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BASIC FOOD HYGIENE

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Title: BASIC FOOD HYGIENE


1
BASIC FOOD HYGIENE
2
CONTENTS
  • 1.INTRODUCTION -HACCP
  • 2.MICROBIOLOGY
  • 3.FOOD POISONING AND ITS CAUSES
  • 4.STORAGE AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL
  • 5.FOOD SPOILAGE AND PRESERVATION
  • 6.PERSONAL HYGIENE
  • 7.CLEANING AND DISINFECTION
  • 8.KITCHEN DESIGN AND LAYOUT
  • 9.PEST CONTROL
  • 10.HYGIENE CONTROL AND RULES

3
BY THE END OF THIS SESSION YOU WILL BE ABLE TO
LEARN
  • What is HACCP ?
  • What are the benefits of HACCP?
  • Understanding the basics of food safety.
  • Awareness to implement HACCP.

4
INTRODUCTIONHAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL
POINT (HACCP)
  • Hazard any thing which causes harm to the
    customer.
  • Analysis identifying
  • Critical Control Point point at which control
    can be applied

5
Introduction-History
  • HACCP is a food safety management system
    developed in 1960s as a result of joint effort by
    the Pillsbury company and NASA to guarantee the
    safety of food intended for astronauts.
  • HACCP is a legal requirement

6
Introduction - HACCP
7
7 Principles of HACCP
  • List all the hazards.
  • Determine the CCP.
  • Establish critical control points.
  • Establish critical limits.
  • Establish monitoring system.
  • Establish corrective action.
  • Establish verification procedures.
  • Establish documentation.

8
Introduction-definition of terms
  • Safe food Food which is free from contaminants
    and will not cause illness.
  • Food Hygiene All measures necessary to ensure
    the safety and wholesomeness of food during
    preparation, manufacture, storage,
    transportation, distribution, handling, sale and
    supply.

9
Introduction-Hazards
  • Physical hazards hazards which we can see with
    our naked eyes.
  • eg.nails,stones,hair,building materials,
    pentops,cigarettes,bandaids,plasters,
  • buttons etc
  • Chemical hazards pesticides or cleaning
    chemicals may contaminate food
  • Eg. detergents, disinfectants, etc

10
Introduction-Hazards
  • Bacterial hazard presence of microorganisms in
    food which may cause harm to us.

11
Introduction Food Hygiene
  • Food is essential to life but if contaminated it
    can cause illness, even death.
  • Food poisoning mainly causes by human error
  • Food poisoning can be avoided by following basic
    rules of food hygiene in work place and home.

12
Introduction- Food Hygiene
  • Food Hygiene
  • Protect food from contamination from harmful
    bacteria foreign bodies
  • Prevents bacteria to a safe level.
  • Destroying harmful bacteria in food through
    cooking, processing, irradiation
  • Discarding unfit food

13
FOOD HYGIENE
14
COST OF POOR FOOD HYGIENE
  • Loss of productivity.
  • Illness to guests.
  • Closure of food business
  • Loss of reputation
  • Bad publicity
  • Food poisoning outbreak and even death
  • Fines legal actions
  • Losing job

15
BENEFITS OF GOOD FOOD HYGIENE
  • Satisfied customers
  • Good reputation
  • Compliance with food safety legislation.
  • Less food wastage and increased shelf life
  • Good working condition
  • Less staff turnover
  • Increased productivity
  • Reduced risk of food poisoning and food
    complaints.

16
MICROBIOLOGY
17
MICROBIOLOGY
  • Microbiology is the study of microorganisms.
  • eg. bacteria, fungus, virus etc
  • Bacteria's are
  • a. minute organisms
  • b.difficult to see with naked eyes
  • Mainly two types
  • a. Spoilage bacteria
  • b. Pathogenic bacteria

18
BACTERIA
19
BACTERIA
  • Spoilage bacteria
  • spoils food items by destroying its protein,
    texture, quality etc.
  • Pathogenic bacteria
  • Found everywhere
  • especially on raw food,people,insects,rodents,
    pets,waste food

20
BACTERIA
21
Conditions for bacterial growth
  • Food bacteria obtain their essential nutrients
    from protein which is present in high risk foods
    such as meat, fish and dairy products
  • Water Bacteria requires water to transport
    nutrients to the body and remove waste from the
    body.
  • Temperature the best temperature for bacterial
    growth is 370C.The temperature range of 50C to
    630C is referred as Danger Zone.
  • Time bacteria multiply by binary fission in
    every 10 to 20 minutes.

