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Dr. B. C. Viraktamath

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Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern Region Increasing rice production in Eastern India by promoting hybrid rice as well as other technologies – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dr. B. C. Viraktamath


1
Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern Region
Increasing rice production in Eastern India by
promoting hybrid rice as well as other
technologies
Dr. B. C. Viraktamath Project Director Directorate
of Rice Research
2
Region -wise rice area, production and
productivity (mean of 2002-2007)
Zone Area ('Mha) India Production ('Mt)   India Productivity (Kg/ha) India
East 23.7 54.9 38.0 43.8 1594.6 79.4
North 9.84 22.8 24.9 28.7 2410.1 120.0
South 6.73 15.6 18.9 21.8 2707.8 134.9
West 2.34 5.4 3.9 4.5 1895.6 94.4
India 43.21 100.0 86.8 100.0 2007.8 100.0
Eastern India has the great potential to enhance
rice production in the coming years
3
Rice Area () in Eastern region Ecology-wise
Floating
Deep water
Semi-deep water
Upland
Rainfed lowland
Total area 23.4 Mha
4
Rice Production and Productivity in Different
Ecologies
Present (2008-09) Present (2008-09) Present (2008-09) of the Total of the Total of the Total
Rice Ecologies Area (m.ha) Production (m.t.) Productivity (t/ha) Area Production Productivity
Irrigated 24.7 66.7 2.87 56.1 67.4 142.8
Rainfed lowland 14 22.4 1.35 31.8 22.6 67.2
Rainfed upland 4 6.6 0.7 9.1 6.7 34.8
Flood prone 1.3 3.3 0.9 3.0 3.3 44.8
Toal 44 99 2.01
5
State-wise rice area, production and productivity
during 2005-2006(In Eastern region)
Area (m.ha) Production (m.t) Productivity (Kg/ha) Productivity (Kg/ha) Productivity (Kg/ha)
State Mean Mean Mean Rank Rating
Assam 2.41 3.51 1453 12 Low
Bihar 3.38 4.29 1259 15 Low
Jharkhand 1.40 1.98 1395 13 Low
Orissa 4.43 6.03 1355 14 Low
West Bengal 5.79 14.64 2529 6 High
Chhattisgarh 3.76 4.53 1202 16 Low
All India 42.63 85.73 2008    
6
  • Production constraints in Eastern India
  • Physical
  • Over dependence on unpredictable monsoon
  • Frequent drought/floods
  • Low light intensity during kharif
  • Technical
  • Slow spread of HYVs
  • Lower use of fertilizers/other inputs
  • Low seed replacement rate
  • Extension
  • Weak extension machinery
  • Lower credit facilities

7
Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern India
Green Revolution in eastern India should be
ushered in based on the principles of
sustainability, soil health and environmental
protection
Increasing the yields should not be the only
criteria that has derailed the sustainability of
rice production system
8
Bringing green revolution to the east needs
caution
  • Lessons learnt from green revolution in other
    parts of the country
  • Over-emphasis on input intensive technologies
  • Excessive and imbalanced use of chemical
    fertilizers leading to micro nutrient
    deficiencies
  • Neglecting the use of organics in rice
    cultivation
  • Excessive exploitation of ground water leading to
    soil problems
  • Over dependent on chemical based pest control
    leading to environmental pollution
  • Benefited only the medium and large farmers

9
Strategies for bringing green revolution in
Eastern India
  • Adoption of new high yielding varieties
  • Strengthening seed production and encouraging
    seed replacement rate
  • Increasing area under hybrid rice
  • Encouraging balanced use of fertilizers (INM,
    SSNM)
  • Enhanced use of organics
  • Adoption of IPM practices to control
    pests/diseases
  • Increasing irrigation facilities and judicious
    use of water
  • Increasing area under boro rice wherever ground
    water is abundant

