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South Africa


South Africa South Africa San were original people; were hunter-gatherers. No collective name for themselves. San = Sanqua. A name given to hunters by the Khoekhoen ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: South Africa

South Africa
South Africa
  • San were original people were hunter-gatherers.
  • No collective name for themselves.
  • San Sanqua. A name given to hunters by the
    Khoekhoen herders of the Cape.
  • Means 'people different from ourselves' and was
    associated with those without livestock, or
    people who stole livestock.
  • Name 'Bushman' given to low status people by
    Dutch settlers in the 1600's
  • Referred to those who collected their food off
    the land and had no domestic animals.

South Africa
  • Khoekhoen Khoikhoi. A general name which
    herding people of the Cape used for themselves.
  • Word means 'the real people' or 'we people with
    domestic animals' as opposed to Sanqua or Bushmen
    who had none.
  • Inhabited coast of Cape of Good Hope first
    native people to come into contact with the Dutch
  • As the Dutch took over land for farms, the
    Khoikhoi (often called Hottentots) were
    dispossessed, exterminated, or enslaved, and
    their numbers dwindled.

South Africa
  • Khoesaan Khoisan is a general term which
    linguists use for the click language of southern
  • Physical anthropologists use it as a biological
    term to distinguish aboriginal people of southern
    Africa from their black African farming
  • In language and physical type Khoikhoi appear to
    be related to San.
  • Languages include numerous clicks and they are
    generally much lighter in complexion than the
    neighboring Bantu.

South Africa
  • During the 1st millennium AD, Bantu speaking
    agriculturalists arrived.
  • Were the ancestors of today's main South African
    Bantu language groups Nguni (Xhosa, Zulu,
    Ndebele) and Sotho (Tswana). Tsonga and Venda are
    smaller groups.

South Africa
  • Their arrival pushed the Khoi-San hunters and
    herders into marginal areas.
  • By 1500 AD, Nguni speaking peoples occupied most
    of the eastern coast.

South Africa
  • In 1652 Jan van Riebeeck of the Dutch East India
    Company arrived at the Cape of Good Hope.
  • Base station was established at Cape Town to
    supply the companys ships with foodstuffs on the
    long journey to Asia.

South Africa
  • In the 18th century Dutch settlers, who called
    themselves Boers, began expanding toward the
    north and east.
  • Believed they were predestined by God to claim
    this land.
  • Gradually began pushing onto the interior.

South Africa
  • British gained possession of Cape Colony in 1815
    abolished slavery in 1833.
  • Boers felt British policy destroyed their
    traditional social order, based on racial
  • Also believed it would undermine white
    predominance, which they saw as God's own will.
  • British intrusion precipitated the Great Trek.
  • Starting in 1835 10,000 Boers (voortrekkers)
    moved northeast into interior and ultimately
    established Orange Free State and Transvaal.

South Africa
  • At time of white settlement of the Cape, Xhosa
    groups were living far inland.
  • Since around 1770, they had been confronted with
    the Trek Boers or Voortrekkers who approached
    from the west.
  • Both Boers and Xhosa were stock-farmers. The
    competition for grazing land led first to
    quarrels between the two groups, and eventually
    it came to a number of wars.
  • In the middle of the 19th century, all land
    formerly inhabited by Xhosa was in the hands of
    white settlers.

South Africa
  • Towards the end of 18th century, all over
    southern Africa small tribal groups were
    amalgamating into larger communities.
  • Not a peaceful process, but result of protracted
  • Rise of Zulu Kingdom falls into this period.
  • Through incredible atrocities and cruelties Zulu
    warrior Shaka gained control over a number of
    Zulu clans.
  • Expanded his territory systematically as his
    warriors raided Zulu villages and burnt them
    down. Women and children gored to death young
    men called up and chiefs tortured and forced into

South Africa
  • Voortrekkers failed to negotiate with Zulus
    secession of land for settling and grazing.
  • They had endured a number of catastrophic
  • Assembled at the Ncome River for a decisive
    battle on December 16, 1838.
  • 464 Boers under command of Andries Pretorius
    defeated 10,000 Zulu warriors.
  • Became known as the Battle of Blood River.

