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U. N. BEHERA Joint Secretary Department of
Biotechnology Ministry of Science
Technology Government of India Bangkok January
24, 2006
Biotechnology - a definition
  • The application
  • of
  • science technology to living organisms
  • as well as
  • parts, products and models thereof,
  • to alter living or non-living materials
  • for
  • the production of knowledge, goods and services

An indicative list of Biotechnologies
  • DNA (the coding) genomics, pharmaco-genetics,
    gene probes, DNA sequencing/synthesis/amplificatio
    n, genetic engineering.
  • Proteins and molecules (the functional blocks)
    protein/peptide sequencing/synthesis,
    lipid/protein glyco-engineering, proteomics,
    hormones, and growth factors, cell receptors/
    signalling/ pheromones.
  • Cell and tissue culture and engineering
    cell/tissue culture, tissue engineering,
    hybridisation, cellular fusion, vaccine/ immune
    stimulants, embryo manipulation.
  • Process biotechnologies Bioreactors,
    fermentation, bioprocessing, bioleaching,
    bio-pulping, bio-bleaching, biodesulphurization,
    bioremediation, and biofiltration.
  • Sub-cellular organisms gene therapy, viral
  • Bioengineering biomaterials, biosensors,
    biomedical devices and bioinstrumentaion.
  • Biofertilisers and biopesticides.

Amazing Biotechnology
  • more than 300 biotech drug products and vaccines
    currently in clinical trials targeting more than
    200 diseases, including various cancers,
    Alzheimers disease, heart disease, diabetes,
    multiple sclerosis, AIDS and arthritis
  • responsible for hundreds of medical diagnostic
    tests that keep the blood supply safe from the
    AIDS virus and detect other conditions early
    enough to be successfully treated e.g. home
    pregnancy test
  • biotechnology foods such as papaya, soybeans and
    corn quite popular
  • Biopesticides and other agricultural products
    also are being used to improve our food supply
    and to reduce our dependence on conventional
    chemical pesticides
  • clean up hazardous waste more efficiently by
    harnessing pollution-eating microbes without the
    use of caustic chemicals
  • cleaner processes that produce less waste and use
    less energy and water in such industrial sectors
    as chemicals, pulp and paper, textiles, food,
    energy, and metals and minerals
  • DNA fingerprinting, a biotech process, has
    dramatically improved criminal investigation and
    forensic medicine, as well as afforded
    significant advances in anthropology and wildlife
  • Global business US 64 in 2004

Biotechnology in India
  • Initiative in early 1980s
  • Agencies - DST, CSIR, ICAR, ICMR, UGC
  • National Biotechnology Development Board 1982
  • Department of Biotechnology 1986
  • Strategy
  • Creation of Infrastructure
  • Human Resources Development
  • Promotion of R D
  • Technology Transfer
  • Promotion of Industry
  • Public Private Partnership
  • Regulation
  • International Co-operation

Institutions Manpower
  • Number of hospitals 16,000
  • Number of doctors 500,000
  • Number of research institutions 200
  • Number of Scientists 25,000
  • Medical graduates produced 17,500 per yr
  • Science graduates produced 500,000 per yr
  • Number of Agriculture Univs. 40

HRD Programmes
  • Post Graduate Teaching Programmes Ph D Programme
  • Post Doctoral Fellowship
  • Short Term Training Programes
  • Industrial Training
  • Seminar, Symposium, Conference
  • Awards and Scholarships
  • Travel Support

Post Graduate Teaching
  • General Biotechnology 43
  • Agricultural Biotechnology 10
  • Animal Biotechnology 3
  • Medical Biotechnology 3
  • Marine Biotechnology 2
  • Neurosciences 3
  • Industrial Biotechnology 1
  • Biochemical Engineering 7
  • Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 1
  • Genetic Engg. Bioprocess Dev. 1
  • Molecular Bioprocess Tech. 1
  • Clinical Biochem. Biotech. 1
  • IPR 1
  • TOTAL 77