10
Adoption of High Yielding Varieties in Eastern
India
State No. of varieties available for cultivation No. of varieties available for cultivation No. of varieties available for cultivation No. of varieties available for cultivation No. of varieties available for cultivation
State IR RSL RUP Boro Total
Assam 09 19 02 03 33
Bihar 19 21 13 03 56
Chhattisgarh 15 06 06 - 27
Jharkhand 12 16 04 - 32
Orissa 45 30 28 - 103
West Bengal 23 10 06 01 40
Total 123 102 59 07 291
IR-Irrigated RSL-Rainfed shallow lands
RUP-Rainfed uplands
11
Most popular rice varieties in Eastern India
State Popular varieties
Assam Ranjeet, Mahsuri, Luit, IR 50
Bihar Rajashree, Sita, Rajendra Mahsuri, Prabhat
Chhattisgarh IR 64, IR 36, Mahamaya, Kranti, Purnima, Swarna, MTU 1010, Danteswari, Bamleshwari
Jharkhand IR 64, Vandana, IR 36, Anjali, Birsamati
Orissa IR 64, IR 36, Pooja, CR 1018, Savitri, Ratna, Khitish, Annada, CR 1017, Lunishree, CR 1014
West Bengal Khitish, Satabdi, Sabita, Shashi
Tripura IR 64, Kalikhasa, Tapaswani
Meghalaya Bhalum
12
Rice varieties released during the last 5 years
for Eastern India
Sl. No State Irrigated Rainfed Upland Rainfed Lowland Boro
1 Assam Chandrama -- -- --
2 Manipur -- -- Ginphou, Maniphou-10, Pariphou --
3 Orissa Pratikshya, CR Dhan 10, Tejaswini, Ajay, Rajalaxmi, Manaswini Jogesh, Naveen, Sidhanta, Jaldi Dhan 6, Mandakini Ketekijoha, CR Sugandh Dhan-3, Nua Kalajeera, Mrunalini, Rani Dhan, Swarna Sub1 CR Boro Dhan-2
4 Uttar Pradesh Narendra Dhan 3112-1,Prakhar, NDR 2064, Narendra Usar Sankar Dhan 3 -- Narendra Jal Pushp, Narendra Dhan, Narendra Mayank, Swarna Sub1 --
13
Hybrid Rice
One of the key components that can help in
bringing green revolution to Eastern India. The
potential is seen already as the region is
leading in hybrid rice cultivation.
14
The Need for Hybrid Rice
  • Rapidly increasing population
  • Plateuing yield trend of HYVs.
  • Declining resources (Land, Water)
  • Yield advantage of hybrids (15-20) over varieties

Hybrid Rice is one of the practically feasible
and readily adoptable technologies to enhance
productivity of rice in the country.
15
Eastern India Harbinger of hybrid rice
cultivation
  • Appreciable yield advantage of the hybrids over
    the inbred varieties (30-40)
  • Farmers enthusiasm in accepting the technology
  • Hybrid rice quality suiting to the requirement of
    the people in the region
  • Aggressive marketing strategies by the private
    seed companies

16
Evaluation of Hybrids
Total hybrids evaluated 2000 Hybrids
Released 43 Public Sector hybrids 28
Private Sector hybrids 15 Central Releases
20 State Releases 23
17
Hybrids Released by CSCCSNRV
Public Sector Private Sector Private Sector
KRH-2 PHB-71 (Pioneer) PA 6201 (Pro-Agro)
Pusa RH-10 PA 6129 (Pro Agro) PA 6444 (Pro Agro)
DRRH-2 RH-204 (Parry Monsanto) Ganga (Paras Co.)
Sahyadri-4 Suruchi (Mahyco) JKRH-401 (JK Agri.)
DRRH-3 GK 5003 (Ganga Kaveri) DRH 775 (Metahelix)
HRI 157 (Pro Agro) PAC 835 (Advanta)
PAC 837 (Advanta) NK-5251 (Syngenta)
US 312 ( US Agri Gen.)
Five hybrids released during 2009 Under consideration Five hybrids released during 2009 Under consideration Five hybrids released during 2009 Under consideration
18
Hybrid with medium slender grain type
DRRH-3
Year DFF Yield (kg/ha) Advantage () over BPT 5204
2005 103 5739 18
2006 101 5539 20
2007 98 6051 30
Mean 101 5776 23
19
Hybrids available for cultivation in different
states
State/Region Hybrids
Uttarakhand, Eastern UP and Bihar NSD-2, KRH-2, PHB-71, PA-6201, DRRH-3, PA 6444, Sahyadri-4, JKRH-401
Chattisgarh, Jharkhand Indira Sona, DRH-775, HRI-157, PAC-837, PA 6201, Suruchi
Orissa Rajlakshmi, Ajay, HRI-157, PAC-835, DRRH-3, JKRH-401, KRH-2, PA 6201, PA 6444, Suruchi
Karnataka KRH-2, PHB-71, PA-6201, GK-5003, HRI-157, PAC-837
Andhra Pradesh PHB-71, PA-6201, DRRH-3, GK-5003, HRI-157, PAC-837
Tamil Nadu CORH-3, DRRH-2, HRI-157
Maharashtra KRH-2, PHB-71, Sahyadri-4, HRI-157
West Bengal CNRH-3, PHB-71, DRRH-2, Sahyadri-4
Gujarat Sahyadri, KRH-2, HRI-157, PAC-835, PAC-837, DRRH-3
Punjab, Haryana PHB-71, 6444,Pusa RH-10, DRRH-2, Sahyadri-4
Besides private sector is selling 30-40 non
notified hybrids in the region
20
Hybrids resistant to pests and diseases Hybrids resistant to pests and diseases Hybrids resistant to pests and diseases Hybrids resistant to pests and diseases
Hybrid Resistant Tolerant Moderately resistant
suruchi Blast - WBPH
DRRH 2 Blast, RTV - Brown spot, WBPH
Ajay - - Blast, BLB, Stemborer, BPH, WBPH, Gall midge
JKRH-401 - Blast,RTV, sheath blight, brown spot, Stemborer, WBPH, Gall midge, Leaf folder
CORH 3 - Blast, RTV, GLH,BPH, WBPH
PA 6129 Blast, Gall midge - Brown spot and GLH
GK 5003 Blast, RTV - sheath blight, brown spot, WBPH
HRI 157 - - RTV, brown spot
PAC 835 Blast - BLB, RTV
PAC 837 Blast - RTV, brown spot and GLH
NK 5251 Blast - WBPH
DRRH 3 - WBPH Blast, RTV
US 312 Blast, Gall Midge RTV, Brown spot, WBPH
21
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22
Hybrid rice cultivation (region-wise) 2009
23
Hybrids suitable for rainfed/aerobic conditions
PSD-1 PSD-3
HRI-126 ADTRH-1
PRH-122 DRRH-3
Hybrids tolerant to salinity/alkalinity
Salinity PHB-71, ADTRH-1, CORH-3
Alkalinity Suruchi, DRRH-3
24
Strategies for promoting Hybrid rice in Eastern
India
Policy
  • Providing a special fund for hybrid rice research
    with special focus on Eastern India
  • Constituting a task force to oversee the progress
    on hybrid rice
  • Creating conducive environment to boost seed
    production both by public and private sector
  • Procurement of hybrid rice produce by FCI and
    other agencies for PDS