South Africa
  • Boers did not ascribe military victory to
    technically superior armaments interpreted it
    instead as a sign from God.
  • Before battle, they prayed and made a vow that if
    God would grant them victory over Zulus, they
    would commemorate the event annually.
  • Afterward they believed even more strongly that
    white predominance over blacks is God's own will.

Voortrekker Monument, outside Pretoria
South Africa
  • Port Natal (later re-named Durban) was a frequent
    port-of-call for sailors and merchants and in
    1823 a settlement started to develop.
  • Zulus regarded Natal as their territory
    tolerated white settlers, because port was useful
    as a trading post.
  • When Voortrekkers came to Natal in 1836 fierce
    battles with Zulus occurred.
  • Short-lived peace after Zulu defeat at Battle of
    Blood River in 1838.
  • Soon British and Voortrekkers battled for Natal.
  • Ultimately, the British prevailed and in 1844,
    Natal became a Crown Colony the Voortrekkers

South Africa
  • In 1879, the British laid claims on the whole of
    Zululand and gave the Zulu King an ultimatum.
  • In resulting Anglo-Zulu War, British initially
    suffered a high number of casualties 2000
    British soldiers died in one at battle when
    20,000 Zulu soldiers overran the British army
  • Zulu victory initially shocked the British
    however, England decided to send more troops and
    Anglo-Zulu War continued with heavy loss of
  • Finally ended in victory for the British in 1887.
  • KwaZulu was annexed by Natal Colony.

South Africa
  • After Voortrekkers were defeated by British in
    Natal in 1842, the Great Trek moved further
  • First, formed the independent Transvaal to north
    this later become the South African Republic.
  • In 1854, the Orange Free State was created.
  • British favored amalgamating their own colonies
    and Boer Republics into one union, with the
    primary purpose of gaining possession of the
    Transvaal gold mines.

South Africa
  • Orange Free State formed an alliance with the
    South African Republic (Transvaal).
  • On February 11, 1899 a war broke out between two
    Boer Republics and two British colonies of Cape
    and Natal.
  • Began bloody Anglo-Boer War lasted 3 years.

South Africa
  • 52,000 Boer soldiers fighting against 450,000 men
    under British command.
  • Boers achieved some successes, but tables turned.
  • On the May 24, 1900 Orange Free State was
    declared British territory.
  • Johannesburg and Pretoria fell on September 1,
  • Transvaal annexed as British colony.
  • Boers started a guerrilla war British responded
    with severely.

South Africa
  • Boer commandos were hunted systematically fields
    devastated and harvests destroyed.
  • Women and children left destitute and homeless
    kept under horrific conditions in concentration
  • More than 27,000 women and children died from
    famine, exhaustion and disease.
  • Eventually Boers realized further resistance
    would be futile.
  • On May 31, 1902, both Boer Republics became
    British Crown Colonies.

South Africa
  • In 1910 formation of Union of South Africa
    occurred by joining of the former British
    colonies of the Cape and Natal, and the Boer
    republics of Transvaal, and Orange Free State.
  • Brought independence self-government, but for
    whites only.
  • In 1912 the Native National Congress founded was
    later renamed the African Nation Congress.

South Africa
  • Policy of racial separation introduced in 1910
    through laws that further curtailed the rights of
    the black majority.
  • "Mines and Works Act" of 1911 limited black
    workers exclusively to menial work guaranteed
    availability of cheap labour and secured better
    positions for white workers.
  • "Native Land Act" of 1913 set aside 7.3 per cent
    of South African territory as reservations for
    black people and barred them from buying land
    outside these areas.

South Africa
  • Deprived of right to vote or to strike, the black
    population had no means of political influence.
  • The African National Congress, and other
    resistance and liberation movements formed
    initially badly organized and minimally
  • White governments pursued their politics
    virtually without obstruction.
  • After World War II conflicts intensified and
    black workers went on a number of strikes.
  • Whites became nervous and helped right-wing
    National Party to an overwhelming victory in
    elections of 1948.