  • 65 Centres under the Bioinformatics Information
    System Network (BTISnet)
  • 12 Nodes on the Virtual Private Network (VPN)
  • 77 Universities and Institutions where post
    graduate teaching in biotechnology is supported
    by DBT

Bioinformatics Network
  • Year of Start 1986
  • Total No. of Distributed Bioinformatics Centers-
    65 with each one is having focus on a specific
    area of biotechnology
  • One year Advanced diploma course on
    Bioinformatics - 5
  • Interactive Graphics facility 6
  • Mirror Sites 5
  • Super Computing facility - 1
  • BIOGRID INDIA 12 Nodes

  • DBT has established 63 major infrastructure
  • - 20 in plant Sciences
  • - 11 in medical sciences
  • - 32 useful for both areas and others
  • 6 Culture collections-
  • - Blue green algae
  • - Marine cyanobacteria
  • - Agriculturally useful organisms
  • - Industrial microbes
  • - Filaria
  • - Tuberculii
  • 2 Animal House Facilities

Other Major Facilities
  • 17 Genetic counseling centers established
    benefiting 18000 families and 4500 tribal
  • 2 Microarray Facilities
  • 5 Automatic DNA sequencing Facilities
  • 6 genomic /proteomic facilities
  • 10 facilities for drug and molecular design
  • 8 Gene Banks for crops, medicinal and aromatic
  • 3 High/medium throughput facilities for screening
  • 1 fMRI Facility
  • 5 Centers of Plant Molecular Biology
  • 4 Centers for Genetic Engineering

Research Development 1986 - 2005
  • More than 2500 RD projects launched in 20
    identified areas.
  • National Bioresource Development Board set up for
    bioprospecting and bioresource utilization.
  • Establishment of gene banks for conservation and
    inventorisation of bioresource.
  • Rice genome sequencing as a member of
    International Initiative - sequencing of part
    of chromosome 11 completed.
  • Participating in International Consortium on Silk
    Worm Genomics and Tomato Genome Sequencing.
  • Complete sequencing of Indian isolate of
    hepatitis C done.

Number of health-biotechnology papers published
by developing countries
Source The Economist Dec 11, 2004 Institute
for Scientific Information Science Matrix
Number of health-biotechnology patents (Major
developing countries) issued by US in 2003
Source The Economist Dec 11, 2004 Institute
for Scientific Information United States Patent
and Trademark Office
Agriculture Biotechnology - Crops
  • Focus
  • - Improved Productivity
  • - Drought, Salinity Tolerance
  • - Reduced Yield due to Pests/Diseases
  • - Nutritional Enhancement
  • Crops
  • - Rice, Wheat, Cotton, Mustard , Chickpea,
    Potato Pigeonpea, Mungbean, Sugarcane
  • Strategy
  • - Transgenics Marker based Molecular
  • - Cloning and Characterization of New Genes and

  • Wheat Rust Durable resistance to leaf and stripe
    rusts using molecular marker technology in bread
    wheat (DWR,DWR-RS, PAU, ARI NCL)
  • Rice Salinity and dehydration stress tolerance
    Cloning of responsive genes, their promoters and
    development of transgenics (ICGEB, UDSC, IARI,
    BI, UOH)
  • Sugarcane 12,956 ESTs generated and deposited
    in genbank. 9000 genomic clones and several
    thousand cDNA clones developed from high sugar
    and red-rot resistant lines
  • Crop Improvement for Better Nutrition in rice,
    sweet potato and cassava using AmA1 Gene
  • Use of molecular marker technology approach in
    wheat quality breeding

Transgenic Research in India
  • Target Crops/ Vegetables
  • Cotton, Corn, Mustard, Rice, Soybean, Potato,
    Tobacco, Coffee, Tomato, Brinjal, Cauliflower,
    Pea, Cabbage, Banana, Muskmelon, Pigeonpea,
    Chickpea, Bell-pepper, Blackgram, Chilli,
    Watermelon etc.
  • Transgenes Employed
  • Bt. toxin genes, Herbicide tolerant genes (CP4
    EPSPS, Bar gene), Xa21, ctx-B and tcp of
    V.cholera, Chitinase, Glucanase, ACC synthase,
    RIP, Protease Inhibitor, Lectin, Ama-1, OXDC
    gene, Rabies glycoprotein gene, Bar, Barnase,
    Barstar, GNA gene, Vip-3 gene, Bacterial Blight
    Resistance gene, Osmotin etc.

