University of Calgary

2
Overview
  • PD in-service session Using a blog to increase
    levels of communication
  • Planning effective staff development
  • Concerns-Based Adoption Model. Where do you fit?
  • Strategies to enhance adult motivation to learn
  • How adult learning has evolved

3
PD In-service
  • Main purpose To learn to use and navigate a
    blog.
  • Objectives
  • To navigate.
  • To post a response (comment).
  • To learn form and function of a blog website.
  • Our blog site - http//blog.scs.sk.ca/adultlearni
    ng

4
Staff Development and the Process of Teacher
Change

Article Summary
Guskey, T. R. (1986, May). Staff development and
the process of teacher change. Educational
Researcher, 15(5), 5-12.
5
Overview
  • Staff development programs are designed to alter
  • Professional practices
  • Beliefs
  • Understanding of school persons toward an
    articulated end
  • Staff development programs are a systematic
    attempt to bring about
  • Change in practices
  • Change in beliefs and attitudes
  • Change in the learning outcomes of students

6
Historical Context
7
How is becoming a better teacher defined?
  • Becoming a better teacher means enhancing the
    learning outcomes of the students.

8
  • PD can be traced back to the early 19th century.
  • The history of staff development is characterized
    primarily by disorder, conflict and criticism.
  • Much of what goes for in-service education is
    uninspiring and ineffective (Davies,1967).
  • Teachers participate in PD because they believe
    it will help them be better teachers.

9
Important Factors of PD
  1. PD must offer teachers practical ideas that can
    be efficiently used to directly enhance desired
    learning outcomes.
  2. Keep the teacher process of change in mind. PD
    often tries to begin by changing the beliefs of
    teachers first.

10
An Alternative Model
11
This model suggests a different temporal sequence
among the three major outcomes of staff
development.
Staff Development
Change in Teachers Beliefs and Attitudes
Change in Teachers Classroom Practices
Change in Student Learning Outcomes
(Guskey, 1986, p. 7)
12
Support for the Model
  • Bolster (1983) emphasizes that ideas and
    principles about teaching are believed to be true
    by teachers only when they give rise to actions
    that work .
  • According to Bolster, efforts to improve
    education must begin by recognizing that teachers
    knowledge of teaching is validated very
    pragmatically, and that without verification from
    the classroom, attitude change among teachers
    with regard to any new program or innovation is
    very unlikely.

(as cited in Guskey, 1986, p. 7)
13
Support for the Model
  • Teacher commitment was found to develop primarily
    after implementation.
  • Fullan (1985) notes that changes in attitude,
    beliefs, and understanding generally followed
    rather than preceded changes in behaviour.

(as cited in Guskey, 1986, p. 7)
14
A Similar Model (Proposed 100 years ago)
  • Psychologist William James theorized that the
    important factor in an emotion is feedback from
    bodily changes that occur in response to a
    particular situation.
  • Ex We see a bear and run therefore we are
    afraid.
  • Teachers beliefs and attitudes are primarily a
    result rather than a cause.

15
Implications
16
Staff Development Implications
  1. Recognize that change is a gradual and difficult
    process for teachers.
  2. Ensure that teachers receive regular feedback on
    student learning progress.
  3. Provide continued support and follow-up after the
    initial training.

17
Research Questions
  • Is change a process rather than an event?
  • How can we find ways to help teachers translate
    new knowledge into practice?
  • Can we find better methods of providing teachers
    with feedback, as well as find better ways of
    measuring these variables?

18
  • Points to Ponder
  • Consider these three principles in planning PD
  • Recognize that change is a gradual and difficult
    process for teachers.
  • Ensure that teachers receive regular feedback on
    student learning progress.
  • Provide continued support and follow-up after the
    initial training.

19
  • Group Discussion Question
  • Now, reflect on your experience with the blog PD.
    What elements were not considered in the
    creation of the PD?

