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BATTLE OF MARATHON

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BATTLE OF MARATHON THE ATTACK ON ATHENS: 490 BC ANTHONY ENRIQUEZ INTRODUCTION Greek city states such as Athens and Sparta had often fought among themselves, though ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BATTLE OF MARATHON


1
BATTLE OF MARATHON
THE ATTACK ON ATHENS 490 BC
  • ANTHONY ENRIQUEZ

2
INTRODUCTION
  • Greek city states such as Athens and Sparta had
    often fought
  • among themselves, though the Greeks great,
    potential and
  • dangerous foreign enemy was Persia. During the
    5th century
  • BC, Greek city states and the Persian Empire
    clashed in a
  • series of wars. These wars between Greece and
    Persia were
  • known as the Greco-Persian Wars and lasted until
    448 BC.
  • Historically, the Greek armies were quite small
    in comparison
  • to the Persian army. Though considered underdogs
  • throughout the course of the war, the Greeks were
    relentless
  • and never gave in to the Persians. Of importance
    of all battles
  • fought between the Greeks and Persian, the Battle
    at
  • Marathon was deemed one of the significant
    battles fought in
  • antiquity.

3
DARIUS I AND ATHENS
  • Persia had several reasons
  • for their attack on Athens
  • at Marathon
  • Eretria was to be punished.
  • Capture of Athens - foothold on central Greece.
  • Persian influence - extended over the whole of
    Greece

4
THE BATTLE OF MARATHON, 490 BC
  • Darius I - land his army at Marathon (march on to
    Athens).
  • Athens - dire need of help Sparta for forces to
    join in the battle.
  • Sparta sent 600 hoplites to join Athenss 9000
    hoplites.
  • Greek army - led by War Archon Callimachus and
    Miltiades.
  • Persian army - 20 000 infantry, 5000 cavalry, 200
    triremes and 40 000 sailors.
  • Greeks lined up and advanced across the plain of
    Marathon towards Persian army.

5
THE BATTLE OF MARATHON, 490 BC
  • Callimachus - right flank Plateans left flank.
  • Tactic (Greek) More hoplites on the flanks than
    in the centre.
  • Flanks - Persians overpowered by Greeks the
    centre, Persians had broken through Greek
    defence.
  • Strong tactics and leadership led to the collapse
    of the Persian offence and therefore a defeat for
    the Persian Empire.
  • March on to Athens (Greeks) to prevent another
    invasion.
  • Causalities - 6400 dead (Persians) to only 192
    men (Greeks).

6
IMAGES
7
(No Transcript)
8
WHY THE ATHENIANS AND PLATAEANS WON AT MARATHON?
  • No 1 Leadership and Strategy
  • Miltiades had first-hand knowledge and experience
    of Persian methods
  • Choice Marathon proving suitable for the
    Athenians (strategic)
  • Time right time to engage the Persians
  • Absence of Persian cavalry
  • Persians confined to sea and the hills (chance
    of escape to N) - Escape

9
WHY THE ATHENIANS AND PLATAEANS WON AT MARATHON?
  • No 2 Skill, discipline
  • and arms of the Athenian
  • and Plataean hoplites
  • Greek hoplites more disciplined
  • Bronze-visored helmets, solid bronze
    breastplates, shields and javelins

10
WHY THE ATHENIANS AND PLATAEANS WON AT MARATHON?
  • No 3 Greeks
  • defence of their
  • freedom
  • Desire for freedom

11
WHY THE ATHENIANS AND PLATAEANS WON AT MARATHON?
  • No 4 Fear of Spartas
  • arrival
  • Spartans real influence on the campaign

12
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MARATHON
  • For the Persians
  • Reality check - Persias plans for Western
    Expansion.
  • Left Persia weakened for the moment.
  • Darius I - Determined
  • Realization - the mistake in their strategy. In
    any future invasion they would return to the plan
    of Mardonius in 942 that is, a combined military
    and naval advance around the northern Aegean.
  • Preparation - more careful preparations

13
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MARATHON
  • For the Greeks
  • Moral victory for Athens.
  • Belief Persians were unbeatable (UNTRUE).
  • Spartans learnt of the conditions under which the
    Persian infantry could be defeated.
  • Greeks underestimate danger - However, in their
    optimism the Greeks underestimated the future
    danger to them. Plutarch says, believed that
    Marathon was only the prelude to a far greater
    struggle.
  • Victory for democracy.

14
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MARATHON
  • Athens gained in prestige.
  • Marathon - the image of the men of Marathon
    took on heroic proportions.
  • Victory was almost unbelievable.
  • The overwhelming might of the Persian Empire
    could be defeated.
  • The victory for the rest of Greece.

15
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MARATHON
  • Honour and glory, praise and prestige for this
    defeat of the barbarian - becoming the first city
    in Greece.
  • The most obvious example of this is the Marathon
    race.
  • The poet Pindar lauded Athens as Bulwark of
    Hellas city of doglike men. Marathon loomed
    large in the Athenian psyche the men of Marathon
    were regarded as heroes.
  • Athenians and the rest of Greece honoured the
    Marathon fighters.

16
Mound of Marathon
Bronze helmet
17
THE PROCESS
  • Essay
  • Structure Introduction, Body, Conclusion
  • Day by day adding information to the essay
  • Essay count Approx. 2000-2500

18
DIFFICULTIES
  • Difficulties
  • Time Management
  • No Internet
  • Essaying structure making it right great
  • Sources books and Internet
  • Wasting time during class

19
IMPROVEMENTS
  • Time Management
  • Affiliation of Keywords outline, evaluate
  • Proper use of sources
  • Essay good standards
  • Completion not doing it before the day its due
  • Speech

20
BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • http//boards.historychannel.com/thread.jspa?threa
    dID100009096messageID300418309
  • http//raf.heavengames.com/history/civilization/gr
    eek/page4
  • http//www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A10083395
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_MarathonCo
    nclusion
  • http//www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/marathon.htm
  • http//www.thenagain.info/Classes/Sources/Herodotu
    s-Marathon.html
  • http//www.essortment.com/all/thebattleofma_rwnl.h
    tm

21
BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • http//joseph_berrigan.tripod.com/ancientbabylon/i
    d27.html
  • http//www.historynet.com/battle-of-marathon-greek
    s-versus-the-persians.htm/2high_4
  • http//www.libertarian.co.uk/lapubs/histn/histn021
    .pdf
  • http//www.heritage-history.com/www/heritage.php?D
    irerasFileNamegreece_4.php
  • http//unitedcats.wordpress.com/2007/07/21/the-bat
    tle-of-marathon/
  • http//www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/History/hakhamaneshi
    an/marathon.htm

22
BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Ancient Greece Using Evidence, Pamela Bradley
  • Your Ancient Greece, John D. Clare
  • The Greeks, Roy Burrell
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