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How to Use Assessment as a Tool


Assessment is Not a Grade How to Use Assessment as a Tool for Achieving Learning Outcomes Resource: Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing It Right-Using It ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How to Use Assessment as a Tool

Assessment is Not a Grade
  • How to Use Assessment as a Tool
  • for Achieving Learning Outcomes

  • Classroom Assessment for Student Learning Doing
    It Right-Using It Well
  • Richard J. Stiggins, Judith A. Arter, Jan
    Chappuis, and Stephen Chappuis

What is assessment?
  • A tool used to measure student learning
  • It is not simply a grade or a score
  • It does not always have to be counted
  • It can motivate and stimulate learning, not
    punish students or diminish their motivation

Why assess?
  • To serve all stakeholders individual needs
  • Stakeholders include
  • Students
  • Instructor
  • Department
  • Administrators
  • State and Federal agencies

What should be assessed?
  • Clear, good learning targets
  • We must have a clear sense of the achievement
    expectations we wish our students to master
  • --Classroom Assessment for Student Learning

Effectively Communicating Results
  • In a timely and understandable manner
  • Students must understand symbols used in
    assessment i.e. letter grades, raw scores,
    teachers comments
  • Communication must be tailored to the intended
  • Students must understand why they got an answer
    incorrect, so that they may correct it in the

Self-Assessment Chart
Test Question Correct Incorrect Knew it Guessed No Idea
1. X X
2. X X
3. X X
4. X X
5. X X
6. X X
7. X X
8. X X
9. X X
10 X X
Involving Students in Assessment
  • The most important instructional decisions
    which contribute most to student learning are
    made by the students themselves. Students decide
    whether the learning is worth the effort required
    to attain it. --Classroom Assessment for
    Student Learning
  • Students decide if they are capable of
  • As instructors we must keep students believing in
    themselves as learners through effective

The Two Types of Assessment
  • Formative
  • Informational for both the student and instructor
  • Does not count toward a grade or score
  • Provides opportunity for student correction and
    supports ongoing growth
  • Summative
  • Document individual or group achievement
  • Measures learning at a specific point in time
    (what do you know today)

Formative Assessment
  • Assessment for learning
  • A Process during learning
  • What do I know? What do I need to know? What do I
    need to learn before it counts?
  • Provides students insight to improve achievement
  • Helps teachers diagnose and respond to students
  • Acts as a primary motivator in the belief that
    success in learning is achievable
  • No penalty for making mistakes

Formative Assessment
  • Instructors Role
  • Instructor transforms learning outcomes or
    objectives into learning targets
  • Adjusts instruction based on results
  • Offer frequent and descriptive feedback to
  • Students Role
  • Self-assess and keep track of improvement
  • Set individual learning goals
  • Use as a means of self-correction

Formative Assessment
  • Learning targets are statements of what we want
    students to be able to know and to do
  • Students can hit any clear target that stands
  • Communicate with students what they must know
    before they need to know it
  • Example
  • I will write simple sentences using a subject and
    a verb.
  • I will write complex sentences using
    subordinating conjunction.

Formative Assessment
  • No Count Quizzes
  • Verbal Feedback
  • Student Signals (Thumbs up/Thumbs Down)
  • Student Post-It Notes
  • Discussion Logs
  • Think-Pair-Share

Reflection Journal for Discussions
Date What I Originally Thought New Information from others What I think Now

Classroom Discussion. Dixie Lee Spiegel. 2005
Formative Assessment
  • What is Effective Feedback?
  • Descriptive, criterion-based feedback
  • Emphasize it is the learning that is important,
    not what looks good or how it is comparable to
  • Focuses on strengths and weaknesses, or areas
    needing improvement
  • Does not use arbitrary symbols, such as letter
    grades or numerical scores, that do not reflect
    specific criteria.