South Africa
  • National Party coined the concept of "apartheid"
    or apartness.
  • From then on, official policy called for
    separation of races in all public institutions
    and offices, in public transport and on public
    toilets, racial segregation was introduced.
  • Marriage or any relationships between members of
    different racial groups were forbidden.

South Africa
  • 1950 Group Areas Act segregated blacks whites.
  • Created semi-autonomous homelands or
    bantustans Transkei, Ciskei, Venda,
    Bophuthatswana, KwaZulu.
  • 70 of population placed on 13 of land.
  • Government shed responsibility for problems in
  • White government could call its elections free
    and general, because majority of blacks were no
    longer citizens of South Africa.

South Africa
  • Men were forced to work in cities or mines women
    stayed in homelands.
  • Identity passes necessary.
  • During 1950s, the ANC policy pursued change
    through non-violence.
  • In township of Sharpville on March 21, 1960 South
    African police opened fire on a Pan Africanist
    Conference protest.
  • 70 demonstrators were killed by police.

Sharpville, 1960
South Africa
  • In 1961 the ANC formed Umkhonto We Sizwe Spear
    of the Nation as its military wing.
  • In 1964 Nelson Mandela and 7 other ANC leaders
    were sentenced to life in prison for sabotage and
  • He soon became the symbol of black resistance
    was illegal to display his picture.

Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu at Robbin Island
South Africa
  • On June 16, 1976 in Soweto, one of the largest
    black townships in South Africa, 15,000 children
    marched in protest of the new educational policy
    that required black students to learn Afrikaans
    alongside English, the official language.
  • Protestors refused to disperse and police fired
    into the crowd, killing 176 and wounding hundreds
    of others.

South Africa
  • Riots spread across Soweto and other cities, and
    were put down through brutal tactics.
  • Riots left more than 600 dead.
  • From 1984-89 a state of emergency was declared
    thousands were detained as violence escalated
    through the 1980s.

13 year old Hector Peterson was first victim of
the Soweto uprising
South Africa
  • During the 1980s the charismatic Anglican bishop,
    Desmond Tutu, rallied western support with a call
    for boycott of South Africa, primarily through
    economic sanctions.
  • In 1984 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in
    recognition of "the courage and heroism shown by
    black South Africans in their use of peaceful
    methods in the struggle against apartheid".

Desmond Tutu
South Africa
  • In 1989 Frederick W. de Klerk took over as
    President from P.W. Botha, who had suffered a
  • Much more liberal than Botha, de Klerk soon
    openly admitted the failure of apartheid
  • Important reason for collapse of old regime was
    effects of many years of economic and trade
  • Sanctions enacted by many nations led to a
    desolate state for the South African economy.

FW de Klerk
South Africa
  • In February 1990, de Klerk made historic speech
    in Parliament favored democratic South Africa.
  • ANC was unbanned.
  • Nelson Mandela was released from prison on Robben
    Island, after 27 years behind bars.
  • During secret negotiations ANC and government
    agreed to refrain from violence and work for a
    peaceful transition and a new constitution.

Nelson Mandela
South Africa
  • Power struggles between Xhosa-dominated ANC and
    Zulu-led Inkatha Freedom Party, resulted in
    township violence.
  • Eventually new constitution was drafted in April
    1994, first democratic elections were held.
  • ANC gained majority Nelson Mandela inaugurated
    first black African President of South Africa,
    May 10, 1994 .
  • F. W. de Klerk, became second Vice-President of
    the Interim Government first Vice-President was
    Thabo Mbeki.

South Africa
  • In 1996 the South Africa Truth and Reconciliation
    Commission began its work, chaired by Archbishop
    Desmond Tutu
  • Hearings on human rights violations committed by
    the former government and liberation movements
    during the apartheid era.
  • Commission released its in 1998 called apartheid
    a crime against humanity also found ANC
    accountable for human rights abuses.

South Africa
  • In 1999 Thabo Mbeki was elected president on ANC
    ticket in 1999 and Nelson Mandela stepped aside.
  • Established Nelson Mandela Foundation same year
  • Serves as a vehicle for Mandelas continued
    pursuit of the ideals and goals he set while
    serving as South Africas first democratically
    elected leader from 19941999
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