Transgenic Crops under Trial
  • Under green house trial 19
  • Under limited field trial 3
  • (Rice, Mungbean, Mustard)
  • Large scale field trial 1
  • (Cotton)
  • Released for commercial production 1
  • (Cotton)

Plant Biotechnology
  • Areas Forestry, Horticulture Plantation Crops
  • Status
  • 57 regeneration systems documented
  • Protocols standardized for 20 plant species, 10
    technologies transferred to industry
    Eucalyptus, Bamboo, Teak, Sugarcane, Potato,
    Black pepper, Coffee, Citrus
  • Ongoing RD - Transgenics
  • Tomato, Grapes, Banana - shelf life
  • Chilli, Pepper, Ginger, Cardamom Disease
  • Populus, leucaena - reduced lignin
  • Germplasm characterization Teak, Eucalyptus,
  • International Solanaceae Genome initiative
  • India to sequence chromosome 5 of tomato
  • Functional genomics of tomato nutritional
    quality, shelf life, disease resistance
  • Production and demonstration of quality planting
    material of Bamboo

Tomato Genome Sequencing
Animal Biotechnology
  • Diagnostics for Peste-des-Petitis Ruminants (PPR)
    detection commercialized
  • Reconstituted Bovine collagen for wound and burn
    healing commercialized
  • Multicentric programme on buffalo genomics
    launched Characterisation of traits of economic
  • Multicentric programme on bovine tuberculosis
  • Programme on animal nutrition

Aquaculture Marine
  • Bacterial immunostimulant for shrimp health
    management developed
  • Bioreactor system developed for water quality
    management in prawn hatchery
  • New source of insulin from carp adipose tissue
  • Quality agar extracted from seaweed (Gelidiella
  • Efficacy of DNA-based vaccine for Aeromonas
    infection in carps under evaluation
  • Shrimp Genomics launched Comparative and
    functional genomics
  • Diagnostics and vaccines transferred to industry
  • Immunodiagnostic kit for detection of bacterial
    pathogens in finfish and shellfish
  • Combi kit for simultaneous detection of White
    Spot Shrimp Virus and Monodon Baculo Virus
  • Heat killed whole cell vibrio vaccine, shows
    immune response in shrimp
  • Immunodot detection kit for white spot shrimp
  • Technology ready for transfer
  • Bioreactor technology in shrimp hatcheries
    through bacterial conservation for denitrification

  • Improved quality and productivity in silk
  • Silkworm genome sequencing
  • Over 400 molecular markers generated
  • India participating in International Consortium
    on Lepidopteran Genomics More than 10,000 ESTs
    of muga silkworm and mori silkworm characterized
  • Three high yielding hybrids of silkworm released
    to farmers
  • Network projects initiated for use of molecular
    markers in breeding of disease-resistant silkworm
    and pest- and disease-resistant mulberry
  • Molecular characteriztion of non-mulberry
    silkworm (Tasar, muga, eri)
  • Spider silk
  • Biophysical properties of spider silk proteins
    produced by Indian species
  • Sourcing of spider silk genes and expression in
    Bombyx mori
  • Prospecting of Indian spiders venom for
    therapeutic purposes
  • Application of nanobiotechnology to spider silk