Summative Assessment
  • Assessment of Learning
  • An Event after learning Documents achievement
    or mastery of learning targets
  • Provides information about level of learning to
    both students and others outside of the classroom
  • Certifies student competence, sorts students
    according to achievement, provides a mode for

Summative Assessment
  • Instructors Role
  • Administer assessment to carefully ensure
    accuracy, quality, and comparability
  • Use results to help students meet student
  • Use as a means of report card grading
  • Students Role
  • Strive for highest possible score
  • Avoid failure

Summative Assessment
  • In-class essay
  • Unit test
  • Mid-term or final examination
  • Placement tests
  • Achievement tests

Assessment Development
  1. Plan Assess why (purpose)? Assess what (focus)?
    Assess how (method)? How Important?
  2. Develop Determine the sample. Select, create, or
    modify test items or tasks and scoring
  3. Critique Evaluate for Quality
  4. Administer Administer the assessment
  5. Revise Evaluate test quality based on results
    and revise as needed

Potential Sources of Inaccuracy
  • Barriers that can occur within a student
  • i.e. language barriers physical handicap lack
    of test-taking skills lack of confidence lack
    of literacy skills
  • Barriers that can occur within the assessment
  • i.e. distractions poor lighting cultural
    insensitivity lack of proper equipment
  • Barriers that can occur within the assessment
  • i.e. lack of or vague directions poorly worded
    questions poor reproduction of test missing

Potential Barriers in Methods
  • Multiple Choice Tests
  • more than one correct choice incorrect bubbling
    on answer sheet clues to the answer in the item
    or choices
  • Extended Written Responses
  • no or inappropriate scoring criteria biased
    scoring insufficient time to read or score
    carefully students dont know the criteria by
    which they will be judged

Rubrics as Evaluation Tools
  • A RUBRIC is a scoring scale used to assess
    student performance along a task-specific set of
  • A contract between students and instructor. An
    agreement of how students will be evaluated and
    the level of expectation clearly communicated
    prior to completion of task.
  • Comprised of three components  criteria, levels
    of performance, and descriptors
  • Quality Not Quantity. Instead of applying a
    number number of references, concrete examples,
    paragraphs, etc., describe the quality of the
    criteria. Cant two good examples be better than
    five poor examples?
  • Clear, Objective, and Consistent. Everyone feels
    graded the same

Analytical vs. Holistic
  • Analytical - assesses levels of performance for
    each criteria separately and equally. Breaks down
    and examines various parts.
  • Analytical is formative it provide students with
    detailed information of individuals strengths
    and weaknesses detailed feedback explains how
    student can improve.
  • Holistic - evaluates a level of performance by
    assessing performance of all criteria as a whole.
  • Holistic is summative it is a snapshot of what a
    student can do at that moment.

Analytical Rubric
Criteria 4 points 3 points 2 points 1 point
Has a plan for Investigation The plan is thorough The plan is lacking a few details The plan is missing major details The plan is incomplete and limited
Use of Materials Manages all materials responsibly Uses the materials responsibly most of the time Mishandles some of the materials Does not use materials properly
Collects the Data Demonstrates thorough collection of data Exhibits some of the data Major portions of the data are missing The data collection consists of a few points
Georgia State University
Holistic Rubric
Proficient- 3 points The student's project has a hypothesis, a procedure, collected data, and analyzed results. The project is thorough and the findings are in agreement with the data collected. There are minor inaccuracies that do not affect the quality of the project.
Adequate- 2 points The student's project may have a hypothesis, a procedure, collected data, and analyzed results. The project is not as thorough as it could be there are a few overlooked areas. The project has a few inaccuracies that affect the quality of the project.
Limited- 1 point The student's project may have a hypothesis, a procedure, collected data, and analyzed results. The project has several inaccuracies that affect the quality of the project.
Georgia State University
How To Apply Methods in the Classroom
  • Begin by clearly stating what students must be
    able to DO
  • (state in syllabus, verbalize in lecture, post on
  • Determine and create appropriate summative
    assessment based on learning targets
  • (written response, speech, project, multiple
    choice exam)
  • Design lesson plans to specifically meet learning
  • Implement daily formative assessment of learning
  • (diagnostic test, verbal feedback, no-penalty
    quiz, discussion log)

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