20
Understanding the Adult Learner
Article Summary of Tornado of Change
21
Adult learners all come with preconceived
expectations
22
The teacher only appears when the student is
ready to learn. ( Hindu proverb)
23
  • The Adult Learner is
  • Autonomous and self directed
  • Full of life experience and knowledge
  • Goal orientated
  • Relevancy orientated
  • Practical
  • Deserving of respect

24
Professional Development (PD) facilitators and
organizational leaders need to recognize that for
PD to be effective, implementation must address
the needs of the adult learner. The
Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) is a
framework and set of tools for understanding and
managing change in people (Horsley and
Loucks-Horsley, 1998 p.1).
25
  • The CBAM model identifies three stages of
    developmental process
  • Stages of Concern this is the affective
    dimension that addresses how people feel about
    having to do something new or different.
  • Awareness unaware or unengaged
  • Self Concern Informational - What must I
    do?
  • - Personal How will this affect me?
  • Task Concern Management What do I need to
    do this?
  • Impact Concern Consequence How will I do
    this?
  • - Collaboration Who can I work
    with?
  • - Refocusing How can
    I make this better?
  • (Horsley and Loucks-Horsley, 1998, p.
    1-2)

26
2. Levels of Use the behavioral dimension of
change Non Use no implementation
attempts Orientation seeks information Prepara
tion adoption of new process Once the choice to
implement has been made, support will need to be
given as levels of use grow from mechanical to
routine to refinement to integration and through
renewal. (Horsley and Loucks-Horsley, 1998)
27
  • 3. Innovation Components identifying the
    change. What should the implementation look like
    if done successfully?
  • Practice Profiles should consist of
  • description of resources and conditions needed
    for implementation.
  • identification of standards
  • descriptive examples
  • (Horsley and Loucks-Horsley, 1998)

28
  • Key Messages
  • Change is a process, not an event.
  • Change is a highly personal experience.
  • Knowledge of CBAM will assist staff developers in
    diminishing resistance (Horsley and
    Loucks-Horsley, 1998).
  • Adult Learners do not submit to the just do it
    philosophy. Learning opportunities need to make
    sense and be seen as purposeful.

29
Points to Ponder
1. Reflecting on the blog activity, at what
stage of concern do you see yourself? Why? 2.
How might it have been possible to change your
level of concern, if at all? 3. What supports
would you require to implement the blog as a
system of communication for your work environment?
30
Summary of Article
  • Strategies to Enhance
  • Adult Motivation to Learn
  • Author Raymond J. Wlodkowski

31
What is Needed?
  • Need to know more about it.
  • How to influence it?
  • Note Wlodrowskis article examines current
    knowledge/research, and
  • how to influence adult motivation to learn

32
Levels of Positive Adult Motivation
Motivational Factors Learning Description Strategic Attitudes / Actions for Teachers
First Level Expectancy for success a sense of volition Able to master learning. Maintain positive expectations. Make learning worthwhile. (move from resistance to acceptance).
Second Level Expectancy for success a sense of volition value Looks for the benefits. (meaningful worthwhile). Not enjoyable. Make intended benefits known. Offer choices.
Third level Expectancy for success a sense of volition value enjoyment Learn to value and want to learn for personal pleasure (not always easy tasks). Provide activities that generate enjoyment.
(Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 93-95)
33
  • Problem Adult learners motivation can quickly
    disappear.
  • Learning must be important.
  • Learners need to effectively use apply
    knowledge.
  • Learners must experience successful learning.

(Wlodrowski, 2004)
34
Planning for Learner Motivation
Main Factors Description of Factor Result
Attitude Combines concepts, information, and emotions. Response toward people, groups, ideas, events, or objects.
Need Internal forces push toward reaching goal. Stronger internal forces increased likelihood to reach goal.
Stimulation Change in perception or experience with environment that makes one active. Stimulates and sustains adult learning.
Affect Emotional feelings while learning. Sustains involvement and interest if positive feelings exist. Harmony needed between thinking and emotions (p. 97).
Competence Competence theory people strive for effective interactions Learners need to be aware of success.
Reinforcement Reinforcement effects the probability of the response. Positive reinforcement often leads to continued involvement/success
(Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 95-97)
35
Time Continuum Model of Motivation
Time Phases Learners Six Major Motivation Factors Instructional Design Questions
Beginning Enters process. 1) Attitude - Toward learning environment, instructor, subject matter, self. 2) Needs - Basic needs within learner. A. What can I do to establish a positive learner attitude for this learning sequence? B. How do I best meet the needs of my learners through this learning sequence?
During Involved in the content. 3) Stimulation - Stimulation processes. 4) Affect - Affective or emotional experience. C. What about this learning sequence will continuously stimulate my learners? D. How is the affective experience and emotional climate for this learning sequence positive for learners?
Ending Completing the process. 5) Competence - Competence value result of the behaviour. 6) Reinforcement - Reinforcement value attached to learning experience. E. How does this learning sequence increase or affirm learner feelings of competence? F. What is the reinforcement that this learning sequence provides for my learners?
Not all motivational factors are equal. Plan
for at least one motivational factor in each
phase. Positive motivational factors needs to
sustain learning.
(Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 98- 100)
36
Six Strategies for Motivation
  • Need
  • Know and emphasize felt needs of learners (ask
    learners what they want out of experience).
  • - Provide opportunity to publically share what
    learned or produced.
  • Stimulation
  • Provide variety in processes and materials.
  • New learning
  • experiences that connects with prior knowledge.
  • Affect
  • Connect abstract content to whats personal and
    familiar.
  • Use cooperative goal structures to plan/achieve
    joint goals.
  • Competence
  • Consistent and prompt feedback.
  • Use performance evaluation procedures.
  • Reinforcement
  • Positive reinforcement for routine, well-learned,
    complex, and drill-and-practice activities.
  • Help learners be aware of results / natural
    consequences.
  • Attitude
  • - Ensure successful
  • Learning.
  • - Safe, successful, interesting intro. to new
    topics.
  • Stress amount and quality of effort needed for
    success prior.
  • Set clear learning goals.
  • Provide evaluation criteria.
  • Allow for self-determination / autonomy.

(Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 101 - 110)
37
  • The teachers knowledge of learners
    motivation, subject matter,
    instructional situation, and time
    constraints will determine the quality and
    quantity of the motivational strategies
    employed.

(Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 101)
38
Table5.1 Six Questions Based on the Time Continuum Model of Motivation as Applied by an Adult Basic Education Instructor Table5.1 Six Questions Based on the Time Continuum Model of Motivation as Applied by an Adult Basic Education Instructor Table5.1 Six Questions Based on the Time Continuum Model of Motivation as Applied by an Adult Basic Education Instructor Table5.1 Six Questions Based on the Time Continuum Model of Motivation as Applied by an Adult Basic Education Instructor
Instructional Objective After 2 weeks, learners will add and subtract mixed fractions at a 90 achievement level. Instructional Objective After 2 weeks, learners will add and subtract mixed fractions at a 90 achievement level. Instructional Objective After 2 weeks, learners will add and subtract mixed fractions at a 90 achievement level. Instructional Objective After 2 weeks, learners will add and subtract mixed fractions at a 90 achievement level.
Question When Used Motivational Strategy Learning Activity or Instructor Behaviour
1. What can I do to establish a positive learner attitude for this learning sequence? Beginning of the learning sequence. Positively confront the possible erroneous beliefs, expectations, and assumptions that may underly a negative. Ask learners how many have heard that fractions are really difficult to do and discuss with them their feelings and expectations.
2. How do I best meet the needs of my learners through this learning sequence? Beginning of the learning sequence. Reduce or remove components of the learning environment that lead to failure or fear. Organize a tutorial assistance plan by which learners who are having difficulty can receive immediate help from the instructor or a fellow learner.
3. What about his learning sequence will continuously stimulate my learners? During the main phase of the learning sequence. Whenever possible, make learner reaction and involvement essential parts of the learning process, i.e. problem solving, games, role-playing, simulation. Use games and creative problems to challenge and invite daily learner participation.
4. How is the affective or emotional climate for this learning sequence positive for the learners? During the main phase of the learning sequence. Use a cooperative goal structure to maximize learner involvement and sharing. Have teams of learners solve fraction problems with one member of the team responsible for diagnosing the problem, another responsible for finding the common denominator, another working it through, and another for checking the answer, alternate roles.
5. How does this learning sequence increase or affirm learner feelings of competence? Ending o the learning sequence. Provide consistent feedback regarding mastery of learning. Use answer sheets and diagnostic and formative tests to give feedback and assistance to learners.
6. What is the reinforcement that this learning sequence provides for my learners? Ending of the learning sequence. When learning has natural consequences, allow them to be congruently evident. Construct a class test where each learner creates a mixed fraction word problem for the other learners to solve. Each learner is responsible for checking and, if necessary, helping the other learners to solve the problem.
(Wlodrowski, 1985, as cited in Wlodrowski, 2004,
p. 102-103 )
39
Template Applying Motivational Strategies to
Learning Activity / Instructor Behaviour
Table Table Table Table
Instructional Objective Instructional Objective Instructional Objective Instructional Objective
Question When Used Motivational Strategy Learning Activity or Instructor Behaviour
1. What can I do to establish a positive learner attitude for this learning sequence?
2. How do I best meet the needs of my learners through this learning sequence?
3. What about his learning sequence will continuously stimulate my learners?
4. How is the affective or emotional climate for this learning sequence positive for the learners?
5. How does this learning sequence increase or affirm learner feelings of competence?
6. What is the reinforcement that this learning sequence provides for my learners?
(Adapted from Wlodrowski, 1985, as cited in
Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 102-103 )
40
Small Group Activity
  • In groups, reflect on the PD session delivered
    earlier.
  • How would you facilitate the PD session
    differently to account for adult learning and
    motivational theories?
  • Use the template provided to help structure your
    thoughts.