Medicinal Aromatic Plants
  • Four national gene banks established - about 3500
  • Two specialized germplasm banks set up for plants
    used in Indian System of Medicines
  • Production of high value therapeutic compounds in
    cell culture (Podophyllotoxin, guggulsterones
    ZE, camptothecin and azadirachtin)
  • Isolation and characterization of new
    thereapeutic leads (for anticancer, antiamoebic,
    antidiabetic, bioenhancers, immunomodulatory).
  • Clinical trial of standardized herbal
    preparations - Terminalia arjuna left
    ventricular dysfunction
  • Five technologies transferred to industry
    several other leads under discussion with
  • Herbals for veterinary health care - priorities
  • Functional genomics of selected medicinal and
    aromatic plants
  • Plants as bioreactor for production of
    biomolecules (antigens for cholera, rabies),
    antibodies for therapeutics and industrial enzymes

  • 23,000 ha demonstrated for use of biofertilizers
    50,000 farmers benefited
  • 10 packages for Integrated Nutrient Management
    developed for specific cropping system of varied
    agroclimatic zones
  • A network project on development of efficient
    strains of biofertilisers launched at 11 centres
  • Liquid biofertilizer technology
  • being developed

  • Technology Development and Demonstration
  • 24 Integrated Pest Management technology packages
    developed 7 transferred to industry
  • Over 150,000 ha covered in different agroclimatic
    zones 65,000 farmers benefited
  • Insect sex pheromones successfully synthesized
    and field-tested for the mass trapping of brinjal
    shoot and fruit borer
  • More than 615 plant extracts prospected as source
    of pesticides 11 promising leads short listed
    for further investigation
  • Product Development
  • Bioprahar biopesticide (for cabbage and
    cauliflower) developed by ICGEB, launched
    commercially (2004)

  • Bioprospecting of genes / molecules
  • 96 stress related genes identified, characterized
    and cloned, salt resistance gene transferred to
    rice and mung bean, field trials of transgenic
    rice being conducted
  • Product development
  • Microbial biofertilizers for coastal region
  • Biopesticide for bollworm (Helicoverpa)
  • SOD antioxidant skin cream
  • Over 4000 plant species from Western Himalayas
    and Western ghats screened for natural dyes nine
    short listed as potential sources
  • Network project on lac biotechnology initiated
  • Chemical and genetic profiling, conservation
  • 6 endangered medicinal plant species

Microbial Diversity
  • Arid Zones 48 Saline tolerant algal species,
    screened for pigment production, soil
    conditioning and nitrogen fixation
  • Cold Habitats gt 100 bacterial species isolated
    from soil and water samples from Antarctica
  • Hot Springs and sulfur springs gt 150
    Actinomycetes species isolated, potential
    rifamycin producer identified
  • Hydrocarbon contaminated Sites 12 oil
    refineries screened, gt 350 bacteria species
    isolated, thermophilic Bacterial consortium
    developed for enhancing Oil recovery from Oil
  • Marine Sources gt 500 Bacterial isolates screened
    for secondary metabolites, benzoate and phenol
    degraders identified
  • Forest Belts Virgin ecosystems, novel
    entomopathogenic and keratinolytic fungi Isolated
    and identified
  • Enhancement of Oil Recovery from dead Oil wells -
    Bacterial Consortium developed which on being
    injected in sick oil wells under high pressure
    leads to oil recovery, tested in 25 Oil Wells of
    ONGC, helped in extraction of 4500 cubic meters
    of oil worth US675000

Environment Biotechnology
  • Conservation of endangered animals especially
    big cats through embryo transfer technology and
    tissue banking
  • Use of lichens as indicators of environmental
  • Bioremediation of degraded ecosystems
  • Green technologies to treat industrial effluents
    (paper pulp, dyes, distilleries, tanneries etc)
  • Bioscrubber for removal of obnoxious industrial
  • 14 technology packages developed 5 under use by
  • Programme on microbial approaches to combat
    global warming

Medical Biotechnology
  • Vaccines
  • Diagnostics
  • Therapeutics
  • Stem Cell Technology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Nanomedicines
  • Clinical Trials and Clinical Research