22
BACTERIAL GROWTH
23
BINARY FISSION
24
BINARY FISSION
25
FOOD POISONING AND ITS CAUSES
  • Basic food hygiene

26
FOOD POISONING
  • Acute illness occurs within 1 to 36 hrs of eating
    contaminated/poisonous food.
  • Symptoms include
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • vomiting
  • nausea

27
FOOD POISONING
28
FOOD POISONING
29
CAUSES OF FOOD POISONING
  • Bacteria or toxins
  • Poisonous fish, including scombrotoxic fish
    poisoning, shell fish ,puffer fish
  • Chemicals such as insecticides, excessive
    additives and fungicides
  • Metals such as lead, copper and mercury
  • Poisonous plants such as deadly night shade,
    poisonous mushrooms, under cooked red kidney
    beans and rhubarb leaves.
  • Moulds (mycotoxins)

30
Common food poisoning bacteria
  • Salmonella found in raw poultry, raw meat, raw
    eggs, sewage water, pets, rodents etc.
  • Symptoms include Abdominal pain, diarrhea,
    vomiting and fever.
  • Duration of illness 1 to 7 days
  • Onset period 12 to 36 hrs

31
Common food poisoning bacteria
  • Staphylococcus aureus human body-nose ,mouth,
    throat,cuts,boils,and skin of human beings.
  • Symptoms vomitting,abdominal pain, some
    times diarrhea.
  • Duration 6 to 25 hrs
  • Onset period 1 to 7 hrs

32
Common food poisoning bacteria
  • Clostridium botulinumsoil,fish,meat and
    vegetables
  • Symptoms double vision/blurred vision, dry
    mouth, difficult in swallowing, respiratory
    paralysis.
  • Duration of illness several months
  • Onset of illness 1 to 5 hrs.

33
Common food poisoning bacteria
  • Clostridium perfringens soil,raw meat, human
    and animal excreta
  • Symptoms abdominal pain,diarrhoea and vomiting
    rarely
  • Duration of illness 12 to 48 hrs
  • Onset period 12 to 18 hrs

34
Common food poisoning bacteria
  • Bacillus cereus cereals especially rice, corn
    flour, spices, dust and soil.
  • Symptoms Nausea, vomitting,abdominal pain and
    some diarrhea
  • Duration 12 to 24 hrs
  • Onset period 1 to 5 hrs

35
Food poisoning and its causes
36
Sources of bacteria
  • Bacteria's are present in the gut of animals and
    human intestine.
  • The animals concerned usually have no symptoms,
    but just carry bacteria. Thus they can be
    transferred to meat intended for human
    consumption.
  • Other creatures such as flies and other insects,
    rats and mice, animals like cats and dogs are
    likely to come in close contact with food
    poisoning bacteria.

37
CONTAMINATION
  • Presence of any foreign bodies in the food is
    called contaminants.
  • Food which is having contaminants is called
    contaminated food.
  • Cross contamination Transfer of contaminants
    from one food to another

38
Vehicles and route of bacterial contamination
  • The main vehicle for bacterial transfer is hands,
    equipments, food contact surfaces, hand contact
    surfaces etc.

39
Cross contamination
40
CARRIERS
  • People who show no symptoms of illness but
    excrete food poisoning bacteria which may
    contaminate food.

41
BACTERIA-FOUND EVERYWHERE
42
TYPES OF FOOD
  • HIGH RISK FOODS
  • 1.Ready to eat
  • 2.Rich in protein
  • 3.No further cooking requires.
  • E g. all cooked meat and poultry items
  • cooked gravy, stock ,meat pies, milk, cream,
    custard, dairy products, shell fish, cooked rice
    etc
  • LOW RISK FOOD
  • Rarely implicated in food poisoning.
  • E g. jams, dried foods, flour, bread, biscuits,
    acids vinegar, canned foods

43
STORAGE
  • AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL

44
DANGER ZONE
  • The temperature range from
  • 50C to 650C
  • is called Danger Zone

45
TEMPERATURE
  • 1. Temperature of chiller
  • 10C to 40C
  • Critical limit 80C
  • 2.Temperature of freezer
  • -180C
  • Critical limit -120C
  • 3.Cooking temperature -750C and above
  • 4.Reheating temperature -820C
  • 5.Hot holding temperature 650C and above

46
Improper storage-Cockroach droppings
47
STORAGE AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL
  • Raw materials Food items to be purchased from
    Approved suppliers and inspect during receiving,
    delay in unloading to be avoided, transfer
    immediately to the store.
  • Storage area must be clean and arranged.
  • Dry store should be clean, dry and well
    ventilated with a temperature 210C.

