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Animal Classification, Phylogeny, and Organization

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Animal Classification, Phylogeny, and Organization Chapter 7 Zoology Construct a Cladogram for Us! Gorilla Four limbs Fur No tail Tiger Four limbs Fur Tail Lizard ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Classification, Phylogeny, and Organization


1
Animal Classification, Phylogeny, and Organization
  • Chapter 7
  • Zoology

2
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3
What does it mean to be alive?
  • Order made of atoms?molecules?cells?tissues?orga
    ns?
  • organ systems.
  • 2. Evolutionary Adaptations able to change.
  • 3. Responsiveness respond to env. stimuli.
  • 4. Regulation homeostasis.
  • 5. Energy Processing metabolism.
  • 6. Growth and Development prescribed patterns
    of growing.
  • 7. Reproduction use DNA as genetic information
    for replicating.

4
Why Classify Organisms?
  • Making sense of the living world.

5
History of Taxonomy
  • Discussion of grouping started by Greek
    philosopher Aristotle.
  • About 384 BC grouped things as Animal, Plant, or
    Mineral.
  • Why so simple?
  • Where are the bacteria?

6
Carolus Linnaeus (Karl von Linné, 1707-1778)
  • Divided all living things into 2 groups Plants
    and Animals.
  • Again, no bacteria?

7
Linnaeus System
  • Used a hierarchial system
  • KPCOFGS (later Domain was added)
  • Latinized descriptive names of organisms
    -Binomial Nomenclature 2 word scientific
    naming system
  • First part of binomial genus Always
    capitalized
  • Second part specific epithet one species,
    always lower case.
  • Latin scientific names are always italicized (if
    word processing) or underlined (if hand written)
  • Ex. Homo sapiens, wise man

8
History of Taxonomy
  • 1942 Ernst Mayr proposed biological species
    concept population or groups of populations
    that may interbreed and produce viable, fertile
    offspring.
  • 1969 Robert Whittaker proposed the 5 kingdoms
  • Monera (later Eubacteria and Archaebacteria
    )Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
  • Based on molecular evidence (DNA and protein
    sequences) its accepted to have 6 Kingdoms and
    have added 3 Domains

9
Binomial Nomenclature Who cares?
  • What do you call this?
  • Crawdad?
  • Crawfish?
  • Crayfish?
  • I call it a Prairie crayfish-Procambarus
    gracilis (Bundy) ? name of scientist who first
    described and named it.

10
Why use Binomial Nomenclature?
  • Problems with common names
  • Varies from area to area, therefore, no
    commonality.
  • Does not specify a particular species.
  • Each animal has an unique binomial name.
  • Required for all animals by International Code of
    Zoological Nomenclature.

11
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12
Classification is like an Address!
13
6 Kingdoms now Outdated!
14
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15
Domain Archaea
  • Prokaryotic microbes
  • Live in extreme environments high temps, salts,
    acids
  • Anaerobic
  • Most primitive

16
Domain Eubacteria
  • Prokaryotic microbes
  • Live in most environments
  • Anaerobic or aerobic

17
Domain Eukarya
  • Eukaryotic
  • Mainly aerobic but can be anaerobic
  • Includes all other kingdoms (Protista, Plant,
    Fungi, Animal)

18
Fields of Study in Animal Diversity
  • Phylogeny
  • The evolutionary history of a species or group of
    related species.
  • Systematics
  • Determining evolutionary relationships of
    organisms (the study of phylogeny).
  • Taxonomy
  • Assigning organisms to different categories based
    on their evolutionary relationships.
  • Nomenclature
  • The science of naming organisms

19
  • Though sedimentary fossils are the most common
  • Paleontologists study a wide variety of fossils

20
Morphological and Molecular Homologies
  • In addition to fossil organisms
  • Phylogenetic history can be inferred from certain
    morphological and molecular similarities among
    living organisms .
  • In general, organisms that share very similar
    morphologies or similar DNA sequences
  • Are likely to be more closely related than
    organisms with vastly different structures or
    sequences.
  • Not always true! Analogy vs. Homology

21
Homology
  • Homologous Structures structures in different
    species that are similar because of common
    ancestry.

