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Traditional Medicine


Traditional Medicine & Herbal Technology COUNTRY PAPER (INDIA) Dr. P. Pushpangadan, Director National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Traditional Medicine

Traditional Medicine Herbal Technology
Dr. P. Pushpangadan, Director National Botanical
Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow
226 001
Traditional Medicine
  • The tradition of health management/ treating
    ailments practiced by traditional communities
    or medicinal practices prevalent before the
    emergence of modern medicine (18th/19th century)
    are generally termed as Traditional Medicine
  • Traditional medicine has almost now dissappeared
    in developing countries but still a living
    tradition in Third World Nations.
  • The biodiversity-rich Third World nations have an
    associated medicinal knowledge systems using the
    various medicinal plants of the region.

Traditional Medicine in India
The Traditonal Medicine in India function through
two streams 1. Folk stream Comprising mostly
the oral traditions practiced by the rural
villagers. The carriers of these traditons are
millions of housewives, thousands of traditional
birth attendants, bone setters, village
practitioners skilled in acupressure, eye
treatments, treatment of snake bites, and
traditional village physicians/herbal healers,
the vaidyas or the tribal physicians. These
streams of inherited traditions are together
known as local health traditions(LHT). LHT
represent an autonomous, community supported
living tradition. It is still alive and runs
parallel and the great service the LHT render to
the primary health care needs of the indian
rural mass often goes unnotied due to the
dominance of the western medicine
Traditional Medicine in India (Contd)
2. Classical stream Organized systems (1)  This
comprises of the codified and organized medicinal
wisdom with sophisticated theoretical foundations
and philosophical explanations expressed in
several classical texts like Charaka Samhita,
Susrutha Samhita, Bhela Samhita, and hundreds of
other treatises (including some in the regional
language) covering all branches of medicine and
surgery. Systems like Ayurveda, Sidha, Unani,
Amchi or Tibetan are expressions of these
classical streams.
Local Health Traditions (LHT)
The folklore medicine or LHT is again at
two levels Rural village based This involves
home remedies practiced at almost every home,
mostly by the mothers and grand mothers to
specialized individuals, healers or family
traditions treating single or general ailment.
This system is mostly oral in tradition except in
certain cases mostly in Kerala, Maharashtra,
Gujarat where some written tradition maintained
through hand written transcripts in local
languages, some of which are now been available
in printed form. Such village folklore medicine
or LHT involve the use of about 5000 plant
species with about 25,000 or more formulations
for treating a variety of human ailments.
Folk-medicine carriers of village-based health
traditions in India
Source Foundation for Revitalization of Local
Health Traditions (FRLHT), Bangalore
Local Health Traditions (Contd.)
2. Tribal based This is practiced by the tribal
communities who inhabit in and around the
forests. This tradition is currently fast eroding
due to the change of life style of the tribal
people. India has over 67.8 million tribal people
belonging to 550 communities of 227 ethnic groups
as per the classification made by anthropologists
on linguistic basis. They inhabit in about
5000-forested villages or lead a nomadic life in
the forest. Each tribal community has a distinct
social and cultural identity of its own and
speaks a common dialect. There are about 116
different dialects and 227 subsidiary dialects
spoken by tribals in India. According to a recent
study conducted by the Ministry of Environment
and Forests (MoEF), Govt. of India, under the
All India Coordinated Project on Ethnobiology
(AICRPE- 1992-1998 Pushpangadan 1994), over
10000 wild plants are reported to be used by
tribals for meeting their primary health care,
food and material requirements (Figure 1). About
8000 wild plant species are used by the Indian
tribes for a variety of medicinal purposes, which
cover about 1,75,000 specific preparations/applica
tions (Pushpangadan 2002) of these 2000 species
are found to be new claims and worthy of
scientific scrutiny.
Indian System of Medicines
The promotive, preventive, corrective and
curative approach in health care and the
medicinal plants possessing such properties are
indeed the strength of the Indian Systems of
medicine (ISM). The ancient masters of Ayurveda
and Siddha had organized, codified and
synthesized the medical wisdom with sophisticated
theoretical foundation and philosophical
explanations. They adopted the fundamental
doctrines of Darshana philosophy, particularly
the Nyaya, Sankhya and Vaiseshika, which
encompassed all sciences physical, chemical,
biological and spiritual. While Darshana
philosophers discussed and debated their
theories, Ayurvedic masters put them to practical
test and applied them successfully to interpret
the laws governing the material objects of the
universe and the dynamics of biological
evolution. The modern physicists and biologists
are now demonstrating the precision and exactness
of many such cosmological theories and other
rationale and hypothetical assumptions
intuitively discovered and developed by the
ancient Indian sages. It is quite logical to say
that a serious and in-depth study and research on
the vast treasure - trove of Ayurvedic and Siddha
systems of medicine, particularly their
theoretical bases and philosophical explanations
may open up new exciting avenues of knowledge in
understanding diseases and health.