  • Rabies DNA vaccine, phase III animal trials
  • Cholera Recombinant oral vaccine, Phase II
  • Malaria Phase I clinical trials initiated.
  • Rotavirus Phase I clinical trials underway
  • JEV Vaccine technology transferred to
  • HIV/AIDS DNA candidate for subtype C
  • Anthrax Phase III clinical trials initiated.
  • Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
  • (cattle)

  • Under Development Negotiations
  • for Transfer
  • DAT Toxoplasmosis
  • Haemagglutination Assay Leishmaniasis
  • IFA Rabies
  • Species Specific Tests Snake Bites
  • PCR Assay Tuberculosis
  • Multiplex PCR STD
  • PCR Leptospirosis
  • In-vitro Assay Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
  • Immunochromatogrpahy/ Tuberculosis
  • / ELISA Assay
  • PCR Assay Typhoid
  • Transferred to the Industries Launched in the
  • Western Blot for HIV-I II HIV/AIDS
  • Naked Eye Agglutination HIV/AIDS
  • System (NEVA)
  • ELISA Hepatitis C
  • ELISA Leishmaniasis
  • ELISA Alpha-feto Protein
  • (Pregnant Women)
  • Transferred, yet to be launched
  • IgM Mac ELISA Dengue
  • Japanese Encephalitis
  • West Nile
  • IgM ELISA Hepatitis A
  • Urine Based ELISA Reproductive

Diagnostics New initiatives
  • Future Plan
  • New Innovative Technologies, easy to perform
    rapid, affordable including those that detect
    Multiple Diseases through Syndrome Approach
    useful for Medical Practices and Public Health
  • New platforms
  • Optical Thin Film Biosensors
  • Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) for
    Disease Diagnosis
  • Quantum Dots
  • Single diagnostics
  • Tuberculosis, malaria, TORCH, Viral load in HIV,
    Neonatal sepsis, Thyroid function, STD, Typhoid,
    Mycosis, Cardiac screen, diabetic screen
  • Syndromic Detection
  • Malaria, Typhoid, Dengue and Tuberculosis
  • HIV/HCV, HBV, Malaria and Syphilis infections in
    blood for transfusion
  • Indigenous production of control panels, sera.

Stem Cell Research
  • To establish stem cell banking facility in the
  • To develop well characterized stem cell lines.
  • Potential use of embryonic stem cell lines to
    generate various organs.
  • Regeneration of tissues for stem cells obtained
    from aborted foetus
  • Basic understanding of the signaling mechanisms
    and differentiation of stem cells.

  • Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells
  • Biomaterials for Therapeutics
  • Biomedical Devices
  • Biomedical Instrumentation
  • Biosensors

  • Nano-particles for diagnostic/therapeutic use
  • Biosynthesis of Nano-particles
  • Biological templates for nano-particle assembly
  • Bio-nano composites
  • Imaging/sensing of Nano-particles/bio-molecules

Technology transfer Products in Market resulting
in import substitution and value addition
  • HIV diagnostic kits-Western Blot and ELISA test ,
  • Liposome mediated Amphotericin B drug delivery
  • Leprosy vaccine (1st of its kind in the world),
  • 14 diagnostic kits for detection of Pregnancy and
    contraceptive problems,
  • 12 Packages for bio-remediation of petroleum oil
  • 6 bio-fertilizers,
  • 5 bio-pesticides formulations
  • 6 Plant Tissue Culture protocols

Biotech Products in Indian market
  • r DNA Hep B vaccine
  • Recombinant streptokinase
  • Erythropoietin
  • a, ß, ? interferon
  • Haemophilus influenzae B vaccine
  • Human insulin
  • Human Growth Hormone
  • Human Interleukin
  • Streptokinase
  • Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator

Biosafety Regulations
  • Recombinant DNA Safety Guidelines (1990)
  • Revised Guidelines for Safety in Biotechnology
    -toxicity and allergenicity evaluation (1994)
  • Revised Guidelines for Research in Transgenic
    Plants Guidelines for Preclinical and clinical
    data for r-DNA based vaccines, diagnostics and
    other biologicals (1998)
  • Ethical policy on Human Genome and Genetic
    research and services (2000)
  • Regulations being simplified in an ongoing
    dynamic process.