Contd.
25
Technical
  • Development of long duration hybrids for shallow
    low lands and coastal areas
  • Further enhancing the level of heterosis
  • Optimizing hybrid rice seed production in boro
    areas

Extension
  • Conducting large number of demonstrations in
    farmers fields
  • Line Departments to play a key role in promoting
    hybrid rice
  • Advance seed indent system to be developed and
    implemented

26
Other technologies to usher into green revolution
in Eastern India
  • Adopting Integrated Nutrient Management practices
  • Going for soil health cards and practicing site
    specific nutrient management
  • Use of organics/green manures should be an
    integral part in rice cultivation
  • Use of Leaf Colour Chart to improve the N
    efficiency
  • Crop diversification (rotation and recycling of
    crop residues)
  • Judicious use of water by adopting innovative
    cultivation methods
  • Integrated pest management

27
Adoption of SRI to save water and other inputs
  • Plant young seedlings (8-12 days old)
  • Single seedling per hill with soil
  • Wider spacing (20 x 25 cm)
  • Use of more organics
  • Weeding by cono weeder
  • Bio-pesticides (IPM)

28
Aerobic rice cultivation
  • Cultivation of rice in un puddled, direct seeded
    without standing water (need based irrigation as
    like wheat maize)
  • Combines features of high yielding irrigated
    lowland and drought tolerant upland cultivars.

Promising varieties/hybrids suitable for aerobic cultivation Promising varieties/hybrids suitable for aerobic cultivation
Vareities Rasi, Vandana, Jaya, PKM 3 , MAS-96
Hybrids KRH-2, PA 6444, DRRH-3, PA 6201, CORH-3, PHB-71 and Sahyadri
29
Direct seeding with 8 row drum seeder
Simple method to save labour
Sprouted seeds are sown with the help of a 8 row drum seeder Duration reduced by 8-10 days Yields on par with he transplanted crop Good leveling is a must
30
Integrated pest management in rice
Optimum Sowing / Planting Time
Pest Monitoring in Nursery/ Main field Economic
thresholds
RESISTANT VARIETY
Cultural Practices Optimum Spacing Optimum
N Crop sanitation Alleyways Mid season drying
Natural biocontrol Avoid persistent
insecticides Pheromones
Need based insecticide use Ecofriendly and safe
insecticides
31
Trap Crop- A cost effective environmental
friendly way to control the stem borer
Growing one row of Basmati variety after every 9
rows of farmers variety could reduce the stem
borer damage to considerable extent
32
Conclusions
  • Faster spread of newly developed varieties and
    hybrids
  • Efficient and effective seed production mechanism
    to ensure the availability of quality seeds
  • Selective mechanization to save the rice farming
    from labour shortage
  • Enhancing profitability of rice farming by
    economizing the input use
  • Intensifying research on water saving
    technologies such as Aerobic rice, AWD, SRI etc
  • Aggressive technology transfer efforts by all the
    concerned

33
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