Indian System of Medicines (Contd)
Rasayana Rasayana (Rejuvenation Therapy) is a
speciality of Ayurveda, which mainly deals with
the preservation and promotion of health. It
promotes longevity and prevents or delays the
aging process. Rasayana promotes rsistance
against infections and other causative factors
for the disease by maintaining the equilibrium of
Vata, Pitta and Kapha. The Rasayana, if
administered at an early age, also helps the body
metabolism in such a way that he genetic
predisposition for a particular disease is
avoided and the intensity of the symptoms of a
particular disease is greatly reduced.
Indian System of Medicines (Contd)
Panchakarma Panchakarma (Purification Therapy)
deals mainly with the removal of toxins and waste
materials from the body to purify the biological
system from gross channels to eradicate the
disease completely. It is helpful in the
prevention of disease and preservation and
promotion of health, as well as the management of
psychosomatic, neurological, gastrointestinal,
cardiovascular and many other chronic,
degenerative diseases and iatrogenic conditions.
Panchakaram plays a vital role in Ayurvedic
therapeutics and occupies an important place in
the Ayurvedic system of medicine. This five-fold
purification theraphy, a classical form of
treatment in Ayurveda, includes Vamana (emesis),
Virechana (Purgation), Asthapana (Decoction
enema), Anuvasana (Oily enema) and Nasya (Nasal
Indian System of Medicines (Contd)
Pizhichil In this therapeutic measure, warm
medicated oil is poured all over the body
followed by massage, in seven positions in a
systematic manner for the treatment of diseases
of the nervous system like paralysis, sciatica,
osteoarthiritis, musculo-skeletal, neuro-muscular
and degenerative diseases. Pizhichil is very
useful as a health restorative measure for
elderly persons when it is regularly used once a
year or so. This treament cleanses the minute
channels in the body of morbid substances. Shiroba
sti This is an oil treatment applied to the head
in which a leather belt is tied to ht clean
shaven scalp. The junction of scalp and leather
beld is sealed with paste prepared from
wheatflour or black gram. Medicated oil is then
poured into it and kept for the stipulated time.
This is recommended for headaches, myopial
conditions, insomnia, psychiatriac illnesses,
epilepsy, hair fal, etc. It improves the
functioning of the sensory systems and removes
Indian System of Medicines (Contd)
Shirodhara This therapeutic measure is carried
out by pouring oil or medicated liquids on the
forehead for treating headaches, vertigo,
insomnia, anxiety, etc. It is also useful in many
psychosomatic disorders and hypertension. Ksharasu
tra This Alkaline Thread threpy is a popular
herbal treatment for ano-rectal diseases likes
fistula-in-Ano and haemorrhoids (piles) under the
speciality of Shalyatandra are prepared from
plants like Arka and Snuhi by using their milk or
herbal alkaline material and typing a the site.
The advantage of this therapy is that the
patients may remain mobile during the treatment.
It can also be carried out on patients for whom
modern surgery is contra-indicated.
  • 1. Determine PRAKRUTI (Constitution) by -history
  • -Observations
  • . NIDANA (Diagnosis)
  • Nature, degree and extent of imbalance of
    Tridoshas. Library of 5800 clinical signs and
    symptoms in Ayurvedic texts
  • . Chronobiology Impact of season, time and
    environment on Tridoshas.
  • . SWASTHAVRUTA Life style modification
  • . AHARA Dietary modifications
  • . PANCHAKARMA Purification of the body
  • . AUSHADHI "Designer Medicine" unique for the
    particular patient prepared from a Pharmacopoeia
    utilising 1200 plants, 100 minerals and 100
    animal products in numerous formulations.

Hospitals Dispensaries of ISM Homeopathy in
Medical education facilities in India
Number of Ayurveda colleges Statewise
Registered practitioners of ISM Homeopathy in
Acts administered in the ISM Sector
1.        Central Council of Medicine Act of
1973 2.        Central Council of Homeopathy Act
1973 3.        Drugs Cosmetics Act of 1940 and
the rules there under 4.        Medicinal
Toilet Preparation Act Rules 1995-96.
