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Causes of WWI

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4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat). ... Enlistment in segregated units. Causes of WWI MANIA! Militarism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Causes of WWI


1
World War I Notes
2
Causes of WWI MANIA!
  • Militarism - policy of building up a strong
    military to prepare for war

Alliances agreements between nations to provide
aid and protect on another
Nationalism extreme pride in ones country
Imperialism when one country takes over another
country economically and politically.
Assassination of Austrian Archduke Francis
Ferdinand
3
Militarism
1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures
France 10
Britain 13
Russia 39
Germany 73
4
Alliances
  • Triple Alliance
  • Triple Entente

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7
Nationalism
  • At the settlement of the Congress of Vienna in
    1815, the principle of nationalism was ignored in
    favor of preserving the peace. Germany and Italy
    were left as divided states, but strong
    nationalist movements and revolutions led to the
    unification of Italy in 1861 and that of Germany
    in 1871. Another result was that France lost
    Alsace-Lorraine to Germany, and regaining it was
    a major goal of the French. Nationalism posed a
    problem for Austria-Hungary and the Balkans,
    areas comprised of many conflicting national
    groups. The ardent Pan Slavism of Serbia and
    Russia's willingness to support its Slavic
    brother conflicted with Austria-Hungary's
    Pan-Germanism.

8
Imperialism
  • Great Britain, Germany and France needed foreign
    markets after the increase in manufacturing
    caused by the Industrial Revolution.
  • These countries competed for economic expansion
    in Africa. Although Britain and France resolved
    their differences in Africa, several crises
    foreshadowing the war involved the clash of
    Germany against Britain and France in North
    Africa.
  • In the Middle East, the crumbling Ottoman Empire
    was alluring to Austria-Hungary, the Balkans and
    Russia.

9
European Conquest of Africa
10
  • TheSpark

11
Assassination
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Duchess Sophie at
Sarajevo, Bosnia, on June 28th, 1914.
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13
Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed in
Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist group called the
Black Hand who believed that Bosnia should belong
to Serbia.
14
Domino Effect
  • Austria blamed Serbia for Ferdinands death and
    declared war on Serbia.

Germany pledged their support for Austria
-Hungary.
Russia pledged their support for Serbia.
15
Domino Effect
  • Germany declares war on Russia.

France pledges their support for Russia.
Germany declares war on France.
Germany invades Belgium on the way to France.
Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war
on Germany.
16
Allied Powers
  • Central Powers

World War I
17
What new weapons were used in WWI?
  • Machine gun
  • Poison gas
  • Submarine
  • Airplane
  • Tank
  • Why these weapons? Why now?

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION!!
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Why was WWI a Stalemate?
  • Whats a stalemate?
  • Neither side can make a move to win.
  • Machine gun. How did this change war? How was it
    fought before?
  • Trench Warfare solution.
  • Millions die without gaining ground.

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Americas entry into WWI
  • What were the reasons for the US to enter WWI?

29
Lusitania
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German alliance with Mexico
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33
Wartime Goals p.380
  • Based on the quote below from Woodrow Wilson,
    what was our goal in WWI?
  • Property can be paid for the lives of peaceful
    and innocent people cannot be. The present
    German submarine warfare against commerce is a
    warfare against mankind. . . . We are
    glad . . . to fight . . . for the ultimate peace
    of the world and for the liberation of its
    peoples . . . The world must be made safe for
    democracy . . . . We have no selfish ends to
    serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We
    seek no indemnities . . . .It is a fearful thing
    to lead this great peaceful people into war . . .
    . But the right is more precious than peace.

34
World War I -- America on the Homefront "The
Poster War"
35
War Mobilization
36
1. Enlistment
37
The Most Famous Recruitment Poster
38
Uncle SamHe the Man!
39
Dont Mess with the U. S.
40
Huns Kill Women and Children!
41
The Little Soldier
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43
1917 Selective Service Act
  • 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the
    end of 1918.
  • 4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw
    active combat).
  • 400,000 African-Americansserved in segregated
    units.
  • 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts,
    messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.