48
STORAGE AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL
  • Wooden pallets to be avoided.
  • Chemicals to be stored seperately.
  • Canned food items to be examined before
    receiving.
  • Chilled food items to be stored in a temperature
    range of 10C to 40C
  • Frozen items to be stored in 180C
  • Thawing can be done in two methods
  • 1.by keeping in the chiller.
  • 2.by using running tap water with temperature
    below 210C

49
STORAGE AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL
50
STORAGE AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL
  • STOCK ROTATION Follow the policy of FIFO (First
    in first out) to ensure that the older food
    should be used first.
  • Rules to operate chiller and freezers
  • 1.Do not overload
  • 2.Donot place hot food
  • 3.Practise stock rotation
  • 4.Cover and label all foods before storing
  • 5.Temperature to be monitored

51
BABY MOUSE
52
PREVENTION OF FOOD POISONING
  • Protect the food from contamination
  • Preventing the multiplication of bacteria
  • Destroying the bacteria in food.

53
TRANSFER OF BACTERIA
54
Food spoilage
  • and preservation

55
FOOD SPOILAGE AND PRESERVATION
  • Spoilage of food commences when vegetables and
    fruit are harvested, animals are slaughtered and
    fish are removed from sea.
  • Spoilage occurs because of the action of
    enzymes,bacteria,moulds,yeasts and pests
  • Refrigeration of perishable foods slows down
    spoilage
  • Food preservation delays spoilage and inhibits
    the growth of pathogenic organisms.

56
FOOD SPOILAGE AND PRESERVATION
  • Preservation includes
  • a. use of high temperature
  • b. use of low temperature
  • c. dehydration
  • d. chemicals
  • e. canning
  • f. smoking
  • g. food irradiation

57
Moldy milk
58
PERSONAL HYGIENE
  • HAND WASHING PROCEDURE.
  • 1.Wet hands with water
  • 2.Apply liquid soap and make lather by rubbing
    palms together.
  • 3.Rub on top of the other hand,
  • in-between fingers.
  • 4.Rub the fingers.
  • 5.Rinse the thumb.

59
PERSONAL HYGIENE
  • Rinse hands together.
  • Use paper towel for drying.
  • Turn off the tap using paper towel, if the tap is
    not foot/knee operated.

60
PERSONAL HYGIENE
  • When to wash hands?
  • 1.after using toilet.
  • 2.after coughing
  • 3.after sneezing
  • 4.after smoking
  • 5.after handling raw foods
  • 6.scraching your hair, body ,nose etc

61
PERSONAL HYGIENE
  • Food handlers with food poisoning symptoms such
    as diarrhea or vomiting or suspected of carrying
    food born organism must be excluded from any job
    as he may contaminate food.
  • Inform the supervisor in case of any such
    illness.

62
PERSONAL HYGIENE
63
PERSONAL HYGIENE
64
PERSONAL HYGIENE
65
Points to remember before entering preparation
area
  • Hair to be washed regularly and kept covered
    while at work by using a hair net. combing of
    hair and adjustment should only take place in
    changing rooms. Scratching of head should be
    avoided.
  • Food handlers should avoid excess jewellery as
    they may harbour dirt and bacteria

66
Points to remember before entering preparation
area
  • Wash hands
  • Wear protective clothing's
  • Cover cuts, wounds, boils etc with water proof
    dressings
  • Keep finger nails short.
  • Perfumes, strong scented soaps, aftershave,
    deodorants to be avoided as these may taint food

67
Points to remember before entering food
preparation area.
  • Smoking and the use of tobacco Iis prohibited in
    food rooms or while handling open food because
    cigarette ends and ash may contaminate the food.
    It encourages coughing
  • Wear protective clothing which is
    washable,lightcoloured without external pockets.
  • The correct procedure to wear cloth is head to be
    covered first followed by coat.
  • Protective clothing should not be worn outside
    the food premises.

