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Introduction to Tourism:

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Title: RELATED ISSUES OF MANAGEMENT Author: xianhua shen Last modified by: User Created Date: 6/27/2006 9:50:53 AM Document presentation format: – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Tourism:


1
Chapter 1
  • Introduction to Tourism
  • Themes, Concepts and
  • Issues

2
Introduction to Tourism Themes, Concepts and
Issues
  • by
  • Pro. Jin Ciping
  • Bachelor of Science in Tourism
    Management
  • (H54050020)
  • Nanchang University
  • School of Economy and Management
  • Department of Tourism Management

3
Learning outcomes
  • Why is tourism an important subject to study?
  • How different definitions of tourism have been
  • developed and frameworks used to study
    tourism?
  • How to measure tourism
  • Why are statistics important?

4
Contents
  • 1.WHY SHOULD WE STUDY TOURISM?
  • 2. ACADEMIC RESEARCH
  • 3.TOURISM IS AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM
  • 4. DEFINING TOURISM
  • 5.TOURISM MEASUREMENT

5
1. WHY SHOULD WE STUDY TOURISM?
  • Leisure society increase in the new
  • millennium
  • Tourism is Global business
  • Tourism is a volatile economic activity

6
Leisure society increase in the new millennium (1)

Activities Causes Regions
Since 1950s Leisure Industralization,Urbanization Developed countries
Up to 1990s New trends Governments good policies Asia, Indian Pennisula
7
Leisure society increase in the new millennium (2)
New millennium Sightseeing Leisure Holiday
Developed countries Little Major Major
China Major High-income Place (BJ,ZJ) Coastal place (Guangdong)
8
Tourism is global business(1)
  • WTO 1997
  • 1991--- 112 m employees in international
  • tourism industry
  • --- 2.5 trillion for the industry at
    1989
  • prices
  • 1996 --- 595 m tourist traveled abroad
  • It continues to generate a growing demand for
    overseas travel

9
Tourism is global business(2)
annual 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Employees in China ( thousand) 2973 3034 3163 3271 3451
Employees in JX(thousand) 64 66 69 71 97
10
Tourism is a volatile economic activity
  • An unsteady business
  • Badly impacted by shock waves

11
Unsteady Business
  • Influenced by reasons
  • Politics changes
  • Economy changes
  • terrorism
  • Natural disasters
  • Diseases

12
Shock Waves(1)
  • Economic changes
  • Asian Finance Crisis (1997)
  • Terrorism
  • 9.11 Incidence (2001,9,11, New York)
  • London bombing (2005,7,7, New)
  • Hotel bombing ( 2005, 7,23,Samsayihe, Egypt)

13
Shock Waves(2)
  • Diseases
  • SARS (2002)
  • Avian Influenza (2003- indirect)
  • Natural disasters
  • Tsunami (2006,5,South Pacific nations)
  • Hurricane (Katalane H,
  • Debris flow

14
Tourist arrivals and markets in Asian
countries, 1996-98

15
Fluctuations in arrivals for select Asian
destinations, 1997-98
16
2. ACADEMIC RESEARCH(Descriptive ways of study)
  • ? Major regions and experts
  • ?Attitudes
  • ? Degrees of tourism study
  • ?Major problems
  • ?Supportive subjects

17
Major regions and experts studying tourism
  • Europe and America
  • Major textbooks from North American, European, or
    Australian perspectives
  • Scholars and experts (OP)

18
Scholars and Experts
North America Lundberg, Mathieson, Wall, Mill, Morrison, Murphy
Europe Foster, Lavery, Cooper
Australia Pearce, Collier, Hall
19
Attitudes Towards Study
Attitudes 1980s Late 1980s
Scholars and analysts Doubtful and conservative Subject contents are simple
Researchers Rigorous study Using many ways
20
Degrees of Tourism Studystaircase of tourism
qualification
  • Certificate (1-2 years)
  • Diploma (1-3 years)
  • Undergraduate degree (BA, 3-4 years )
  • Taught Postgraduate degree (Master, 1-2 years)
  • Postgraduate diploma (1 year full time)
  • Research degree (PHD by thesis or publication, 3
    years )

21
Staircase of Tourism Qualificationin China
  • Technical High School (3years)
  • Technical School(2-3 years)
  • Technical college (2-3 years )
  • Undergraduate diploma (2 years )
  • Research degree (PHD by thesis, 4 years )

22
Major Problems in the Tourism Study
  • Difficultly recognized as a subject (OP)
  • A subject short of concept guide (OP)
  • Meaningful terms (OP)
  • Limited data
  • Rigor of study is problematic
  • World economy and process of social
    transformation is changing

