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## Oscillations and Waves

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### Oscillations and Waves Wave Characteristics Progressive Waves Any wave that moves through or across a medium (e.g. water or even a vacuum) carrying energy away from ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Oscillations and Waves

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Oscillations and Waves
• Wave Characteristics

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Progressive Waves Any wave that moves through or
across a medium (e.g. water or even a vacuum)
carrying energy away from its source is a
progressive (travelling) wave. E.g. A duck on
water As the wave passes the duck, the
water (and duck) only oscillate vertically.
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This illustrates that there is no net transfer of
the medium through which the wave travels, only
energy moves from place to place. In many
examples, the wave carrying medium will oscillate
with simple harmonic motion (i.e. a ? -x).
5
Types of Wave Waves can be described as
transverse or longitudinal. In a transverse wave
the vibration (oscillation) of particles is at
right angles to the direction of energy transfer.
Transverse waves cannot move through a gas.
Examples In a longitudinal wave the vibration
of particles is in the same plane as the
direction of energy transfer. Examples
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Transverse Longitudinal
(Label a crest (peak), trough, rarefaction,
compression)
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Describing Waves Crest and trough Points on the
wave where particles are oscillating at maximum
positive and negative displacement. Rarefaction
and compression Areas in a longitudinal wave
where particles are far apart (lower than normal
density) and close together (higher than normal
density).
8
• Wave graphs
• Waves can be represented graphically in two ways
• Displacement - Distance
• Displacement Time

9
The following terms and descriptions are mixed
up. Copy the table but give each term the correct
description Intensity of a wave is the
power per unit area incident upon a surface, in
Wm-2. (It is proportional to the square of the
amplitude, so I ? A2)
Term Description
1. Wavelength (?) a. The maximum displacement from the equilibrium position (in metres, m)
2. Amplitude (A) b. The distance moved by a wave crest per second (in metres per second, ms-1)
3. Frequency (f) c. The time required for the wave to complete one oscillation (in seconds, s)
4. Periodic Time (T) d. The distance between two successive crests (in metres, m)
5. Speed (v) e. The number of waves completed in one second (in Hertz, Hz)
Term Description
1. Wavelength (?) d. The distance between two successive crests (in metres, m)
2. Amplitude (A)
3. Frequency (f)
4. Periodic Time (T)
5. Speed (v)
Term Description
1. Wavelength (?) d. The distance between two successive crests (in metres, m)
2. Amplitude (A) a. The maximum displacement from the equilibrium position (in metres, m)
3. Frequency (f)
4. Periodic Time (T)
5. Speed (v)
Term Description
1. Wavelength (?) d. The distance between two successive crests (in metres, m)
2. Amplitude (A) a. The maximum displacement from the equilibrium position (in metres, m)
3. Frequency (f) e. The number of waves completed in one second (in Hertz, Hz)
4. Periodic Time (T)
5. Speed (v)
Term Description
1. Wavelength (?) d. The distance between two successive crests (in metres, m)
2. Amplitude (A) a. The maximum displacement from the equilibrium position (in metres, m)
3. Frequency (f) e. The number of waves completed in one second (in Hertz, Hz)
4. Periodic Time (T) c. The time required for the wave to complete one oscillation (in seconds, s)
5. Speed (v)
Term Description
1. Wavelength (?) d. The distance between two successive crests (in metres, m)
2. Amplitude (A) a. The maximum displacement from the equilibrium position (in metres, m)
3. Frequency (f) e. The number of waves completed in one second (in Hertz, Hz)
4. Periodic Time (T) c. The time required for the wave to complete one oscillation (in seconds, s)
5. Speed (v) b. The distance moved by a wave crest per second (in metres per second, ms-1)
10
The Wave Equation In a time of one full period (t
T), a point in a wave will move forward through
one a distance of one whole wavelength (d
?). so substituting gives This is called
the wave equation
Speed Distance Time
Wave speed Wavelength Time period
v ? T
but T 1 f
v f ?
11
• Electromagnetic Waves
• The visible spectrum of light (Roy G Biv) is just
a small part of a larger group of electromagnetic
waves known as the electromagnetic spectrum.
• exists as variations in electrical and magnetic
fields
• travels at 3 x 108 ms-1 (300 000 000 ms-1)
• can travel through a vacuum
• carries energy
• has wave behaviour (obeying v f?)

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