44
2. Expansion of the Federal Government
45
Council of National Defense
  • War Industries Board Bernard Baruch
  • Food Administration
  • Herbert Hoover
  • Fuel Administration
  • National War Labor Board W. H.Taft
    Frank P. Walsh

46
U. S. Food Administration
47
U. S. Food Administration
48
U. S. Food Administration
49
National War Garden Commission
50
U. S. School Garden Army
51
U. S. Shipping Board
52
U. S. Fuel Administration
53
U. S. Fuel Administration
54
Results of This New Organization of the Economy?
  1. Unemployment virtually disappeared.
  2. Expansion of big government.
  3. Excessive govt. regulations in eco.
  4. Some gross mismanagement ? overlapping
    jurisdictions.
  5. Close cooperation between public and private
    sectors.
  6. Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged
    groups.

55
New Social/Economic Opportunities
56
1. Women
57
YWCA The Blue Triangle
58
Munitions Work
59
The Girls They Left Behind Do Their Bit!
60
Women Used In Recruitment
61
Even Grandma Buys Liberty Bonds
62
The Red Cross - Greatest Mother in the World
63
The Red Cross Nurse
64
2. African-Americans
65
Opportunities for African-Americans in WW1
  • Great Migration. 1916 1919 ? 70,000
  • War industries work.
  • Enlistment in segregated units.

66
True Sons of Freedom
67
African-Americans on a Troop Ship Headed for
France
68
3. New American Immigrants
69
The Flag of Liberty Represents All of Us!
70
We are ALL Americans!
71
United War Work Campaign
72
Wartime Propaganda
73
The Committee of Public Information (George Creel)
  • Americas Propaganda Minister?
  • Anti-Germanism.
  • Selling American Culture.

74
Remember Belgium
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The Mad Brute
77
Beat Back the Hun
78
The Menace of the Seas
79
Creel Commission Film
80
Attacks on Civil Liberties
81
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
1. Espionage Act 1917 - forbade actions
that obstructed recruitment or
efforts to promote insubordination in the
military. - ordered the Postmaster General
to remove Leftist materials from the
mail. - fines of up to 10,000 and/or
up to 20 years in prison.
82
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
2. Sedition Act 1918 - it was a crime to
speak against the purchase of war bonds or
willfully utter, print, write or publish any
disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive
language about this form of US Govt., the US
Constitution, or the US armed forces or to
willfully urge, incite, or advocate any
curtailment of production of things
necessary or essential to the prosecution of
the warwith intent of such curtailment to
cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution
of the war.
83
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
3. Schenck v. US 1919 - in ordinary times the
mailing of the leaflets would have been
protected by the 1st Amendment. - BUT,
every act of speech must be judged acc. to
the circumstances in which it was spoken.
-The most stringent protection of free
speech would not protect a man in falsely
shouting fire in a theater and causing a
panic. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes - If an
act of speech posed a clear and present
danger, then Congress had the power to
restrain such speech.
84
Impact of the US in WWI
  • Read the first paragraph on p. 386 to answer the
    following question.
  • Once the United States entered the war, what
    impact did that have on the Allies of WWI?
  • What do you think would have happened if the
    United States decided to stay out of the war?

85
Big Four
  • Leader of the Allied countries (US, Great
    Britain, France and Italy) that came to decide
    the terms of the treaty.
  • Wilson represented the US and he had a plan for
    the treaty called the 14 Points.
  • His baby was the League of Nations.

86
Wilsons 14 Points
  • Besides the League of Nations, what were some of
    the other parts of his proposal?

87
What were the results?
  • Germany surrendered.
  • Allies impose Treaty of Versailles.
  • Declares Germany guilty for war.
  • Germany must pay reparations to Allies.
  • This sets the stage for WWII!
  • League of Nations formed to try to prevent war in
    the future.

88
Casualties?
  • Total troops mobilized by all countries in WW1
    65,038,810
  • Total troops dead from all countries in
    WW18,556,315
  • Total troops wounded from all countries in WW1
    21,219,452
  • Total missing or POWs 7,750,945

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Irreconcilable Senators
  • A group of Republican senators called the
    irreconcilables did not vote on the Treaty
    because they opposed the League of Nations.
  • Wilson, determined to get the American people
    behind it, went on a speaking tour to rally
    citizens behind it but he suffered a stroke and
    failed to push the agenda.

92
Post War Problems
  • What did the troops experience when they returned
    home?
  • Why did the citizens of the US go through a Red
    Scare?

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