68
CLEANING AND DISINFECTION
  • Cleaning is the removal of dirt.
  • Disinfection is the process to reduce the
    bacterial level to a safe level.
  • How to clean
  • Cleaning includes 6 stages
  • 1.Preclean-removes excess dirt by wiping or
    rinsing
  • 2.Main clean-loosening of the surface grease and
    dirt using detergent

69
CLEANING AND DISINFECTION
  • 3.Rinse-removal of dirt and detergent
  • 4.Dis infect-destroying bacteria
  • 5.Final rinse-removal of disinfectant
  • 6.Dry-by evaporation
  • Sanitization Cleaning disinfectant

70
CLEANING AND DISINFECTION
  • Clean as you go
  • Cleaning ensures a pleasant working environment.
  • Promotes a favorable image to the customer
  • Staffs involved in cleaning must be trained

71
KITCHEN DESIGN AND LAYOUT
  • The design and layout of the kitchen can directly
    affect the level of food hygiene.
  • A hygienic kitchen allows plenty of space for
    work and storage.
  • Work surfaces must be
  • 1.Strong
  • 2.Durable
  • 3.and easily cleaned

72
KITCHEN DESIGN AND LAYOUT
  • Floors
  • 1.must be durable
  • 2.easy to clean
  • 3.non absorbing and non slip
  • 4.few cracks as possible
  • 5.corners should be coved.

73
KITCHEN DESIGN AND LAYOUT
  • Walls
  • 1.smooth and durable
  • 2.Free from cracks
  • 3.Easy to clean
  • 4.Light painted

74
KITCHEN DESIGN AND LAYOUT
  • Ceiling and lighting
  • Ceiling should be smooth and durable
  • light in colour
  • Fire resistant
  • proper ventilation
  • Lighting is necessary to show up dirt on
    equipment and surfaces, and will help to prevent
    accidents.

75
KITCHEN DESIGN AND LAYOUT
  • Toilet and washing facilities should be access to
    all food handlers.
  • Waste food can be disposed off efficiently and
    immediately
  • All garbage bins should be foot operated.
  • Work flow should be in
  • Receiving- storage-preparation-service

76
KITCHEN DESIGN AND LAYOUT
77
PEST CONTROL
  • Living creatures which can contaminate food
    Pests.
  • Common pests are rats, mice, flies, cockroaches,
    ants sparrows, dogs and cats.
  • Why do we keep pests out of food premises?
  • 1.To prevent the spread of disease
  • 2.To prevent food waste caused by pests
  • 3.To comply with law
  • 4.To avoid losing of staff who may be bitten.

78
PEST CONTROL
  • We can prevent pest infestation by
  • 1.Reporting to the supervisor in case of any pest
    sight.
  • 2.Keep areas clean and tidy without any food
    spillage
  • 3.Keep food covered
  • 4.Check stock rotation
  • 5.Store food away from walls and floor

79
PEST CONTROL
80
SIGNS OF PEST
  • Live or dead bodies, including larvae, eggs
  • Dropping of birds, nest, webbings
  • Damages including gnawing marks in food, wood,
    plaster, holes in packet, boxes, sacks etc
  • Unusual smells foot prints and tail marks, rodent
    smear ,and loss of small amount of food.

81
SIGNS OF PEST
82
SIGNS OF PEST
83
SIGNS OF PEST
84
SIGNS OF PEST
85
HYGIENE CONTROL AND RULES
86
HYGIENE CONTROL AND RULES
  • Avoid cross contamination
  • Minimize handling
  • Do not leave food in room temperature for more
    than 1.5 hrs
  • Cooking temperature should be 750C
  • Reheating food temperature should be 820C

87
HYGIENE CONTROL AND RULES
  • Cooling should be done in blast chiller or in
    ice.
  • Blast chiller is an equipment which can reduce
    the temperature of food from 650C to 50C with in
    90 minutes.
  • Food should be served immediately to prevent
    bacterial multiplication.
  • Temperature should be maintained all the time
  • Always food to be kept covered.

88
BACTERIAL MULTIPLICATION
89



4
C' s
CHILLING FREEZING (0-5ºC)
(-12 - -18ºC)
COOKING, REHEATING HOT HOLDING (gt75ºC)
(gt82ºC) (gt65ºC)


COOLING
lt10ºC within 1.5 hrs in Blast chiller
CALIBRATION 0ºC



90
5 CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS OF EMIRATES PALACE
  • Receiving of PHF.
  • Vegetable sanitization.
  • Temperature of chiller freezer.
  • Cooking/Reheating
  • Hot holding/cold holding

91
THANK YOU
92
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