Statutory Regulatory Bodies for ISM under
Government of India
Central Council of Indian Medicine Central
Council of Homeopathy (for regulating standards
of Medical Education and registering
practitioners) Drug Technical Advisory Board
(ASUDTAB) for advising on all aspects related to
drug standardization and quality control of
Indian Systems of Medicine
Research Councils under Central Government
Engaged in clinical research activities on drugs
of Indian Systems, survey on Medicinal Plants,
drug standardization, tribal and family welfare
research carried out through units setup in
different parts of the country Central Council
for Research in Ayurveda Siddha 36
units Central Council for Research in Unani
Medicine 32 units Central Council
for Research in Homeopathy 52
units Central Council for Research in Yoga
National Institutes set up by Department of
Indian Systems of Medicine Homeopathy,
Government of India
For producing graduates and post-graduates of
high quality for conducting research and to
provide quality medical care   National Institute
of Ayurveda, Jaipur National Institute of Unani
Medicine, Bangalore (under establishment) National
Institute of Homeopathy, Calcutta National
Institute of Naturopathy, Pune Moraji Desai
National Institute of Yoga, New Delhi National
Institute of Siddha, Chennai (under
establishment) Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth, New
Delhi Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian
Medicine Ghaziabad Pharmacopoeia Laboratory,
The role of herbal medicine in effectively
meeting the primary health care needs of the
rural people, particularly of the Third World
countries is now well appreciated. This has led
to the widespread interest in placing herbal
medicine in a appropriate scientific framework,
by assessing their safety, efficacy and quality,
according to modern standards. WHO guidelines for
assessment of herbals address the following
  • Pharmaceutical assessment (crude plant material,
    plant preparations, finished products,
  • Safety assessment (toxicological studies,
    documentation of safety based on experience).
  • Assessment of efficacy and intended use
    (pharmacological activity, evidence required to
    support indication).
  • Product information to consumers.
  • Marketing

Flowering plants used in Traditional Systems of
Medicine in India
Siddha 800 spp. Ayurveda 900 spp.
Modern Medicine 30 spp. Amchi 300 spp. Unani
700 spp.
Examples of some important plant derived drugs
Examples of some important plant derived drugs
Institutions operating Central scheme for
development of Pharmacopoeial standards for ASU
drugs by ISM, Govt. of India
Agarkar Research Institute. Pune A. K. Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh B. H. U. Varanasi (CCRAS Unit) B. V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education Research development Centre, Thalteji, Ahmedabad Capt. Srinivasmurthi Drug. Res. Instt. For Ayurveda, (CCRAS), Chennai CCRAS, New Delhi CCRUM, A. G. Colony, Hyderabad Central Instt. Of Medicinal Aromatic Plants, Lucknow College of Pharmacy, New Delhi Deptt. of Chemistry Univ. of Delhi Deptt. of Medical Elementology Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi Dr. Y. B. Tripathi, B.H.U. Varanasi Drug Standardisation Unit, Rishikul Ayurvedic College, Hardwar Drug Testing lab. Joginder Nagar, Mandi (H. P.) Drugs Standardisation Res. Project, Gujrat Ayurved University, Jamnagar Faculty of Pharmacy (CCRUM) Drug Standardisation Unit Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi Govt. Ayurvedic Unani Pharmacy Nanded Indian Instt., of Chemical Technology (CSIR), Hyderabad Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow Institute of Himalayan bio-resources technology, Palampur (H. P). Institute of pharmaceutical sciences, Punjab Univ., Chandigarh National Botanical Research Institute Lucknow National Instt. of Pharmaceutical Education Research, Mohali Pharmacognosy Research Unit (CCRAS), University of Calcutta Pharmacognosy Research Unit JNMPGH, Pune Regional Research Instt. of Unani Medicine (CCRUM), Aligarh Regional Research Instt. of Unani Medicine, Chennai Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Bhubaneshwar Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Jammu Shri Ayurveda Mahavidalaya Nagpur Tropical Botanical Garden Research Instt. Trivandrum National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur
Development of Standards of Medicinal Plants and
Preparation of Monographs
List of plants allocated to National Botanical
Research Institute, Lucknow
  • Acorus calamus Linn.
  • Albizia lebbeck Benth.
  • Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd.
  • Optis teeta
  • Anogeissus latifolia Bedd
  • Arnebia nobilis Reichb.