23
Difficultly recognized as a subject
  • Some analysts --- only an industry
  • Others --- a subject or a process
  • No agreeable answers

24
A subject short of concept guide
  • Academic argument, in the study
  • No methods to follow
  • No principles to follow
  • Tourism is a complex subject

25
Meaningful terms
  • Ecotourism, rural tourism, urban tourism,
    sustainable tourism, responsible-type tourism
  • Describe several sides of a problem
  • Complex and difficult to understand

26
Supportive subjects(1)
  • All the subjects help the formation and growth of
    tourism
  • Geography, ecology, agricultural studies, parks
    and recreation
  • Urban and regional planning, marketing, and law

27
Supportive subjects(2)
  • Business and management science, transport
    studies, hotel and restaurant administration,
    education studies, and sociology
  • Economics, psychology, anthropology, and safety
    management and ergonomics

28
3.TOURISM IS AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM
  • System theory
  • Definition of tourism system
  • Tourism system
  • Tourism system methodology stress the
    importance

29
System Theory
  • Laws 1991 one methodology ( Systematic method )
    used by researchers to understand the nature of
    tourism phenomena is a system approach.
  • Gilbert 1990 Since Tourism studies is a
    multidisciplinary area of study, we think a
    systems approach can accommodate (suit) a variety
    of different perspectives.

30
Definition of a system
  • Leiper 1990
  • A system can be defined as a set of elements or
    parts that are connected to each other by at
    least one distinguishing principle.

31
Definition of tourism system(1)
  • Tourism is the distinguishing principle which
    connects the different components in the system
    around a common theme.

32
Definition of tourism system(2)
  • Leiper 1990
  • A tourism system should conclude the following
    elements a tourist, a traveller generating
    region tourism destination regions transit
    routes for tourists travelling between generating
    destination area and the travel and tourism
    industry (e.g. accommodation, transport, the
    firms and organizations supplying services and
    products to tourists).

33
Model of Leipers tourism system
34
Model analysis
  • Transport forms an integral part of the tourism
    system
  • The system is represented in terms of volume of
    travel
  • It is a framework showing the entire tourist
    experience of travelling

35
Flows (directions of applied force)
  • The system shows that we can analyze its inner
    relations through the flows between the inner
    parts. The inner parts of the system interact
    each other, so the interactions show that the
    specific relations between the different
    components

36
Flows
  • What effect does an increase in the cost of
    travel have on the demand for travel?
  • How does this have repercussions ( rebound,
    reaction ) for other components in the system?
  • Will it reduce the number of tourists travelling?

37
Value of analyzing the system
  • Make people know the whole process of tourism
    from the ways of seller and buyers
  • Recognize some related organizations which
    control the tourist activities.

38
4. DEFINING TOURISM
  • Purpose of defining tourism
  • Definitions
  • Conceptual and technical definition
  • Chadwicks classification of travelers

39
Purpose of defining tourism
  • Learning how to define tourism can help people
    make

  • Exploitation
  • Statistics
  • Management
  • Research
  • Business

40
International tourist (WTO 1991)
  • A visitor who travels to a country other
  • than that in which he/she has his/her usual
  • residence for at least one night hut not
  • more than one year, and whose main
  • purpose of visit is other than the exercise
  • of an activity remunerated from within the
  • country visited.

41
International excursionist (WTO 1991)
  • A visitor residing in a country who travels
    the same day to a country other than this in
    winch he/she has his her usual environment for
    less than 24 hours without spending the night in
    the country visited and whose maim purpose of
    visit is other than the exercise of all activity
    remunerated from within the country visited.

42
Domestic tourist (WTO 1983)
  • any person, regardless of nationality, resident
    in a country and who travels to a place in the
    same country for not more than one and whose main
    purpose of visit is other than following an
    occupation remunerated from within the place
    visited.
  • Some governments include a mileage in this
    definition
  • In Canada, 50 miles
  • In America, 100 miles
  • WTO , less than 6 months

43
Two types of definitions
  • Two types conceptual and technical
  • Burkart and Medlik 1981
  • concept---- broad notional framework, which
    identified essential characteristics etc.
  • technical--- measurements

44
Contents of conceptual definition
  • Movement of people to various destinations, away
  • from the usual residence
  • Journey and stay including activities
  • Temporary, short-term character, not over one
  • consecutive year
  • Not give rise to employment remunerated from
  • within the places visited.

