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Principles of Medical Microbiology

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Stacy - McGraw-Hill Higher Education Last modified by: CCP Created Date: 1/8/2003 5:22:57 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Principles of Medical Microbiology


1
Principles of Medical Microbiology
  • Principles of Infectious Disease
  • The Host-Parasite Relationship
  • Colonization, Normal Microbiota Symbiotic
    Relationships
  • Pathogenicity and Virulence
  • Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
  • Epidemiology
  • Mechanisms of Immunity
  • Beneficial
  • Harmful
  • Manipulated
  • Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

2
Principles of Infectious Disease
  • The Host-Parasite Relationship
  • Colonization and Normal Microbiota
  • Permanent residents, transients and
    opportunists
  • Symbiotic Relationships
  • Mutualism, Commensalism, Parasitism
  • Pathogenicity and Virulence
  • Evolution of parasitism
  • Attenuation of virulence
  • The Infectious Process
  • 1) Exposure Oral, respiratory, parenteral, etc
  • 2) Attachment Pili, capsules, proteins, etc
  • 3) Colonization Metabolism, replication, avoid
    clearance
  • 4) Tissue Damage Toxins, invasiveness, immune
    response

3
Principles of Infectious Disease
  • The Host-Parasite Relationship
  • Colonization and Normal Microbiota
  • Permanent residents, transients and
    opportunists
  • Symbiotic Relationships
  • Mutualism, Commensalism, Parasitism
  • Pathogenicity and Virulence
  • Evolution of parasitism
  • Attenuation of virulence
  • The Infectious Process
  • 1) Exposure Oral, respiratory, parenteral, etc
  • 2) Attachment Pili, capsules, proteins, etc
  • 3) Colonization Metabolism, replication, avoid
    clearance
  • 4) Tissue Damage Toxins, invasiveness, immune
    response

4
Colonization
5
Normal Microbiota
6
Principles of Infectious Disease
  • The Host-Parasite Relationship
  • Colonization and Normal Microbiota
  • Permanent residents, transients and
    opportunists
  • Symbiotic Relationships
  • Mutualism, Commensalism, Parasitism
  • Pathogenicity and Virulence
  • -Evolution of parasitism
  • -Attenuation of virulence
  • The Infectious Process
  • 1) Exposure Oral, respiratory, parenteral, etc
  • 2) Attachment Pili, capsules, proteins, etc
  • 3) Colonization Metabolism, replication,
  • avoidance of immune clearance
  • 4) Tissue Damage Toxins, invasiveness,
  • adverse immune response

7
Routes of Exposure
8
Attachment
9
Colonization
10
Avoiding the Immune Response
11
Avoiding the Immune Response
12
Tissue Damage Invasiveness
13
Tissue Damage Invasion
14
Tissue Damage The Action of Exotoxins
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Epidemiology
  • Reservoirs of Agents
  • Humans, Animals, Inanimate, Nosocomial
  • Transmission of Agents
  • Contact, Vectors, Vehicles
  • Disease Categories
  • Infectious vs contagious Chronological
    sequence
  • Geographical distribution Incidence rates
  • Extent of involvement Agents Clinical nature

19
Nosocomial Infections
20
Transmission How the Microorganisms Spread
21
Portals of Entry How the agents enter the body
22
Incidence
23
Emerging Diseases
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The Immune System
  • Functions of the Immune System
  • Types of Immune Responses
  • Organization of the Immune System
  • Innate Defense Mechanisms
  • Acquired Defense Mechanisms
  • Applied Immunology
  • A macrophage

26
The Immune System
  • Functions of the Immune System
  • Defense Recognition of
  • Homeostasis Recognition of
  • Surveillance Recognition of
  • Types of Immune Responses
  • Humoral Transferred by
  • Cellular Transferred by
  • Innate First and second line defenses
  • Acquired Antigen driven third line defenses
  • Recognition, Specificity, Memory
  • Organization of the Immune System
  • Innate Defense Mechanisms
  • Acquired Defense Mechanisms
  • Applied Immunology

27
Epithelial Barriers
28
Chemical Barriers
29
The Immune System
  • Functions of the Immune System
  • Types of Immune Responses
  • Organization of the Immune System
  • Cells
  • Phagocytes Neutrophils, macrophages, APCs
  • Antigen responsive cells B and T cells
  • Tissues
  • Primary Bone marrow, thymus
  • Secondary Lymph nodes, spleen, diffuse
    lymphoid tissue
  • Molecules
  • Enzymes, interferons, complement,
    interleukins, antibody
  • Innate Defense Mechanisms
  • Acquired Defense Mechanisms
  • Applied Immunology

30
Hematopoiesis
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Tissues
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The Immune System
  • Functions of the Immune System
  • Types of Immune Responses
  • Organization of the Immune System
  • Innate Defense Mechanisms
  • Phagocytosis
  • Inflammation
  • Interferon
  • Complement
  • Acquired Defense Mechanisms
  • Applied Immunology

35
Distribution of Phagocytic Cells
36
Phagocytosis
37
Inflammation
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Interferon
40
C
41
The Immune System
  • Functions of the Immune System
  • Types of Immune Responses
  • Organization of the Immune System
  • Innate Defense Mechanisms
  • Acquired Defense Mechanisms
  • -Humoral vs cellular specific immunity
  • -The nature of antigens
  • -The nature of antibodies
  • -The functions of antibodies
  • -Clonal selection
  • -Humoral (antibody) immune responses
  • -Cellular immune responses
  • -Natural killer cells
  • Applied Immunology

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Antigens
44
Antibodies
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Functions of Antibodies
47
Passive Transfer of Antibody
48
Clonal Selection
49
Antibody Production
50
Immunity -APCs -Ag Processing -Il-1
Production -Ag Presentation -Th Activation -Il-2
Production -Th Development -Th1 and CMI -Th2 and
Antibody -Tc Developement -Tc Killing
51
The Immune System
  • Functions of the Immune System
  • Types of Immune Responses
  • Organization of the Immune System
  • Innate Defense Mechanisms
  • Acquired Defense Mechanisms
  • Applied Immunology
  • -Methods of acquiring immunity
  • -Vaccination
  • -Immunological-based testing
  • ELISA assays
  • -Clinical immunology

52
Figure 17.1
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58
Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
  • History
  • Ancient, Ehrlich, Domagck
  • Terminology
  • Antibiotics, Synthetic antibiotics,
    Semi-synthetic antibiotics
  • Properties of Antibiotics
  • Selective toxicity, Therapeutic index, Spectrum
    of activity
  • Adverse Reactions
  • Toxicity, Allergy, Disrupt normal microbiota,
    Resistance
  • The Ideal Antibiotic
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Protozoa, Helminths

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