  • Butea monospelma (Lamk.) Taub. (syn.B.frondosa
  • Cinnamoum tamala
  • Coscinium fenestratum
  • Allium cepa(syn.Psychotria ipecacuanha Stokes )
  • Crataeva magna (Lour) DC. (syn. C.nurvala
  • Curcuma amada Roxb.
  • Dioscorea deltoidea Wall.
  • Enicostemma hyssopifolium (Willd.) Verdoran
    (syn.E.littorale Blume.)
  • Euphorbia prostrata Linn.
  • Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.
  • Euphorbia tirucalli Linn.
  • Ficus lacor Buch. -Ham.
  • Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.
  • Hemldesmus indicus R.Br.
  • Jatropha glandulifera Roxb.
  • Leucas cephalotes spreng.
  • Mesua ferrea Linn.
  • Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ,
  • Onosma bracteatum Wall.
  • Operculina turpethum Linn.
  • Pueraria tuberosa DC.
  • Rubia cordifolia Linn.
  • Streblus asper Lour.
  • Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.)
  • Trianthema portulacastrum Linn.
  • Wedelia calendulacea Less.

Development of Standards of Medicinal Plants and
Preparation of Monographs
List of plants allocated to National Institute of
Pharmaceutical Education Research, Mohali,
Abutilon indicum (Linn. ) Sweet Asparagus adscendens Roxb. Asparagus racemosus Willd. Berberis aristata DC. Bergenia ligulata Engl. Caesalpinia bonducella (Linn.) Roxb. (syn. C.cristata Lim1.) Canscora decussata Schult. Catharanthus roseus G.Don. Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker Cissus quadrangularis (Linn. ) Schr . Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schr. Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois. Cyperus rotundus Lim1. Embelia ribes Burm.F. Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Hibisus rosa-sinensis Linn. Hypericum perforatum Linn. lnula racemosa Hook. F . Lawsonia inermis Linn. Momordica charantia Linn. Nigella sativa Linn. Ocimum basilicum Linn. Ocimum grasissimum Linn. Piper longum Linn. Pluchea lanceolata Oliver Hiem. Potentilla sundaica Kuntze Sida acuta Burm. Sida rhombifolia Linn. Syrnplocos racemosa Roxb. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Miers ex hook f. Thorns. Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. Tylophora indica Burm.f. Merill
Development of Standards of Medicinal Plants and
Preparation of Monographs
List of plants allocated to Tropical Botanical
Garden Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram
Adhatoda beddomei C.B. Clarke Allium cepa Linn. Allium sativum Linn. Alstonia scholaris (Linn. ) R.Br. Argemone mexicana Linn. Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. (syn. A.integra auct. non Merrill, A.integrifolia Hook. non Linn.) Azadirachta indica Juss. Cichorium intybus Linn. Cinnamomum camphora Nees ex Eberm Cinnamomum tamala Nees Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn. Desmodium gangeticum DC. Elettaria cardamomum Maton Gmelina arborea Linn. Hedychium spicatum Linn. Mallotus philippensis Muell.-Arg Melia azedarach Linn. Murraya koenigii Spreng. Musa paradisiaca L. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Myristica malabarica Lam. Oroxylum indicum Vent. Premna integrifolia Linn. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.f. Rhus parvif1ora Roxb. Santalum album Linn. Sesamum indicum Linn. (syn. S.orientale Linn.) Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. Syzygium cuminii (Linn.) Skeels. Tecomella undulata (G.Don.) Seem Uraria picta Desv.
Development of Standards of Medicinal Plants and
Preparation of Monographs
List of plants allocated to B.V. Patel
Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development
Centre, Ahmedabad
Aristolochia indica Linn. Boswellia serrata Roxb. Calotropis gigantea (Linn. ) Dryand. Capparis decidua Edgew. Cassia angustifolia Vahl. Cassia fistula Linn. Cassia occidentalis Linn. Cinchona officinalis Linn.f. Cissampelos pareira Linn. Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl.syn.C.mukul Engl. Commiphora wightii Bhandari Holarrhena antidysenterica (Linn.) Wall. Leptadenia reticulata Linn. Marsdenia tenacissima Wight Am. I Moringa oleifera Lam. (syn.M.pterygosperma Gaertn.) Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC (syn.M.prurita Hook.) Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. Plantago ovata Forsk. Plumbago indica Linn. Plumbago zeylanica Linn. Punica granatum Linn. Randia dumetorum Lam. Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. Saraca asoca (Roxb.) De Wilde Semecarpus anacardium Linn.f. Solanum indicum Linn. Solanum torvum Swartz. Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers. Terminalia arjuna Wight Am. Terminalia bellerica Roxb Terminalia chebula Retz..