Other initiatives
  • Establishment of patent facilitation cell to
    promote national and international patents of
    indigenous innovations
  • 112 patents filled - 7 international patents and
    7 national patents granted.
  • Revision of biosafety guidelines for transgenic
  • Guidelines for clinical trials of recombinant DNA
    vaccines formulated and published.
  • Single window application processing mechanism
    for recombinant products setup.
  • Accession to Budapest Treaty on microorganisms
    and establishment of International Depository
  • National bioethics committee setup Ethical
    policies on human genome, genetic research and
    services published.

Indian Biotechnology Industry
  • Number of biotech companies 300
  • Global ranking in terms biotech companies 11
  • Investment growth in last 5 years 50 per
  • Annual Turnover (Apr 04 Mar 05) US 1.07
  • Annual increase 37
  • Percentage of global business (2004-05) 1.6
  • (2003-04) 1.5
  • (2002-03) 1.2
  • Exports 43
  • Major areas Biopharma, Bioservices,
  • Bioagriculture, bioinformatics, Biosupplies

(No Transcript)
Indian Biotech Industry 2004-05
Sectoral Growth 2004-05
Indian Biotech Industry
Indian Biotech Exports
Indian Biotech Domestic Market
Indian Biotech Grows
Areas of oppurtunity in India
  • Vaccines, dignostics and therapeutics
  • Biomedical devices, instruments and sensors
  • Bioartificial organs using tissue engineering and
    stem cells
  • Clinical trial and contract research
  • Agriculuture disease and pest resistant,
    drought and salinity tolerant seeds and plants
  • Biofertilisers and Biopesticides
  • Bioinformatics

International Collaboration
  • Europe U.K., Germany, Switzerland, Sweden,
    Norway, Poland, France, Russia, Belarus,
  • North America USA
  • South America Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela,
  • Asia
  • Multilateral ASEAN, SAARC, BINASIA,
    Asian Cooperation dialogue (ACD)
  • Bilateral Myanmar, Vietnam, Malaysia,
    Thailand, Singapore, Mangolia, China, Japan,
    Sri Lanka,
  • South Korea, Syria, Israel, Iran
  • Africa Sudan, Egypt, Tunisia, Mauritius
  • Australia Australia

DBT-TWAS Biotechnology Fellowships for students
Of Third World Countries for ftudy In Indian
  • Ph.D. Fellowships for 3 years 25 Fellowships
    each year
  • Post Doctoral Fellowships for one year 25
    Fellowships each year
  • Fellowship provides
  • Air fare
  • Monthly stipend
  • House Rent Allowance
  • Medical Allowance
  • Contingency grant
  • Application to be sent to TWAS, Trieste by 31st
    August each year
  • Forms available on DBT and TWAS web sites
  • http//
    .html http//
    AS_Postgrad.html http//

Some New Initiatives
  • National Biotechnology Development Strategy
  • A Policy Document and 10 year Road Map
  • A Central pool of high caliber Scientists
  • Small Business Innovation Research Initiative
    (SBIRI) A funding mechanism for supporting
    early stage Pre-proof-of-concept research and
    product development in small and medium private

International conference in Bioinformatics InCoB20
  • InCoB2006 at Delhi will be the 5th Annual
    bioinformatics Conference of the Asia and Pacific
    Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet)
  • Earlier events
  • InCoB2002 Bangkok, Thailand
  • InCoB2003 Penang, Malaysia
  • InCoB2004 Auckland, New Zealand
  • InCoB2005 Busan, Korea
  • Venue for InCoB2006 Ashok Hotel, New Delhi,
  • Dates 13-15 November, 2006
  • Participants expected 500 from all over the
  • The next meeting of BINASIA could be held at New
    Delhi immediately preceding the InCoB2006

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