22
Analogy
  • Analogous Structures similarity in structures
    due to adaptations from similar evolutionary
    pressures (convergent evolution) and not a common
    ancestor.

23
  • Convergent evolution occurs when similar
    environmental pressures and natural selection
  • Produce similar (analogous) adaptations in
    organisms from different evolutionary lineages

Australian Mole marsupial mammal
North American Mole placental mammal
24
Convergent Evolution in Snakes
25
Sorting Homology from Analogy
  • A potential misconception in constructing a
    phylogeny
  • Is similarity due to convergent evolution, called
    analogy, rather than shared ancestry

26
Linking Classification and Phylogeny
  • Systematists depict evolutionary relationships
  • In branching phylogenetic trees

27
  • Each branch point
  • Represents the divergence of two species

28
  • Deeper branch points
  • Represent progressively greater amounts of
    divergence

29
  • Phylogenetic systematics informs the construction
    of phylogenetic trees based on shared
    characteristics
  • Cladogram - a depiction of patterns of shared
    characteristics among taxa a graphic organizer
    based on measurable traits and not evolutionary
    relationships.
  • Clade - a group of species that includes an
    ancestral species and all its descendants.
  • Clades may be nested within larger clades, but
    not all groupings or organisms qualify as clades
  • Clades are not phylogenetic trees a trait may be
    analogous. Ex. Bipedalism (humans, kangaroos,
    ostrich).
  • Cladistics - Is the study of resemblances among
    clades

30
Cladogram for Transportation
  • Wheels are the most ancestral (oldest).
  • Wings are the most derived (newest).
  • This is an example of hierarchical nesting

31
  • A valid clade is monophyletic
  • Signifying that it consists of the ancestor
    species and all its descendants only grouping
    used as legitimate clade.

32
  • A paraphyletic clade
  • Is a grouping that consists of an ancestral
    species and some, but not all, of the descendants

33
  • A polyphyletic grouping
  • Includes numerous types of organisms that lack a
    common ancestor

Grouping 3
34
Construct a Cladogram for Us!
35
Gorilla
  • Four limbs
  • Fur
  • No tail

36
Tiger
  • Four limbs
  • Fur
  • Tail

37
Lizard
  • Four limbs
  • Tail

38
Fish
  • Tail

39
Chimpanzee
  • Four limbs
  • Fur
  • No tail

40
Clade With 4 Limbs
41
Clade With Fur
42
Clade With No Tail
43
Characteristics (Traits) for Constructing this
Cladogram
  • Tail is the most ancestral
  • Four limbs is the oldest derived trait
  • Fur is a later derived trait
  • Loss of tail is the most recent derived trait

44
One Possible Cladogram
Gorilla
Chimpanzee
Tiger
Lizard
Fish
45
Wheres the Tail?
  • How do we know the gorilla and chimpanzee have
    lost their tail?
  • Sometimes cladists must compare embryological
    development and internal anatomy to determine
    relatedness.
  • May not be exactly the same structures.

46
Coccyx- Primate Vestigial Tails
Human Pelvic Girdle
Gorilla Pelvic Girdle
Vestigial Structure - historical remnants of a
structure that has little or no use in a modern
organism but had a function in ancestors.
47
Some Cladistic Terms
  • Symplesiomorphies or Shared Primitive Characters
    - homologous structures that predates the
    branching of a particular clade from other
    members of that clade.
  • Is shared beyond the taxon we are trying to
    define.
  • Not helpful in describing relationships. Why?
  • Synapomorphies or Shared Derived Characters - is
    an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular
    clade.
  • Is helpful in describing relationships.

48
Outgroups
  • Systematists use a method called outgroup
    comparison
  • To differentiate between shared derived and
    shared primitive characteristics

49
  • As a basis of comparison we need to designate an
    outgroup
  • which is a species or group of species that is
    closely related to the ingroup, the various
    species we are studying.
  • Outgroup Comparison
  • Is based on the assumption that homologies
    present in both the outgroup and ingroup must be
    primitive characters that predate the divergence
    of both groups from a common ancestor

50
A Vertebrate Cladogram
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