Development of Standards of Medicinal Plants and
Preparation of Monographs
List of plants allocated to Regional Research
Laboratory, Jammu
Achillea millefolium Linn. Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. Ex Holmes Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Aesculus hippocastanum Linn. Ammi majus Linn. , Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. Anethum sowa Kurz. Angelica archangelica Lilm. Angelica glauca Edgew. Apium graveolens Linn. Argyreia nervosa (Burm F .) Bojer svn.A. speciosa Sweet Artemisia annua Linn. Cannabis sativa Linn. Carum carvi (Linn.) DC. Coptis teeta Wall. Costus speciosus (Koenig) Sm. Crocus sativus Linn. Cuminum cyminum Linn. Digitalis lanata Ehrh. Digitalis purpurea Linn. Ferula foetida Regel Ferula jaeschkeana Vatke Fumaria parviflora Lam. Gloriosa superba Linn. Mentha arvensis Linn. Podophyllum hexandrum Royle Psoralea corylifolia Linn. Saussurea lappa Spreng. Taxus baccata Linn. Valeriana Wallichi DC. Vetiveria zizanioides Linn. Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb.
(No Transcript)
Aoushdam Evam Pariksheta) A. Pharmacognostical
Study 1. Nama Name of the
Drug 2. Rupam Botanical
features 3. Desa jatam Habitat 4. Ritu
grhitam Season of collection 5. Grhitam
Species and part used 6. Nihitam
Way of storage and prevention
  • Distribution of Medicinal Plants across the
    biogeographic zones/provinces of India

Source FRLHT, Bangalore
The 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Indian
Medicinal plants
Aquilaria malaccensis Butea monosperma var. lutea Chloroxylon swietenia Commiphora wightii Euodia lunuankenda Hydnocarpus macrocarpa Mangifera indica Ochreinauclea missionis Pinus gerardiana Pterocarpus indicus Pterocarpus santalinus Santalum album Saraca asoca Tabernaemontana gamblei Tabernaemontana heyneana Taxus wallichiana
IUCN Red List criteria (1995) include the
Extinct (Ex) A taxon is Extinct when there is no
reasonable doubt that its last individual has
died. Extinct in the Wild (EW) A taxon is
Extinct in the wild when it is known only to
survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a
naturalized population well outside the past
range. Critically Endangered (CR) A taxon is
Critically Endangered when it is facing an
extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in
the immediate future (80 decline in the last 10
years, 100km2 of area of occupancy or 10 sq. km
in fragmented area estimated 250 mature
individuals or subpopulation of not more than 50
individuals). Endangered (EN) A taxon is
Endangered when it is not Critical, but is facing
a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the
near future (50 decline in the last 10 years
estimated lt5000 km2 of area of occupancy or 500
km2 in fragmented areas estimated 2500
individuals or subpopulation of 250 mature
individuals. Vulnerable (VU) A taxon is
vulnerable when it is not Critical or Endangered
but is facing a very high risk of extinction in
the wild, in the medium term future. (50
decline in the last 20 years estimated lt20000
km2 of occupancy or lt2000 km2 in fragmented
population, estimated 10,000 individuals or
subpopulation of 1000 mature individuals). Conserv
ation Dependent (CD) A taxon is under
taxon-specific or habitat specific conservation
programme which directly affects the taxon in
question. The cessation of this program would
result in the taxon qualifying for one of the
threatened categories. Data Deficient (DD) A
taxon is data deficient when there is inadequate
information to make a direct or indirect
assessment of its risk of extinction based on its
distribution and/or population status. Low Risk
(LR) A taxon is Low Risk when it has been
evaluated and does not qualify for any of the
categories, Critically Endangered, Endangered
Vulnerable, Conservation Dependent or Data
Deficient. Not Evaluated (NE) A taxon is Not
Evaluated when it has not yet been assessed
against the criteria. Source IUCN 1995, IUCN Red
List Categories, Prepared by species Survival
Commission, Gland, Switzerland.
Development of Standards of Medicinal Plants and
Preparation of Monographs
Germplasm status of field gene bank at NRCM AP
Improved varieties of medicinal plants developed
in India by various institutions
Improved varieties of medicinal plants developed
in India by various institutions (Contd.)
Source Sharma, J.R. (2001)
Table 22. Improved Varieties of Medicinal Plants
Developed by ICAR and SAUs