41
  • Whether these strategies are offered as part of
    a motivation plan or as part of some other
    instructional approach, they have their best
    chance for success if they are within the
    repertoire of a person who teaches with
    enthusiasm.

(Wlodrowski, 1984, as cited in Wlodrowski, 2004,
p. 110)
42
Extended Learning
43




(as cited in Alahaweh, 2008)
44
  • Need to develop programs that aim to increase and
    sustain motivation.
  • Thus, schools leaders may examine some of the
    following concepts
  • Epsteins learner-oriented model
  • Four pillars practice Team/partnering with
    colleagues, teacher leadership roles, shared
    leadership, inquiry, mentoring (Drago-Severson,
    2006).
  • Kegans constructive-developmental model
  • Means of communication / feedback
  • Other?

45
Article Summary of
Andragogy and Self Directed Learning Pillars
of Adult Learning Theory
46
Andragogy
  • The art and science of helping adults learn
    (Knowles, as cited in Merriam, 2001).
  • Assumes
  • The learner is independent and self directed.
  • Has life experience from which to draw.
  • Has learning needs related to social role
    changes.
  • Problem-centred.
  • Intrinsically motivated.

47
  • Self Directed Learning
  • The Goals
  • Self Directed Learning
  • Transformational Learning
  • Emancipatory Learning and Social Action

48
  • Self Directed Learning
  • The Process
  • 1970s - Linear - Tough and Knowles
  • 1980 1990 Interactive - Daniss
  • Consider learner and learner context

49
About You
  • Take a moment and reflect on yourself as a
    learner
  • Do you have any other insights?
  • Comments?
  • Questions?

50
Additional Resources
  • Drago-Severson, E. (2006). Learning-oriented
    leadership. Independent Journal, 65(4), 58-65.
  • Drago, Severson, E. (2007, January). Helping
    teachers learn Principals as professional
    development leaders. Teachers College Record,
    109(1), 70-125.
  • Jorgenson, O., Peal, C. (2008, March). When
    principals lose touch with the classroom.
    Principal, 87(4), 52-55. Retrieved September 14,
    2008, from Education Research Complete database.
  • Ovando, M. N. (2005, September). Building
    instructional leaders capacity to deliver
    constructive feedback to teachers. Journal of
    Personnel Evaluation in Education, 18(3),
    171-183.
  • Materna, L. (2007, May). The adult learner
    How to engage and motivate adults using brain-
  • compatible strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA
    Corwin Press.
  • Whitaker, T., Whitaker, B., Lumpa, D. (2004,
    January). Motivating aspiring teachers The
    educational leaders guide for building staff
    morale. N.A. Eye on Education.
  • Wlodkowski, R. (2008, March). Enhancing Adult
    Motivation To Learn A Comprehensive Guide
  • for Teaching All Adults. N.A. Jossey-Bass
    Higher and Adult Education Series.

51
References
  • Alawneh, M. (2008). Factors affecting training
    transfer Participants motivation to transfer
    training. Penn State University. (Retrieved
    January 14, 2008, from ERIC Document Reproduction
    Service No. 5016129).
  • Guskey, T. R. (1986, May). Staff development and
    the process of teacher change. Educational
    Research, 15(5), 5-12.
  • Horsley, D. L., Loucks-Horsley, S. (1998).
    CBAM brings order to the tornado of change.
    Journal of Staff Development, 19(4), 17-20.
  • Lieb, S. (1991, Fall). Principals of adult
    learners. Retrieved January 20, 2008, from
    http//honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/Fac
    DevCom/guidebk/teachtip/adults-2.html
  • Merriam, S. B. (2001, Spring). Andragogy and
    self-directed learning Pillars of adult
    learning theory. In S. B. Merriam (Ed.), The New
    Update on Adult Learning Theory (vol. 89, pp.
    3-13). San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • Wlodowski, R. J. (2004). Strategies to enhance
    adult motivation to learn. In M. W. Galbrieth
    (Ed.), Adult Learning Methods A Guide for
    Effective Instruction (3rd ed., pp. 91-112).
    Florida, USA Krieger Publishing.
About PowerShow.com