45
Contents of technical definition
  • Purpose of travel---type of traveler
  • The time dimension involved in the tourism
    visit---
  • shortest or longest hours, 24 -- within one
    year
  • Those situations where tourists may or may not be
  • included as tourists---cruise ship
    passengers, those
  • tourists in-transit at a particular
    point
  • embarkation/departure

46
Chadwicks contribution to tourism
  • Chadwick (1994) moved the definition of tourists
    a stage further by offering a typology of
    travelers which highlights the distinction
    between tourists (travelers) and non-tourists
    (non-travelers)
  • He classifies travelers based on the technical way

47
Chadwicks classification of travelers
48
Questions
  • How many types of travelers does Chadwick
    classify?
  • What does this classification tell us? (OP)

49
What does the classification tell us?
  • He used the technical way to make clear which
    groups of the society have the motivations to
    travel and can be included in tourism and which
    groups cant be.
  • From the classification of travelers, we can see
    clearly the domestic tourism and international
    tourism. Domestic tourism normally refers to
    tourist travel from one place to another within a
    country, while international tourism refers to
    tourist leaving his or her country of origin to
    another country.

50
5.TOURISM MEASUREMENT
  • Importance of tourist measurement
  • Function of tourist measurement
  • Four principal reasons for statistical
  • measurement in tourism
  • Advantages of tourism statistics
  • Weakness of tourism statistics
  • Statistics and data collection and data
    source

51
Importance of measurement
  • Ritchite(1975,cited in Latham1989)
  • An important part of the maturing process for
    any science is the development or adaptation of
    consistent and well-tested measurement techniques
    and methodology which are well-suited to the type
    of problems encountered in practice.

52
Function of tourism measurement(1)
  • Statistics is a necessary feature to provide
    data to enable researchers, managers, planners,
    decision-makers and public and private sector
    bodies to gauge ( examine and evaluate) the
    significance and impact of tourism on the
    destination areas.

53
Function of tourism measurement(2)
  • At present, tourism, as a research field, has
    a very important position when it measures the
    tourists in different environments, tourist
    activities and their impacts on social and
    economic production. ( modern method of
    measurement )

54
Four principal reasons for statistical
measurement in tourism(1)
  • Berkalter and Meideliker1981
  • to evaluate the magnitude and significance of
    tourism to a destination area or region
  • to quantify the contribution to the economy or
    society, especially the effect on the balance of
    payments

55
Four principal reasons for statistical
measurement in tourism(2)
  • to assist in the planning and development of
    tourism infrastructure and the effect of
    different volumes of tourists with specific needs
  • to assist in the evaluation and implementation of
    marketing and promotion activities where the
    tourism marketer requires information on the
    actual and potential markets and their
    characteristics.

56
Advantages of tourism statistics
  • To calculate the contribution of tourism to the
  • countrys economy
  • To assist in the marketing and promotion of
    tourism
  • To help the regional development policies of
  • governments
  • To achieve social objects

57
Weakness of tourism statistics
  • Tourist data are not comprehensive and
    authoritative information cant deal with
    questions from researchers
  • Not all the data are the latest
  • Most tourist data come from the results of
    sampling investigation always inaccurate or
    sometimes wrong

58
Governments methods of measuring tourism
Year Method Content
1937-1980 Took a simple measurement way Measure tourists in the concept of tourists,
Since 1985 Taking a more extensive statistical way 1. Measure above 2.Measure impact of tourist activities on economy and society, etc.
59
Collection of international tourist statistics
  • Count all individuals entering and leaving
    arrival or departure cards
  • Interviews a sample of arriving or departing
    passengers
  • Questionnaire a sample of arriving or departing
    passengers
  • Accommodation arrivals and nights spent

60
Tourism data collection(1)
  • From
  • The WTO
  • Mintel
  • The Economist Intelligence Unit
  • Eurostat

61
Tourism data collection(2)
  • Government dept.
  • Statistics Yearbook
  • Tourist Statistics Yearbook
  • Tourist Bureau
  • The Customs
  • Business dept.
  • Hotels
  • Travel agencies

62
Data source(1)
  • Public agencies and private departments depend on
    reliable tourist statistics data to make policies
    or business decision.
  • Many countries focus on collecting and analyzing
    tourism data (Lathan 1998).
  • Tourism data often lack consistency and coherence
    ( Hannigan 1994).

63
Data source(2)
  • Data is valuable in many fields
  • Tourist planning and exploitation
  • Impact evaluation
  • Guideline of market sales and research

64
World tourist statistics questions
  • 1.What changes have occurred in the period
    199798 in visitor arrivals by WTO region?
  • Which WTO regions have reported average annual
    growth rates in excess of 6 per cent between 1989
    and 1998?
  • Which regions of the world dominate the world
    hotel capacity statistics?
  • 4. What were the worlds top five tourism
    destinations in 1990, 1995 and 1998?
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